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General Library System 
University of Wisconsin • Madison 
728 State Street 
Madison, Wl 53706-1494 

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A88I8TBD BY <^^ A^ 





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Ba IT KKMXMsmKD} that on the tenth day of Aof ust, in the fifty-fourth ^ar of the Independonoe of Um 
United States of America, A. D. 1829^ Carey, Lea 6c Carey, of the said district, have depoaitad in this oiBo* 
the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words foIkTwing, to wit : 

" Encyclopedia Ajnericana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Skstencep, Literature, Histoid, Polities and 
Biography, brought mwn to the prescMt Time ; including a eoplons Collection of Original Articles in AmKieaji 
Biography ; on the Basis of the seventh Edition ot iho German CoDversations-Loxicoo. Edited by Francis Bnber, 
assisted by E. Wiggleeworth." 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United Statee, entitled, *' An Act for the encoumgement of 
learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and propricHors of such copies 
during the times therein mentioned ;" and also U) the act, entitled, " An Act supplementary to an act. entitled, 
* An Act for the enyouragement of learninj^, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the author* 
and propnetors of such copies during the times therein mentioned,* and extending the benefits thereof to tb» 
arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints." 

CUrk of tk9 Eatttm Dislrkuf PmHtjfiiMmm: 

General Ubrary System 

M|dlson, Wl 53706.14&4 i 

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Lii5XJiCS. (See LinnL) 

LiA^E, Charles, but more generally des- 
ignated by his Latiiuzed name, Lirmaug^ 
the mo8t celebrated natmnlist of his age, 
was a native of Sweden. He was the son 
of a ckmmaBj and was bom May 13, 
old style, 1707, at RcBsbult, in the province 
of Smaland. His fiither was fond of sar- 
dening, and his little domain was stocKed 
with plants not commonly cultivated— a 
circumstance to which the prevfdling taste 
of the son may be fiurly attributed. He 
was sent to the grammar-Bchool, and af- 
terwards to the gymnasium of Wexio, to 
be educated for the ministiv ; but, as he 
didiked the studies of the school, and pre- 
ferred to collect plants and catch butter- 
flies, he remained behind his fellow-pupils 
in Latin and Greek, and the teachers de- 
clared to his father that he was only fit 
for a mechanic. The father sent him to a 
shoemaker; but the physician Rothmann, 
having discovered talents in the boy, in- 
duced his parents to let him study. As 
botany afforded him no prospect of a 
support, Linn6 was obliged to study medi- 
cine. In 1727, he entered at the univer- 
sity of Lund in Scania, whence he re- 
moved, the foUowing year, to Upsal. 
During his early residence there, the nar- 
rowness of his father's circumstances ex- 
posed him to great difficulties, from which 
he was relieved by the patronage of Cel- 
sius, the theological professor,, an eminent 
naturalist, who had become acquainted 
with him in th^ botanical garden at Upsal, 
and through whose xecommendation he 
obcained some private pupils. He also 
fbraied a friendship with Artedi, a med- 
ical student like himself, devoted to the 
cultivation of natural history. He now, in 
Us 24th year^coDceived the idea of a new 

arrangement of plants, or the sexual sys- 
tem of botany, relative to which he wrote 
a memoir, which was shown to Rudbeck, 
the botanical professor, who was so struck 
with its ingenuity, that he received the 
author into his house, as tutor to his sons, 
and made him his assistant in the office of 
delivering lecture& Forty years before, 
Rudbeck had made a journey to Lapland, 
which excited the cunosity of the learned. 
A new joumev was now concluded upon, 
and, in 1733, Linn6 was sent, by the acad- 
emy of sciences at Upsal, to make a tour 
through Lapland, from which he returned 
towards the close of the year. Fifty 
Swedish dollars were thought sufficient 
by Linn^ to defray his expenses, and with 
this small sum he made a journey of more 
tlian 3500 miles, unaccompanied. In 
1733, he visited (he mining district around 
Fahlun, and gave lectures on mineralogy, 
having formed a system of that science, 
aflenvards published in his S^stemaJVatU' 
r(B, While he was thus adding to his repu- 
tation at Upsal, he became involved in a 
violent quarrel with the medical professor, 
Nicholas Rosen, who seeinl to have acted 
with a great deal of illiberality, and found 
means to prevent Linn^ from continuing 
his private lectures. He therefore engaged 
in a scientific tour through the province 
of DalecarHa, and remained for some 
time* at Fahlun, lecturing and practis- 
ing medicine with cozisiderable suc- 
cess. He affain went to Lapland on a 
mineraloeic«u tour, with seven young men ; 
and, in 1735, pubUshed a complete Flora 
of this country — a classical work. In the 
same year, he went to the university of 
Harderwyck,in Holland, and took the de- 
gree of M. D. He then visited Leyden, 
where the first sketch of his l^ifHema Sh^ 

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r<B was printed in the ibim of tables, fiOiiiff 
12 Iblio PW8> He became acquainted 
with John Frederic Gronoyiua, Boeriiaave, 
and John Bunnan of AmBterdam ; and he 
then publiahed a work, entitled ISmda- 
mania Bakadca, exhibiting the basis of his 
botanical system. Mr. Clifford, a rich 
merchant of Amsterdam, made him su- 
perintendent of his garden at Hartecamp. 
near Haerlem, rich in curious exotics, or 
which Linn^ drew up a sjrstematic cata- 
logue. In 1736, he made a visit to Eng- 
land. He returned to Holland with many 
new plants for Mr. Clifibrd^s garden, bis 
descnption of which, entided Horlua Cl^- 
forUanut, with 37 plates, was now publish- 
ed in a most splendid form. He also pub- 
lished the first edition of his Genera 
Planktrum. In 1738, he made an excur- 
sion to Paris, and, towuxls the end of 
that year, returned to his native country, 
and setded as a physician at Stockholm. 
At first, he experienced neglect ; but, 
through the ioiuence of count Tessin, he 
WBB appointed physician to the navy, and 
had a salary for giving public lectures on 
botany in the summer, and on mineralogy 
in the winter. The establishment of the 
royal academy of Stockholm, of which he 
was one of the first members, contributed 
to the advancement of his reputation, by 
the opportunities which it afforded for the 
display of his abilities. In 1741, he suc- 
ceeded Roberg in the professorship of 
medicine at Upsal, to which was added 
the superintendence of the botanic garden, 
to the new arrangement and augmentation 
of which he devoted much of his dmd 
and attention. In 174$, appeared his 
FVtra Suecica, and the next year his cata- 
logue of Swedish animals, entided Fauna 
Suedca, He was elected to the post of 
secretarv of the academy of sciences at 
UpsaL In 1746, an honorary medal of him 
was struck at the expense of some noble- 
men ; and, i% 1747, he wna nominated 
royal archiater. Through his influence, 
many young namndists were sent to ex- 
plore various countries ; and to his zeal in 
the cause of science we owe the discove- 
ries in natural history made by Kalm, Os- 
beck, Haaselquist and Loefling. He was 
employed by the queen of Sweden to de- 
scribe her museum at Drotmingholm, 
when he made a new scientific arrange- 
- ment of the sheik contained in it About 
1751, he published his PkUosopMa Bokmr 
ico, and, in 1753, his Species Planiarun^ 
containing a description of every known 
plant, ananffed according to the sexual 
syacem. This woric of Linn6, which Hal- 
ler terms his Mcuimum Ojptu d JEUmum, 

i^ipeared oriyinaUy in two yoluitfBa^ 8va ; 
but the edition published by WHldenow 
at Berlin, 1799—1810, is extended to ten 
volumes. In 1753, this great natunJiat 
vna created a knight of the polar star— an 
honor never before bestowea on a literary 
man. In 1761, he was elevated to the 
rank of nobility. Literary honors were 
also conferred on him by scientific socie- 
ties in foreign countries. In 1768, he com- 
pleted the plan of his SyHema Natwrtt^ 
which, through successive editions, had 
been enlar^d to three octavo volumes. 
Linn^ acquired a moderate degree of op- 
ulence, sufiicient to enable him to pur- 
chase an estate and mansion' at Hammar- 
by, near Upsal, where he chiefhr resided 
during the last 15 years of his life. There 
he had a museum of natural history, on 
which he gave lectures, and to which he 
was constantiy making additions, - from 
the contributions of travellers and men of 
science in various parts of the worid. 
His h^fdth, during a great part of bis Hfe, 
enabled him to pursue his researches with 
vigor and activity ; but in May, 1774, he 
had an apoplectic attack, wmch obliged 
him to relinquish the most laborious part 
of his professorial duties, and close his 
literary labors. A second attack occurred 
in 1776, and he afterwards experienced a 
third ; but his death did not take place 
till January 11, 1778. Berades his works 
on natural history, he published a classi- 
fied Materia Medico, and a systematie 
treatise on nosology, entided Genera Mor" 
hornnL Few men in the history of sci- 
ence have shown such boldness, zeal, 
activity and sagacity as Linn^ : natural 
science is under unspeakable obligations 
to him, though the different systems es- 
tablished by him may be superseded by 
more perfect one& Charles AlV, king of 
Sweden, in 1819, ordered a monument to 
be erected to him in his native place. 
By his wife, the daughter of a physician 
at Fahlun, he had a son and four dauj^h- 
ters. The former, Charles von Linn^ jun. 
was joint-professor of botany, and afier- 
vrards professor of medicine at Upsal. 
He yrss well acquainted with science, but 
distinguished himself by no discoveries 
of importance. On his death, without 
issue,, in 1783, the fiunily became extinct 
— Elizdbeih Christina van Linn^, one of 
the dauffhtera of the great naturalist, 
studied botany, and became known by 
her discovery of the luminous proper^ 
of the flower of the trop<Bolum, of which 
an account was communicated to the 
academy of Stockholm. 
LmsEXD Oil, (See Itax.) 

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Lorr, ki surgery, is the wrapiiigB of 
tine finen, used by eurgecniB in dTeflaing 
ifounds. It 18 made into yuiouB forma, 
which haTB different namea, according to 
the difference of the figure& Lint, made 
up in an oval or orbiciuar form, is called a 
pledgU; if in a cylindrical form, or in 
shape of a date or olive stone, it is called a 
ddmf. These difierent forms of lint are 
required fi>r many purposes ; as, 1. to 
stop blood in fresh wounds, bv filling them 
up before the appticadon of a bandace; 
though, if scraped lint be not at han<^ a 
fuece of fine linen may be torn into small 
rags, and iq>plied in the same manner: 
in very laive hemonhaffes, the lint or 
rags should be first dipped in some styptic 
fiquor, as alcohol, or oil of turpentme, 
or ^winkled with some styptic powder: 
2w to agglutinate or heal wounds ; to 
which end Imt is veiy serviceable, if 
spread with some digestive ointment, 
bidsam, or vulueraiy liquor : 3. in 
drying up wounds and ulcers, and 
forwarding the formation of a cicatrix : 
4. in keeping the lips of wounds at a 
proper distance, that they may not hastily 
unite before the bottom is well digested 
and healed : 5. they are highly neces- 
sary to preserve wounds from the injuries 
of the au*. — Surgeons of former ages used 
compreases of sponge, wool, feamers, or 
cotton, linen bemg less plentiful than in 
later times ; but lint is fiur preferable to all 
these, and is^ at present, universally used. 

LiNTz, capital of Upper Austria, on the 
Danube, at the influx of the Traun, is 
well built, with a bridge 400 paces long, 
and has, exclusive of the garrison, a popu- 
lation of 18,700 inhabitants ; houses, 1000. 
Here is the largest woollen manufiictory 
in Austria, in which fine carpets are made. 
Much gunpowder is also manufactured 
here. In 1/84, lintz was made a bishop's 
see. In 1674, the lyceum was founded by 
Leopold, and, in 1824, institutions for the 
dear and dumb, and one for the blind, 
were erected. The Northern Institute is 
a college for the Catholics of the north of 
Germany. Lon. 14° !& 45^' E. ; lat. 48^ 
18^54"N. , 

Linus ; the name of a celebrated mu- 
sician of antiquity, to whom Diodorus 
Siculus, quoting Dionysius of Mitylene, 
attributes the introduction of verse and 
music into Greece. He was a native of 
Chalcis, and to him are ascribed a poem 
on the exploits of Bacchus in India, a 
treatise on mythology, the addition of a 
fitrinff to the lyre then in use, and the in- 
Yennon of melody and rhythm. Suidas 
also joins in giving him credit for the last- 

mentioned i mprove i a enti» and calls him 
the first lyric poet A few fiagmenti of 
poetry, under his name, are to be found 

Lion {fdis Uo), The lion, like all 
other catB^ is anned, in each jaw, with 
six strong and exceedingly aharp cuttirig 
teeth, two formidable canine, and six 
others, occupying the usual place of the 
molars^ but differing from these by termi- 
nating in sharp protuberances. Besides 
these, there is a small tooth, or tubercle, 
on each side of the upper jaw, immediate- 
ly posterior to all the others. The tongue 
is covered with rough and elevated jMqm- 
Utj with their points directed backwards. 
The clawB^ which are five in number on 
the fore feet, and four on the hinder, are 
of great length, extremely powerful, and 
much curvea ; like those of the other cats, 
they are retractile within a sheath en- 
closed in the skin covering the paws. 
The lion is distinguished from his kindred 
species by the uniformity of his color, 
which is pale tawny above, becoming 
somewhat lighter beneath, and never, ex- 
cept while very youne, exhibiting any 
markings ; and also by the long and flow- 
ing mane of the old male, which, cover- 
ing the whole head, extends backwards 
over his ehoulders. Notwithstanding the 
praises that have, from time immemorial, 
been bestowed on this animal, for grateful 
affection, daimdess courage, and merciful 
forbearance, he is nothing more, in moral 
and intellectual faculties, than a cat of im-> 
mense size and strength, and endowed 
with all the guileful and treacherous qual< 
ities of that treacherous tribe. His daunt- 
less courage is a mere consciousness of 
superiority over the animals by which he 
is surrounded, and wholly disappears in 
the neighborhood of man; his merciful 
forbearance is nothing more than that he 
never destroys more than satiates his hun- 
ger or revenge, and that, when under the 
dominion of man, he suffers his keeper to 
approach him without injury. The lion 
is only met with in the warmer reciony of 
the old world, and more particularly of 
Africa, in whose vast forests and ariil 
deserts be reigns supreme and uncon- 
trolled. He is met with, but rarely, in 
parts of India, Arabia and Persia, but his 
range in these countries is becoming very 
limited. From Libya, whence the Romans 
obtained so many, he has almost disap- . 
peared ; and in classic Greece, where, we 
are informed by AristoUo, he once ocdtf- 
red, none are to be found. In America* 
this species never occurred, its place being 
supph^ by the puma. NaXttmliata h&v« 

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diflmd graadv m to the tengw i i y of this 
ammaL BufSm stated it to oe mm 20 to 
23 yean; but it far exooeds this, as the 
one in the Tower of Loodon, which died 
in 1760, lived in captivity above 70 years ; 
and another died in the same place, at the 
age of 63, The lioneaB brings fortfi from 
three to four at a birth. The cube, when 
first bom, are about the ^e of a small 
pug dog, and continue to suck the mother 
for about a year. At this time, their color 
is a mixture of reddish and my, with a 
number of brown bands. The mane of 
the male begins to make its appearance 
when the animal is about three to three 
yean and a half old. The male attains 
maturity in seven, and Ibe female in six 
yean. The strength of the lion is pro- 
di^oiifl, a single stroke with his paw 
bemg sufficient to destroy most animals. 
The bone of the fore leg is remarkably 
fitted to sustain the great muscular strain 
flo powerful an exertion occasions. Its 
texture is so compact, that it will strike 
fire with steel. Tlie luzking-place of the 
lion is generally chosen near a spring, or 
by the side of a river, where he has an 
opportunity of surprising such animals as 
resort to the water to quench their thirst 
Here he lies in wait, crouched in some 
thicket, till his prev approaches, and then, 
with a prodigious leap, seizes it at the first 
bound; if, however, unsuccessfbl in this, 
he immediately retires to wait another 
opportunity. In the night, more particu- 
larly, the Uon prowls abroad in search of 
his prey, the conformation of his eyes 
beinff, like those of the common cat, well 
fitted for seeing in a dim light. The roar 
of the lion is loud and temfic, especially 
when heard in the solitary wilds he m- 
habits: this roar is his natural voice ; for, 
when enraged, he utten a short and sud- 
denly-repeated cry, whilst the roar is a 
prolonged effort, a kind of deep-toned 
grumDiDg, mix^ with a sharp, vibrating 
noise. It has been usually stated, that the 
lion had constant and stated times for 
roaring, especially when in captivity ; but 
this has been shown to be erroneous in 
some degree. It appears, however, that, 
in summer time, and especially before at- 
mospheric changes, he uniformly com- 
mences about dawn ; at no other time is 
there any regularity in his roar. When 
enraged, his cry is stiU more appalling 
than tus roar ; he then beats his sides with 
his tiul, agitates his mane, moves the skin 
of his mce and his shaggy eyebrows, 
thrusts out his tongue, and protrudes his 
dreadful claws. The lion requires about 
15 pounds of raw fles^ a day; he drinks 

ofien, lapping like a dog; but in this pro- 
oees his tongue is bent downward: bis 
breath is very offensive, and the odor of 
his urine insupportable. There is some 
variation, in the lions of different countries 
in external appearance, though, in essen- 
tial particulare, their habits are identical 
The Aaatic varietjr seldom attains an 
equal size with the Cape lion ; its color is 
a more uniform and pale vellow, and its 
mane fuller and more complete, and being, 
moreover, furnished vrith a peculiar i^ 
pendage of long hairs, which, commenc- 
mg beneath the neck, occupy the whole 
of the middle line of the body beneatii. 
Even the Cape lion presents two varieties^ 
known as the pde and the black, distin- 
guished, as their appellations imply, by 
me lighter or darker color of their coats. 
The latter of these is tiie larrcr and more 
ferocious of the two. The Barbary lion 
has the same full mane as the Asiatic, but 
exceeds him in size. The number of 
lions, as has been observed, has greatiy 
diminished, judging fix)m the multitudes 
spoken of by ancient writers, and those 
carried to Rome. Thus Sylla the dictator 
exhibited, during iiis pretorship, 100 of 
these animals ; and Pompey presented 600 
in the circus. Lion-fights were common 
under the consulate, and during the em- 
pire. Adrian, it is said, oflen caused 100 
to be destrc^ed at one exhibition; and 
Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius 
were equally prodigal in gratifying the 
people. At the cape of Good Hope, lions 
are hunted, not only for the purpose of 
extermination, but also for their skins. 
In the day time, and in 'an open country, 
from 10 to 16 dogs will easily overcome a 
lion of the largest size; nor does there 
appear to be any necessity that the do^ 
should be very large ; as he is less swift 
than these anunals, they readily overtake 
him, on which the lion turns round, and 
waits for the attack, shaking his mane, 
and roaring in a short and sharp tone, -or 
sits down on his haunches to race thenu 
The does then surround him, and, simul- 
taneously rushing upon him, subdue him 
by their united efforts, thouffb not before 
he has destroyed several of them. But 
the mode of destroyinff them, usual among 
the Bushmen, is by snooting them, either 
with fire-arms or poisoned arrows. The 
inhabitants know that the lion generally 
kills and devoura his prey at sunrise and 
sunset On this account, therefore, when 
they intend to hunt them, they notice 
where the antelopes are feeding at day- 
break : if they perceive that these animals 
aie alarmed, they conclude that they have 

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been ittackBd liy a fion. Maiking the 
•pot whence the alarm took place, about 
mid-day, when the bob is T617 powerful, 
and the object of their attack aalee^ they 
oevefuUy examine the ground, and, if they 
find hixn, diiey lodge a bullet or poiaonea 
aiTow in him. Sometimes, however, he 
is fiuriy brought to bay in the day time, 
by the hunter, as the following account 
fifom Pring^e testifies. Afler his retreat is 
ibund, **the apf)roved plan is to torment 
him with dogs till he abandons his covert, 
and stands at bay in the open plain. The 
whole band of hunters tnen march for- 
ward together, and fire deliberately, one 
by one. If he does not speedily fall, but 
crows angiy, and turns upon his enemiee^ 
uev must then stand close in a circle, 
and tiim their hones' rear outwaid, some 
holding them &st by the bridles, while the 
odiers kneel to take a steady aim at the 
Ikm as he approaches, sometimes up to 
the Teiy horses' heels, crouching eveiy 
now and then, as if to measure the 
distance and strength of his enemies. 
This is the moment to shoot him fairly in 
the forehead, or some other mortal part. 
If they continue to wound him ineffectu- 
ally, nil he becomes furious and desperate, 
or if the horses, staitled by his teirific 
Ttmr^ grow fiantic with terror, and burst 
loose, the business becomes rather serious, 
and may end in mischief^ especially if all 
the party are not men of courage, coolness 
md experience." Very full' accounts of 
die lion and his habits are to be found in 
die trayels of Sparmann, Barlow, Levail- 
bnt, Burchell, &c^ in Southern Africa, 
and also in the Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge, and the Tower Menagerie, 
from which the above account has oeen 

Lion's Gitlp. This is the proper 
qielling of the gulf generaUy called Gvlf 
w" LyonB. The name is derived from 
fim, on account of the fierceness of the 
gales, at some seasons, in this gulf The 
proper mode of writing it in French is 
GioUt du Lion. (See I^ofu, Gviyof.) 

Lioys Share ; the whole, or a dispro- 
poitionate share of the advantages of a 
contract, claimed by one of the parties^ 
and supported by the right of die strong- 
est The phrase is derived from a &ble 
of .£sopL 

LiPAiro, CouifTEss OF (Caroline An- 
nnnziada) ; the widow of Murat (q. v.), 
and the sister of Napoleon. She hi- 
came grsnd-duchess of Berg, and queen 
of Naples. She was bom March 26^ 

LiPABi ; a cluster of vDlcanio islands 

in the Meditenanean, which take dieir 
name from the principal one of the group, 
about S4 miles fifom the north coast of 
Sicily. Lon. 15° Id" E. ; lat 38^ 34/ £. , 
popuJation, about 20,000. These islands 
were called, by the ancients, JEolUtf Vid- 
canuB, and Innda^ lAparaanimy and feu;&- 
ed to be the residence of JEk>lus and Vul- 
can. lAfari^ the laigest, is populous and 
well cultivated, producing great quantities 
of com and firmt, ea)ecially figs and rair 
ons ; it likevrise produces alum, sulphur, 
nitre and cinnabar. It is about 15 miles 
in circumference; the air is healthy, and 
the inhabitants industrious and ffood sea- 
men. On the eastern coast is situated a 
town of the same name. In this island 
were foraieriy pitB^ which emitted fire and 
smoke, but liave long ceased to do either. 
Population, 15,000; square miles, 100. 
The other islands are SuomboU, Panaris, 
Vulcano, Salini, Alicudi and Felicudi, with 
two or three smaller ones. The volcanic 
eruptions^ formerly frequent in the island 
of Lipari, ceased in the sixth century, but 
the whole island is composed of pumice- 
stone, lava, volcanic glass, and black sand ; 
and the warm baths, and heated vanora 
of the Stoves (excavations which emit hot, 
sulphureous exhalations), prove the activity 
of the subterranean fires. The celebrated 
crater of Vulcano was viated by general 
Cockbum in 1812 (Voyage to Cadiz) ; the 
volcano is probably only slumbering, and 
not extinct Stromboli js at present the 
most remarkable of the islands ; its fires 
are in unremitting activity, the emptions 
taking place at regular intervals, varying 
fi^m three to ei^t minutes. (See the 
works of Dolomieu, Spallanzani, Bry- 
done, &c) 

L1PIN8K1, Charles, one of the greatest 
violinists, was bom in 1790, at Radeyn, 
Poland. His father mve bhn his first in- 
struction in music. In 1810, he was ap- 
pointed director of music at the German 
theatre in Lember^, and save up the vio- 
loncello, till then his chief instmment, and 
devoted himself more to the violin. In 
1814, he was so attracted by Spohr's 
playing, that he resigned his place, m or- 
der to have leisure for practising that 
artist's manner. He remained m his 
native country until 1817, when he Went 
to Italy to hear the celebrated Paganini 
f q. V.) In Piacenza, he p]a3red wiui him 
in a concert Since that time, he has 
travelled in Rusaa, Germany and France. 
His style inclines to the elevated. 


in which certain letters are purposely 
left out Thus Lope de Vega wrote a 

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noveOa without I or a, Kotzebue wrote 
one without r. The word is derived from 
the Greek Xemuv (signifying to omtt^ and 
used in many compound words), and 
ypanfia (letter). 

LiFPE. The ancient principality of 
Lippe is, at present, divided between two 
reigning houses: 1. Lippe-Detmold con- 
tains about 490 square miles, with 71^300 
inhabitants. Detmold, with 2700 inhab- 
itants, is the capital. Public revenue, 
490,000 guilders. The prince furnishes a 
contingent of 600 men to the German 
confederacy. The constitution granted 
by the mother of the present prince to the 
country is sftll suspended, because the no- 
bility will not allow the peasants to be 
represented. 2. Schauenburg-Lippe. The 
dominions of the prince orLip^-Biick- 
eburg-Schauenbure contain 212 square 
miles, with 25,500 inhabitants ; revenue, 
215,0(X) guilders; contingent to the Ger- 
manic confederation, 2£) men. B(icke- 
burg, the capita), is on the river Au. In 
1810, the pnnce abolished the last traces 
of bondage, and, Jan. 15, 1816, established 
a constitution. 

Lippi. There were three Florentine 
artists of this name. Of these, the eldest, 
Ihmeesco FUippo, bom in 1421, and sur- 
named the (My hod taken the vows as a 
Carmelite monk, but afterwards abandon- 
ed the church, and underwent many vi- 
cissitudes of fortune. Oh one occasion, 
he fell into the hands of a Barbery corsair, 
who sold him to slavery in Africa. The 
successful exertion of his talents, upon the 
portrait of his purchaser, was rewarded 
by his restoration to liberty. On his re- 
turn to Italy, he was received into the ser- 
vice of the grand-duke of Florence. His 
death took place in 1488 ; and, although 
he was then 67, it is said to have been the 
result of an intrigue, with a female of a re- 
spectable family, poison being employed 
by her relatives for his destruction. — He 
left one son, FHippo^ also a painter of 
considerable reputation, bom in 1460. 
Many of his works are yet to be found in 
tlie city of which he was a native. He 
died in 1505. — Lorenzo^ the thb^ of the 
name, descended of the same family, unit- 
ed to considerable skill as a historical and 
portrait painter the arts of poetry and mu- 
fflc. He was bom in 1606, and is advan- 
tageously known as the author of a bur- 
lesque poem, entitled MalmantUe Racauia' 
tato. Of this work there have been tnree 
editions; two planted at Florence, in 1688 
and 1731, the other, in 1768, at Paris. It ap- 
peared originally under the fictitious name 
of Zipo/i. His death took place in 1664. 

Lipsins, Justus ; an a^te critic and er- 
udite scholar of the nxteenth century, horn 
at Overysche,in Brabant^ a village situated 
between Brussels and Louvain, in Octo- 
ber, 1547. Martinus Lipsius, the intimate 
friend of Erasmus, was his uncle. His 
genius developed itself very earlv, his 
memory being considered wonderful. Be> 
fore he had completed his ninth year, he 
had written some miscellaneous poetry, 
much above mediocrity. He was instmct- 
ed at Bmssels, and, subsequently, in the 
colleges of iGth, Cologne and Louvain. 
He removed to Rome in his 20th vear, 
and, having secured the patroiiage of car- 
dinal Granvella, by dedicating to him his 
treatise VarimvmLuiUmiumy was received 
into Ins household, in the nominal capaci- 
ty of secretary. With this distinguished 
prelate he remained till 1569, sedulously 
consulting the treasures of the Vatican, 
and other principal libraries, especially 
employing himself in the collation of rare 
and ancient manuscripts. On his return 
to the Netheriands, after a short time spent 
at Louvain, he visited the capital of^ th« 
German empire, and then accepted a pro- 
fessorship in the university of Jena. Here 
the fickleness of his disposition, and the 
vacillatmg state of his opinions respecting 
reli^ous matters, which eventually fixed 
the imputation of imbecility on a charac- 
ter in other respects estimable, first became 
apparent He renounced the Romish 
church, and became a Lutheran ; but, 
quitting Jena, at length, with an avowed 
intention of spending the remainder of his 
life in retirement in his native country 
he repaired to Overysche, and, soon after, 
recanted his supposed errors, and became 
reconciled to the see c^ Rome. In 1577, 
however, he again removed to Leyden, 
when he embraced the doctrines of Cal- 
vin, and, during the 13 years which he 
spent in that university, gave to the world 
the most esteemed of his works. In 1 590, 
he returned finally to Louvain, and once 
more became a Catholic, and that of the 
most bigoted description. Many tempt- 
ing and honorable offers were made 
him by various potentates, to engage him 
in their service ; but he refused Siem all ; 
and, at length, died at Louvain, in the 
spring of 1606. Superstition led him, a 
snort time l>efore his death, to dedicate a 
silver pen, and his fur gown, to the virgin 
Mary. His principal works are the Veaia 
Lediones above-mentioned; an excellent 
Commentary on the Works of Tacitus; 
treatises De ConstanHa; Dt MUiHa Ro- 
mana; De AmpkUheabris ; De Prommtta- 
fume recta langvuB LaUrut ; De Cntu; 

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DewiaBdigione; De BOiUdheeii ; Satira 
Menwpaa; Satwriudia} and an Oration 
on the Death of the Duke of Saxony. 
The best edition (^them is that printed at 
Antwerp^ in 1637. 

LiquEUR (from the French) ; a palat- 
able fpiriuious drink, composed or wa- 
ter, alcohol, sugar, and some aromatic 
inliiaon, extracted from fruits, seeds, 
&c The great difference in the quali- 
ties of the different liquevn is owing 
principally to a variation in the propor- 
tions of the sugar and alcohol. The 
French distinguish three qualities : the 
fiiBt are the ratafias, or simple liqueurs, 
in which the sugar, the alcohol and the 
aromatic substance are in small quantities: 
such are the anise-water (q. v.), noyau, 
the apricot, cheny, &c. ratafias. The 
second are the oils, or the fine UquLCurs, 
with moiC; saccharine and spirituous 
matter ; ds the aniseUe, curagao, &C., 
which are those commonly found in the 
cafis. The third are the creams, or su- 
perfine It^uetir^, such as rosoglio,,maraS' 
ddno, Dantzic water, &c. The same ar- 
omatic infusion may, therefore, ^ve its 
name to liquettrs of different quahties, in 
which the materials are the same, but the 
proportions different: thus one propor- 
tion of ingredients gives eaurde-fwyau ; an- 
other, crtme-de-noytat, &c. 


Gum. This tree is widely diffused through 
the U. States, from lat 43^ to Florida, and 
along the shores of the gulf into the prov- 
inces of Mexico. The leaves, which 
somewhat resemble those of some maples, 
are very regularly five-lobed, and the 
lobes are serrated on the margin. The 
flowers are inconspicuous. The fruit con- 
sists of a sort of bur, supported on a long 
pedicle, and is somewhat itoilar to that 
of the button-wood, or plane-tree, but is 
much less even, on the surface. It is 
abundant every where throughout the 
BOddle, Southern, and Western States, 
and sometimes has a trunk ^ve feet in 
diameter, with a proportional summit 
Ihe usual diameter, however, is fh>m one 
to three feet. The wood is compact, ca- 
pable of receiving a fine polish, and has 
oeen used for articles of furniture ; but, 
for this purpose, it is inferior to either the 
wild cherry or black walnut It is, how- 
ever, employed for lining mahogany, for 
bediteads, and for a variety of purposes in 
die interior of houses, possessng great 
rtrength, but requiring protection m>m the 
weather. The bark, on being wounded, 
Jields a small quantity of a fragrant redn. 
TUs txee is, however, inferior, in useful 

propertiei^ to many otfaen whicli infaafak 
our forests. 

Lii^uoBicE {g iyc yr hiia ) ; a genus of 
leguminous plants^ containing eight spe- 
cies, one of which is a native of Noith 
America, and the othen are confined to 
the northern and temperate parts of the 
eastern continent They have pinnated 
leaves, and small, blue, violet, or white 
flowers, which are disposed in heads or 
spikes, and are remarkable tor the sweet- 
ness of the roots. The common hquorice 
iG. glabra) grows wild in the south of 
Europe, and is cultivated in many pkces, 
even m England, for the sake of the root 
which is much used in pharmacy, and 
forms a considerable article of commerce. 
More than 300 tons of the extract are man* 
ufactured annually in Spain, a conodera- 
ble portion of which is sent to London, 
and employed in the brewing of porter. 
It is often administered medieinaily, in 
coughs and pulmonary affections, and the 
aqueous infusion is exposed for sale in all 
the European cities, as a refreshinff beve- 
rage. A deep, light and sandy soilis best 
adapted to its culture. The American 
species (G, lepidota) inhabits the plains of 
tne Missouri, from St Louis upwards, ex- 
tending even to the borders of the Pacific, 
but is not found in the Atiantic statea 
LiRioDENDRON. (See Tulip-Tree.) 
Lisbon (Lisboa), the chief city of 
Portugal, and the residence of the court, 
in the province of Estrcmadura, on the 
right bank of the Tagus, which is here a 
mile and a half in width, and not Tar firom 
the mouth of the river, is built on three 
hills, in a romantic countiT, and exhibits a 
grand appearance fit>m the harbor. In- 
cluding the suburbs Junqueira and Alcan- 
tara, it is about five miles in length, and a 
mile and a half in breadth. It contains 
40 parish churches, 75 convents, and 100 
chapel^ 44,000 houses, and, before 1807, 
had 300,000 inhabitants, but, at present, 
has not more than S00,000, among whom 
are many foreigners, Negroes, Mulattoes, 
Creoles, and 30,000 Galicians, who come 
from Spanish Galicia, and serve as por- 
ters and water carriers, and perform other 
menial occupations. Tl^e town is open, 
without walls or gates. The highest hill 
only has a castie, now in ruins ; but the 
harbor Is beautiful, capacious and safe, 
and is defended by four strong forts 
on the banks of the river (St Juliana, St 
Bugio, the towejr of Belem, &c.). Many 
of me streets are very unc^ven, on account 
of the hilly ntuation of the city. The 
finest are on the banks of the river. 
There are no elegant private buildiDgil. 

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The homes of the nobilinr are difldngujsh- 
ed only by their size. The western part 
has been beautifully rebuilt since the 
dreadful earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755) which 
destroyed half of the city, with the loss 
of 30,000 lives,* the streets being straight, 
and regularly laid out, with fine houses 
and squares. The eastern part of the city, 
which was not affected by me earthquake, 
has preserved its gloomy aspect— crooked 
streets and old-fashioned houses, six and 
seven stories hiffh. Lisbon was for- 
meriy known to be extremely filthy and 
unsafe; but, at present, regulations have 
been made to provide for the public secu- 
rity, and the streets are well lighted. 
Among the squares, the principal are 
the PUifa do Commercio and the Rocio, 
They are connected by handsome, wide, 
straight streets. The former, on which 
the royal palace, now in ruins, was situ- 
ated, lies on the bank of the Tagus, at 
the landing-place of the harbor, is on ob- 
long square, of 615 paces in length and 
550 in breadth, and is surrounded, on 
three mdes, with fine buildings (the fourth 
is open towards the river). In the centre 
there is a bronze statue of king Joseph I. 
The Rocio, where the autos dafi were for- 
merly exhibited, is a regular oblong, 1800 
feet in length and 14^ in width, with 
the new paLsice of the inquisition on one 
fflde. In this square 10 streets meet 
Among the churches, tlie new church is 
the finest, and is the most magnificent 
building^ erected since the earthquake. 
The patriarchal church, on an elevated 
situation, whk;h affords a beautiful view, 
is magnificent in its interior, and contains 
rich treasures and many curiosities. The 
patriarch, the head of the Portuguese 
church, has a large annual income. The 
aqueduct, about seven miles in length, is a 
remarkable construction. The centre is 
so high, that a ship of the line might pass 
under it The water is carried over the 
vaUey* of Alcantara, on 35 marble arches. 
It withstood the force of the earthquake, 
although the keystones sunk a few inches. 
The St Joseph's hospital, where 16,000 
sick, and the foundling hospital, where 
1600 children, are annually received, de- 

* The city ^lien contained aboat 150,000 inhab- 
itants. The shock was instantly followed bv the 
fall otevery church and convent, almost ail the 
laiige pubhc buildings^ and more than one 
fourth of the houses. In about two hours after 
the shock, fires broke out in different quarters, 
and raffed with sach violence, for the space of 
neatly Uiree days, that the city was completely 
desolated. The earthquake happened on a holy- 
day, when the churches and convents were fall of 
people, very few of whom escaped. 

serve to be particulariy mentioned. Among 
the literary institutions are the royal acad- 
emy of sciences, the college of nobles, the 
marine academy, with other seminaries, h. 
botanical garden, three observatories, the 
royal cabinet of natural ciuiosities, and 
several public libraries, among which is 
the royal library, containing §0,000 vol- 
mnes. Lisbon is the seat of the supreme 
authorities, and of the patriarch of rortu- 
^, vrith a numerous clergy. The inhab- 
itants have but few manufiictories: there 
are not even mechanics enough to supply 
the demands of the city. But Lisbon is 
the centre of Portuguese commerce, which 
extends to most of the countries of Eu- 
rope, to the U. States, and to the Portu- 
guese possessions in other parts of the 
world. There are about $M0 Portuguese 
and 130 foreign (principally Er;glish ) mer- 
cantile houses. From 17d0 to 1800 ves- 
sels arrive aimually at the port ( Jimquei- 
ra). The beautiful environs of the, town 
are embellished by a ^reat number 
(6 — ^7000) coimtry seats (gutnto). In the 
vicinity are Belem and the castles Rama- 
Ihao and Quelus. 

Lisle, or Lille (Flemish, jRj^eQ; a 
large and strong city of France, formerly 
the capital of French Flanders, and now 
of the department of the North, situated on 
the Deule, in a dead flat The Deule is 
navigable, and is divided into several 
branches, part of which supply the moats 
or great ditches of the citadel and tO¥m. 
The form of Lisle is an irregular oval ; 
its length, fix>m north-west to south-east, is 
nearly two miles ; its breadth, about three 
quarters ; its circumference, between four 
and Ave, exclusive of the earthen ram- 
parts that surround the town, and which 
are, in their turn, surrounded by a moat, 
lisle presents an imposing appearance, 
from its extent, its fortifications, its canals, 
its squares, and its public buildings. Few 
cities of France can vie with it in the 
straiffhtness and width of its streets, the 
regmarity of its buildings, and its general 
air of neatness. Several convents have 
survived the revolution ; the hospitals are 
five, one very large. Lisle is a fortress of 
the first rank. Its citadel, the masterpiece 
of Vauban, is the first in Europe after that 
of Turin. It is a mile in circuit, and is 
surroimded by a double moat The 
trade of lisle is extensive. Its manu&c- 
tiures are of camlets, series, and other 
woollen stufils, cotton, cahco, linen, alk» 
velvet, lace, carpets, soap, starch, tobacco, 
leather, ^lass and earthenware. The ori- 
ffin of this town is ascribed by tradition to 
Julius Cnsar. Lotus XIV took it fix»n 

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the Spuiiavds in 1667. It sumodered, in 
1706, to the duke of Bfariboroush and 
pinoe Eugene. At the peace of Utrecht, 
It was restored to France. In 1792, it was 
bombaided by the Austriana, who were 
oblged to retire, with the loss of 20,000 
men. In 181£s Louis XVIII spent one 
day here, before fearing France. Popu- 
la&n, 69,860 ; 18 mifes eatt of Toumay; 
Ion. 3» 4^ E. ; lat 50P 37' iP N. 

List ; the enclosed ground wherein 
knights held their justs and tournaments ; 
so ^ed because encircled with barriers 
as with a Est. Some were double, one for 
each cavalier, so that they could not ap- 
proach nearer than a spear's length. Hence 
to etUer the Usis is to engage in contest 

Listei. ; a small square moulding, 
serving to crown or accompany a larger, 
and to sepamte the flutings m columns. 

L'IsTEsso Tempo (BaUan) ; a phrase 
implying that the movement before which 
it m fik^ed is to be played in the same 
time as &e previous movement 

LiTAirT (from the Greek Acrovcfa, suppli- 
cation, prayer| ; a form of prayer or song, 
used <Hi occasions of public calamity, firet 
introduced, according to Zonanis and Ni- 
cephorus, by Proclus, about the year 446, 
at Constantinople, in the rei^ of Theodo- 
sius ; according to Paulus Diaconus, under 
Jusdnian, at ^tioch, in consequence of 
the following cireumstance: An earth- 
quake, says the lesend, having driven the 
people into the fields, a boy was suddenly 
taken up into the air in thev presence ; but 
was again let down unhurt, on the people 
crying out .^rieeleejoft/ The boy related 
that he h d heard the songs of the angels, 
** Holy God ! Holy and Mighty, Holy and 
Immortal I have mercy upon us !" and this 
gave rise to the litany. This kind of 
common prayer was, perhaps, not unusual 
among the Jews, and the ISBth Psalm 
seems to have been adapted to this pur- 
pose, litanies afterwards became very 
common, and every saint of the Roman 
calendar has his litany. It must be own- 
ed, that some of these are very unmom- 
ing, enumerating all the names and mira- 
cles attributed to the saiut, and, in this re- 
spect, not unlike those prayers of the 
Romans, which connsted mereljr of a 
catalogue of the names of the deity ad- 
dreoKci, against which St Paul gives a 
particular warning. Litanies are found 
m the old hvirm-lxK>ks of the Lutherans, 
but are no bn^er used by German Prot- 
esttntSL The Catholic litanies are distin- 
fliished into die greater and less. The 
ktter is said to luive been composed by 
babop Bfamertofl^ of Vienne (in France), 

in 446^ when that place was visited by re- 
peated calamities ; the former by Qr»|^ry 
the Great, during an inundation or tbie 
Tiber, and a ragmff plague. This con- 
sisted of a sonff of seven choin (hence 
s^atiformis^ of clergy, monks, nuns, boys, 
^Is, Roman citizens, and widows arid mar- 
ried womeiu The litany probablyconsisted, 
at first, of the words loirU deuony but was 
gradually enlarged. The titany was annu- 
ally sung on the diMfxj^pafumiim. At a later 
period, the litany was not only addressed 
to the Holy Trmity, but also, as we have 
said, to the saints, and sung in processions. 
This latter kind of litany of course was 
omitted by the Protestants. The usual an- 
swer of the people is, Ora pro nobis (pray 
for us), if the litany is directed to the Vir- 
fin or a saint ; or Libera noa (deliver us), if 
It is addressed to the Deity. Indecent 
parodies have often been made on lita- 
nies, and sung in connexion with other 
profane songs. In early times, instances 
occur of this being done, even by monks. 
(See the note to the article JWf, liasi of.) 
The following parody is taken from the 
Cavalier's Letame (1647): 

From too much keapin^ an evil deconini. 
From tbe manvfold Uneuons parliamtntorum. 
From Oliver Cromwell, dux onmium mahnan, 

See the Sacr<B lAtoxwt varuB (Antwer|^ 
1606), and Bingham's Origints Eccksias- 
Hetty for a great varjety oflitanies. — ^That 
this mmple form of prayer and response 
has, at times, been of great advantage to 
the people cannot be denied ; and, l)ecause 
many htanies are poor, all ought not to be 
condenmed. (See Liiiargy.) 

Litchfield; a post-town, and capital 
of Litchfield county, Connecticut ; 30 miles 
^st of Hartford, 31 north-north-west of 
New Haven, 329 from Washington ; Ion. 
73° 37' W. ; lat. 4^ SO' N. ; population, in 
1820, 4610 (for the population in 1830, see 
United States) ; organized as a tctwn in 
1721, and contains four large territorial 
parishes. The principal villii«e is delight- 
mlly situated on an elevated plain, afford- 
ing extensive and beautiful prospecta It 
was made a borough in 1818, and con- 
tains a court-house, a jail, a female acad- 
emy, a law school, a printing-ofiice, a 
bank, and two houses of public worship, — 
one for Ck>ngregationa1ists, and one for 
Episcopalians, — and has some trade. In 
the township, there are nine houses of 
public worship, — ^four for Congregational- 
ists, four for Episcopalians, and one for 
Baptists. Itisagoodaffriculturaltown,aiid 
contains numerous muls and manu&ctur- 
ing establishments, cotton manuftctories, 

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in»i works, &c. Mount Tom, on the 
western border of the township, is 700 
feet high. There are four ponds in this 
township, the lai^gest of which comprises 
900 acres. There is a medicinal spring 
within half a mile of the court-house. 
The law school in this town is a priyate 
institution, established in 1783, by judge 
Reeve.^ In 1796, judge Gould was asso- 
ciated with him. Since 1820, judge Gould 
has lectured alone. The students, how- 
erer, are weekly examined b^ another 
ffendeman. The number of students, 
from 1796 to 1827, both inclusive, was 
730. The number has been somewhat 
reduced, by the establishment of another 
school in connexion with Yale coUese. 
The students in this seminary smdy me 
law by titles, in the order in which the 
lectures are ^ven. The mode of instruc- 
tion is by lecturing on the several titles of 
the law in an established order. The 
course of lectures occupies about 14 or 15 
months. One lecture is given every day. 
There are two vacations of ibur weeks 
each ; one in May, the other in October. 
The price of mition is at the rate of $100 

Lit dx Justick was formerly a sol- 
emn proceeding in France, in which the 
king, with the princes of the blood royal, 
the peers, and the officers of the crown, 
state and court, proceeded to the parlia- 
ment, and there, cdtdng upon the throne 
(which, in the old French language, was 
called lit, because it consisted of an un- 
der cushion, a cushion for the back, and 
two under the elbovra), caused those com- 
mands and orders, which the parliamen^' 
did not approve, to be remstered in his 
presence. The parliament nad the right 
of remonstrating, in behalf of the nation, 
asainst the royal commands and edicts. 
If the king, however, did not choose to 
recede from hjs measures, he first issued 
a written command {fdtns'de jussion) to 
the parliament ; and if this was not obey- 
ed, he held the lit de justice. The parlia- 
ment was then, indeed, obliged to submit, 
but it afterwards commonly made a po- 
test against the proceeding. Louis aV 
held such AUtde juBUct, in 1763, in order 
to introduce certain imposts, but, on ac- 
count of the firm resistance of the pailiar 
mentis he was finally obliged to yield. The 
last {t^ dejuriice were held by Louis 
XVI, m 1787 and 1788. 

Literary History is the scienee 
whose object is to represent the develope- 
ment or the successive changes of human 
civilization, as fiu* as these are manifest- 
ed in vnitings, as the object otpMicd 

MtUny is to show the same, manifested in 
the various political establishments and 
changes. In a more limited sense, hterair 
history treats of learned writings, dieur 
contents, fiite, modifications, translations, 
&c. (which is hibU^^prcqfhf, q. y,), of ^e 
lives and characters of their authors^ the 
circumstances under which they wrote, 
&C. (which CQj^tutes UUraru hu^^nph^). 
The latter bar also been called ta^emal 
UUrary Matanfy the former inUmal UUrary 
history, because it aims to show, in a con- 
nected view, the developement of sciences: 
From its nature, it is obvious that literary 
histoiy could not fairly b^in until man- 
kind had acquired eztenaove knowledge 
of what has been done and written, which 
required the preparatoiy study of centu- 
ries, as wpll as a civilized hitercourse 
amonff the various nations. This science 
is, indeed, of comparatively recent date, 
and we have by no means^ even yet, a 
general literary histoiy. What we Iiave is 
mostly confined to Europe ; at least, we are 
yet too litde acauainted vnth many parts 
and periods of the literary history of the 
East, which has several times given an im- 
pulse to the western world, to authorize us 
to caU what has hitherto been done a sen- 
eral literary history. The branch which 
relates to Greece and Rome must remain of 
surpassing importance. The ancients did 
not treat literaiy history as a distinct de- 
partment of history. The literature of 
the Greeks, and, though not in the same 
degree, that of die Romans,* were so inti- 
mately connected with their religion and 
politics, thitt a separation of literary fix>ni 
general history could not easily take place , 
besidesy the materials were not sumcient 
to claim a separate consideration. Hence 
the classics contain only scattered notices 
and detached materials for a literary his- 
tonr, partly in biographies of poets, philos- 
ophers, oratora, grammarians, &c. ; partly 
in criticisms and extracts from their 
writings. Such nodces we find in die 
works of M. Terentius Yairo, Cicero, 
Pliny, Quinctilian, Aulus GeDius, Dio- 
nysius of flalicamaasus, Pausanias^ Athe- 
nseus, and the biogn4;>hei8 Plutarch, Sue- 
tonius, Diogenes Laertius, &c. Suidas 
and Photius likewise contribute names 
and tides. The middle a^ contribute 
only detached facts to the history of their 
literature, partly in chronicles, partly 
in the confidential communications of 
poets and other authors, respecting their 
owti lives. The first rude attempt at a 
compilation of general literary notices, yet 
without systemafical order, was made hr 
Polydore Virgil of Uibino in his work 

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De ImeidarQnu Ravmy which fint ap- 
peared in print in 1499. The true fiither 
of literary history is the famous Conrad 
Gesner, whose Biblioiheca Umversalis 
contains stores of knowledge not yet ez- 
haustecL In his 25th year, he besan to 
execute his gmnd plan of a general \f ork 
on literature, and, in three years, his mor 
terials were so far prepared, that they 
couJd be arranged for printing. Accord- 
ing to his plan, the work was to be divided 
into three parts — en alphabetical dictiona- 
ry of authors, a general systematic view 
of literature, which even cites single dis- 
sertations and passages, and an alphabeti- 
cal index of matters and subjects treated. 
{See Ebert's BiUiog, Lcx^ article Gtsner) 
The first edition of the first division ap- 
peared in 1545.* Peter Lambeck gave in- 
struction in literary history at the gymna- 
sium of Hamburg, in 1656, on the plan of 
Gesner and Virgil, and published, in 
1659, outlines, as a text-book for his lec- 
tures, the title of which is Prodromus 
HistoruE LUeraruB, Daniel George Mor- 
hors Pobfhislor LUerariuBj Pkilosophicua 
€t Practicuf, the first edition of which 
appeared in 1^8, contributed to promote 
the study of literary history. Since the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, lite- 
niiy history has been a favorite smdy of 
the learned, and has been taught in the 

* Lord Bacon, in his Advancement of Learning 
{IM Aug. 8ci. ii. 5), seems to have been Uie first 
(1606) to have traced oat the objects and extent 
of a general literaiy histoiy (Hutoria LiUrarum, 
Hutoria Uteraria). ''History/' says he, "is 
natoralt civi], ecclesiastical and literary ; where- 
of the first I allow to be extant, the fourth I note 
as deficient. For no man hath propounded to 
himself the general state of learning to be de- 
licnbed and represented from age to age, as many 
faa%'e done the works of nature, and the state dvil 
and ecclesiastical, without which the history of 
the world scemeth to me to be as the statue of 
Polyphemus with his eye out, that part being 
«-antmg which doth show the spirit and life of the 
person : and yet I am not ignorant that in divers 
particular sciences, as of Uie jurisconsults, the 
jnathematicians, the rhetoricians, the philoso- 
phers, there are set down some small memorials 
of the schools, authors and books ; and so like- 
wise some barren relations touching the invention 
of arts or usages. But a just story of learning, 
containing the antiquities and originals of knovvi- 
ed^, and their sects, their inventions, their tra- 
ditions, their divers administrations and man- 
agiog>s, their floorishings, their oppositions, decays, 
depressions, oblivions, removes, witli the causes 
and occasions of them, and all other events con- 
cerning learning, throughout the ages of the 
world, I may truly affirm to be wanting. The 
use and end of wHicb work I do not so much de- 
sign for cariosity of satisfaction of those that are 
lovers of learning, but chiefly for a more serious 
and grave purpose, which is, that it will make 
learned men wise in the use and admuiistraiion 
of learning." 

TOI*. viii. 2 

tmiyenrities, and in higher schools, at least 
in Germany. To these lectures we owe 
several Introductions, General Views, and 
Systems of literary histoiy. We mention, 
in chronolo^cal succession, Burkbard 
Gotthelf Stmvius, professor at Jena ; 
Matthew Lobetanz, professor at Greifs- 
wald ; N. H. Gundling, professor in Halle ; 
Gottlieb Stoll, professor in Jena ; G. G. 
Zeltner, professor in Altorf ; C. C. Neu- 
feld, professor in Konigsbefg ; F. G. Bier- 
ling^ professor in Rinteln; and others. 
Reimmann must also be mentioned on ac- 
count of his Introduction to Historia lAt- 
eraria (1708), and his Idea Systemaiis jin- 
HquUatts LUeraria. Still more important 
was Chr. Aug. Ileumann's Conspectus 
RqwbUctB lAteraruB^ a work much superior 
to any that had preceded it, in arran£e- 
ment, acute criticism and richness of ma- 
terials. John Andrew Fabricius's Sketch 
of a General History of Literature (1752) 
is a comprehensive work, and unites the 
synthetic and analytic method. A. Y. 
Goffuet was the first to introduce a more 
philosophical treatment of literary history ; 
and the Italian Denina rivals him in 
brilliancy of manner, without equalling 
him in thoroughness and originality of 
views or in judgment It began to be 
more and more clearly felt, that literary 
history, though an independent branch of 
history, woiud remain a mere list of 
nam^s, tides, and dates, if it were not 
treated with constant reference to the 
state of religion, politics, morals, and the 
arts. Attempts have been made to treat 
it as a part of the general historv of civili- 
zation by Iselin, Ferguson, Home, and 
particularly by Herder. In recent timet?, 
the Germans have taken tiie lead in this 
science, both iii extent of knowledge and 
comprehensiveness of views. J. G. Eicli- 
hom's and L. Wachler's work is of high 
value, as are also those of S. G. Wald, J. 
G. Meusel and Fr. Schlegcl. It would 
exceed our limits were we to mention 
here the different productions upon the 
literary history of single nations and par- 
ticular periods. A work on an extensive 
plan, though not of a general nature, is 
the great enterprise of the literary society 
of Gottingen — History of Arts and Sci- 
ences in Europe, since the Restoration of 
the same, until the End of the Eighteenth 
Century. — Litenuy history is naturally 
divided into ancient, middle and modern. 
The ancient terminates with the retire- 
ment of science into the convents, in the 
sixth century; the middle begins with 
the downfall of the great Roman empke 
(about 500 A. D.) and the commencement 

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of litenxy chrilizalion in the various Ea- 
ropean nadons, without the support of 
ancient classical civilization (see JBerrinff- 
ton^s LiUrary IKiUny of (he Middk •%»); 
and the last begins about 1450, wh^i the 
study of the daaaics was renewed, and 
knowledge reyived in Europe* 

Literary Propertt. In the whole 
compass and variety of the products of 
human labor, no one thing is more exclu- 
sively such than intellectual works. In 
the fabrication and production of almost 
all other subjects of value and property, 
the materials are supplied, directly or in- 
directly, by the earth or the water ; and 
man only cooperates with nature In fur- 
nishing the article. But a piece of music, 
a paiDtin|;, a poem, an oration, a history, 
or a treatise of any descripdon, is the on- 
spring of the unaided labor of the mind. 
It IS supplied from abroad, only with the 
canvass, paper, parchment, or whatever 
other substance is used for recording the 
work, and afibrding the evidence of its 
accomplishment, but which is no more a 
partof the thing produced, than a deed, 
conveying an estate, is a part of the thing 
conveyed. But, though the right to the 
products of intellectusu labor is thus pe- 
culiarly positive and absolute, it is among 
the latest rij§;hts of property recognised in 
a commumty, since the subject of it, the 
product itself, is only the result of an ad- 
vanced state of dvilizadon. Another 
reason of its not attracting a more eariy 
attendon, is its abstract, mcorporeai na- 
ture, and also, in some cases, the difficul^ 
of defining; and identifying it, and decid- 
rag what IS an infiingement of this right 
of property ; and again, in some coun- 
tries, speaking the same language as those 
bordenn^ upon them, the great difficulty 
of protecting this kind of property from 
infriDgement, thoueh no doubt arises as to 
the identificadon of the thing claimed, or 
in determining what shall l^ conadered 
to bo an infringement The question 
whether an author has, of common right, 
and independendy of any special statute 
in his favor, a property in the products of 
the labor of his mind, as unquestionable 
and absolute as any other producer has 
in chose of the labor of the hands, was 
very elaborately discussed in the court of 
king's bench, and in the house of lords, in . 
England, in the time of lord Mansfield, in 
the celebrated cases of Millar against Tay^ 
lor, reported in the 4th volume of Bur- 
row's Reports, in relation to the copyright 
of Thomson's Seasons ; and Donald^n 
against Becket, reported in the same vol- 
ume. The first of these cases came be- 

fore the court in 1769. In 1709, tlie 
statute of 8 Anne, chuptw 19, had been 
passed, givim; to anthon an excluaiTe 
copvri^t ^ for the term of 14 vean^ and 
no longer.'* Notwitfastandmg the limitA- 
don or the rin^t to that term, by the stat- 
ute, it had been held, in divers cases, sub- 
sequend V decided, that the exclusive prop- 
erty of ue author, or his representatives 
or assigns, continued after the expiraticm 
of the 14 years ; and, accordingly, in 
1739, lord chancellor Hardwicke granted 
an injunction against a person, otl^ than 
the proprietors, printing Milton's Paradise 
Lost, the tide to the copyright of which 
was derived to the proprietor, under an 
assignment by Milton, 72 years before. In 
the case relating to the copyright of 
Thomson's Seasons, three of the judgee, 
namely, lord Mansfield and justices Ajion 
and WiUes, were of opinion, that the ex- 
clufflve right of property continued after 
the expiration of 14 years from the first 
publication, as limited by the statute of 
Anne, and such was the decision of the 
court Mr. Justice Yates dissented from 
that opinioiL Five years afterwards, in 
1774, die other case came before the house 
of lords, and, as is usual with that tribu- 
nal, the opinion of the judges of the king's 
bench, common pleasttnd exchequer, was 
taken. Lord Mansfield, being a member 
of the house of lords^ did not give an 
opinion in answer to die questions pro- 
pounded by the house, vrith the other 
judses, but acted and voted as a member 
of ^e bod^r. Of the 11 judges who gave 
opinions, eight were of opinion that an 
author had of common ri^t— that is, as 
by the common law, or vrithout any stat- 
ute to this effect — ^the exclunve privilege 
of publishing his own works ; and three 
were of a contrary opinion. Seven, againsi 
four to the contrary, were of opinion, that, 
by publishing his work and vending 
copies, he did not abandon his exclusive 
property to the public, or, in other words, 
that, by making and selling one copy, he 
did not authorize all other persons to rnake, 
and use or sell as many copies as they 
might choose. This seems to be so plain 
a point, that, if four respectable judges 
had not been of a contrary opinion, one 
would be ready to say it adrmtted of no 
doubt A case very analogous, but much 
stronger in fiivor of'^the authors right of 
property, is stated in the public journals 
(1831), as having recently been decided in 
France. An artist had sold a statue or 
picture, the production of his own chisel 
or pencil, and the question "ivas made 
whether the purchaser had a right, to 

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ifirii ennavingB of tbis orifpnaL It 
I decidM, that the artist alone, and not 
the purchaser, had, in auch caae, the ex- 
ehisiTe right to make and pub)i&h«engray- 
ed copies. But, on the other question, 
proposed by the house of lords, viz. 
whether the statute of Anne took away 
the auth(»^8 excluaive rip^ht to his own 
]KDperty, after the expiration of 14 ^ears, 
mx of the judges were of opinion m the 
affirmative, so that the whole 13 judges 
were equally divided upon this question, 
krd Mansfield being, upon this and the 
two other questions, in fiivor of the au- 
thor's right But the house of lords de- 
dded that the author had no exclusive 
right after the expiration of the period 
limited in the statute, though the reasons 
given on that side, by the Judges who 
supported it, are veiy unsatismctory ; and 
it is not easv to divine the grounds of the 
dedsioQ. But^ it has been acquiesced in 
as law from that time, both in England 
and the U. States. Thus, while the pov- 
erty of authors and scholars — ^the great 
leaders and champions of civilization and 
intellectual advancement-^as been pro- 
verbial all the world over, the government 
has interposed, or b construed to have in- 
terposed, with its mighty arm, not for their 
protection and reward, but to despoil 
them of their property, the fruits of their 
own labor, and sequestrate it for the pub- 
lic use. If a man cultivates the ^und, 
or fiibncates goods, the fruits of his labmr 
so to him and his heirs or asslens, abso- 
nitely, forever ; but if he spends his life 
upon a poem or musical composition, he 
only has a lease of it for 14 years, accord- 
ing to the statute of Anne, when it is to 
be forfeited to the public This doctrine 
diqilays^ in striking contrast, the rewards 
bettowed, and the forfeitures enacted, in 
reference to different species of glory and 
public service. While a military hero is 
rewarded with a grant of lands and a title 
of honor, to himself and his heirs ad in- 
i&tdiim, a man of equal genius, who, by 
his labors, instructs and delights mankind, 
and sheds a lasting glory upon the country 
of which he is a citizen, is despoiled of 
the fruits of his own labors. The injus- 
tice of such a doctrine is so obvious, that 
its l^ality, though sanctioned by an ac- 
qmescence of half a centurv, may well 
be questioned. However this may be, 
lejl^ifatares have begun to mitigate the 
forfeitures heretofore inflicted upon lite- 
rary eminence, by extending the time fer 
nduch an author may enjoy the fhiits of 
his own talents and industrv. By a law 
passed in the 54th year of George the 

Third, chapter 156^ an author is entitled 
to an exclusive cop^riffht in his work for 
28 years, and, if he is uvme at the end of 
that period, it is continued during his life. 
This act is entitled to the commendation 
of being less unjust than that of Anne. 
On the continent of Europe, the laws are 
much more favorable, or, rather, mucn 
less unfavorable, to authors. In rrance, 
they are entitled to an excluave copyright 
during their lives, and their heirs or as- 
signs for 20 yeana afterwards. In many 
of the German states, the riffht is perpet- 
ual, but it is subject to this disadvantage, 
that it extends only to the state in which 
it is granted, and the work mayb® pirated 
in the others with impunity. This can be 
avoided only by procuring a copyright in 
the different Grerman states, which is at- 
tended with much difficulty and expense. 
Tlie defect of the laws of these German 
states on this subject, therefore, is not in 
confiscating the author's property, or re- 
fusing to recognise his right to it, but in 
burtheninfr him with heavy expenses in 
securing its protectiorL In Russia, the 
period of the copyright is the same as in 
France, and it is not liable to be seized 
and sold for the payment of the author's 
debts. In the U. States, the constitution 
provides, that congress may secure, ^ fer 
limited times, to authors, &c^ the exclu- 
sive right to their respective writings," &c. 
Under this provision, a law was piused, in 
1790, giving to authors, being citizens of 
the U. States, or being resident therein, the 
sole right of printing and vending their 
works for the term of 14 ^ears from the 
time of recording the title in the clerk's 
office ; and, if living at the expiration of 
tbatperidd, and then citizens or resident 
as above, they could have a renewal of 
the exclusive right for 14 vears lon^r, on 
filing a copy of the title again m the 
clerk's office. This law also required, 
that, at the commencement of each term, 
the author should publish the clerk's cer- 
tificate in some newspaper fer four weeks. 
It also required that a 'copy should bede- • 
posited in the office of the secretarpr of 
state. A more liberal, or, rather, less illib- 
eral, law was passed on this subject in 
1831. By this act, the exclusive right is 
extended to 28 years, vrith a right of re^ 
newal for his life, if the author is living at 
the expiration of the first copyright It 
dispenses with the publication of the 
clerk^B certificate in a nevrspaper-^ very 
useless provision ; fer, if the work itself 
gives notice that the eopyri^t is secured, 
a person who parates it can have no pre- 
tence fer alleging igncxanoe of the net 

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The act, ii]so, though it reqiures that the 
author shall supply a copy for the office of 
the secretary or state, excuses him from 
the trouble of depoffiting it there, requiriDg 
him only to leave it in the office of the 
cleik of the district court (See Cofyright.) 

Literature, according to tlie English 
dictionaries, means (earning*. In general 
use, however, this word, in English, com- 
monly signffies what in other countries 
would be called elegant literature^ exclud- 
ing works of abstract science and mere 
erudidon. The meaning of the word, 
in English, however, is vague. In Gfer- 
man and French, the vroA means, dis- 
tinctly, the whole which has been writ- 
ten. Hence die phrase *^ literature of the 
middle age," or **medical literature," means 
the aggregate of works written during the 
middle ages, or on medicine, &c. LUermry 
is applied to all those branches of read- 
ing which come within the scope of a 
genera] reader ; tlie phrase ".literary gen- 
tleman" corresponds pretty nearly to the 
French homme de lettres. Literary ga^ 
zette is a journal which treats of works 
interesting to a general reader. In literaiy 
history, the word has a more extensive 
meanmg. (See Literary History.) 

Lithia ; the name applied by Arfwed- 
Bon to an alkali discovered by him in 
analyzing tlie petalite. The name was 
derived from the Greek \i9tm (stony), 
in allusion to the existence of the earth in 
a stony mineral. Lithia has since been 
detected in spodumene, and several kiuds 
of mica. The best process for procuring 
it is the following : One part of {)etalite or 
spodumene, in fme powder, is mixed inti- 
mately with two parts of £[uor-«par, and 
the mixture is heated with three or four 
times its w^eight of sulphuric acid, as fong 
as any acid vapors are disengaged. The 
silica of the nuneral is attacked by hydro- 
fluoric acid, and dissipated in the form of 
fluosilicic acid gas, while the alumina and 
lithia unite with sulphuric acid. After 
dissolving these saks in water, the solution 
is boiled with pure ammonia to precipi- 
tate the alumina ; is filtered, evaporated to 
diyness, and then heated to redness to ex- 
pel the sulphate of ammonia. The resi- 
due is pure sulphate of lidiia, which is 
dissolved in water and decomposed by 
acetate of baiytes ; and the acetate of 
lithia, being heated to redness, is convert- 
ed into the carbonate of lithia, and, finally, 
this is decomposed by lime or baiytes, 
which affords pure lithia. Its color is 
white ; it is not deliquescent, but absorbs 
carbonic acid fix>m the air $ very soluble 
in water ; acrid, caustic, and acts on colors 

like the other alkalies : heated with plati- 
na, it acts on the metaL It combines with 
the different acids, and forms salts with 
them, like potash and soda, though pos- 
sessed of a higher neutralizing power than 
these alkalies. Its phosphate and carbon- 
ate are sparingly soluble ; its chloride is 
deliquescent and soluble in alcohol, and 
this solution bums with a red fiame. All 
its salts give a red color, when heated on 
a platinum wire before the blow-pipe. 
The muriate and nitrate are deliquescent. 
The metallic base of lithia was evolved 
by sir H. Davy, by galvanism ; but it was 
too rapidly oxidized to be collected : the 
metal was, however, seen to be white like 
sodium, and burned with bright scintilla- 

LiTHic Acid, in combination with pot- 
asli, is obtained from human urinary cal- 
culi, by digesting them in caustic lixivium : 
the lithate of potash gives up the litiiic 
acid, on being minded with acetic acid. 
It has the form of white shining plates, 
which are denser than water ; is without 
taste or smell, and dissolves in 1400 parts 
of boiling water. It reddens the infusion 
of liunus. The lithates are all tasteless, 
and very sparingly soluble in water. 
Lithic acid, by repeated distillations, is re- 
solved into ammonia, nitrogen and pms- 
sic acid. 

LiTuocHROMics ; the art of painting in 
oil upon stone, and of taking impressions 
on canvass. This process, which is de- 
signed to multiply the master-pieces of 
painting, was invented some years ago by 
Malapeau, in Paris, who received a patent 
for his invention, and has an establishment 
for lithochromic productions, which have 
been popular in Paris ^ice 1821. Tliis 
process is a substitute for the copying of 
X)ortraits ; it also serves as a cheap means 
of ornamenting walls. This art, howev- 
er, is stUi in its infancy. The lithochromic 
paintings yet produced are less valuable 
than the poorest copies. A similar but 
much superior invention has been made 
by Sennefelder, which he caUs mosak m- 

LiTHOeRApHT (from \iBoiy stone, and 
Y^<pttvj to write); the art invented by Aloys 
Sennefelder (q. v.), of taking impressions 
from drawings or writings on stone, with- 
out engmving. As the history of the inven- 
tion of this art, and the principles on 
which it depends, are contauied m the ar- 
ticle Sennefelder, we shall confine ourselves, 
in this place, to an account of the process 
of lithographic printing, and of the mate- 
rials us^ in it. Two substances are used 
for drawuig upon stone— lithognipliic 

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aad fidftognphie ink. The fermer 
» made of 1} ounce of Boap» 3 ounces of 
tafloWy 1^ ounce of pure white waz» 1 
ounce abell4Bc, i ounce lamp-black. 
Another receipt girea 3 ounces soap, 5 
ounces wax, i ounce tallow, and 1 ounce 
lamp-black. The soap^ after it has been 
screped fine, is put in an iron or earthen 
ressel, over the fire, and, when it is melted, 
little pieces of wax and tallow arsiidded ; 
it must be stirred the whole time, and, 
when the heat is extreme, the contents of 
die vessel are to be lighted by a burning 
taper, the sdriing being continued. After 
a short time, the flame is to be extinguish- 
ed ; and, while the mixture is boiling, the 
hanp-blsck is to be grsduaOy added. 
When this is done, the mixture is taken 
from the fire, and poured out on an iron 
or stone plate, and may be made into any 
form desnned. For uthopaphic ink, a 
great many different receipts have been 
given ; one of the most approved of 
which IS a composition made of equal 
paits of tallow, wax, sheH-lac and com- 
mon soap, vnth about one twentieth peit 
of thewnole of lamp-black. These ma- 
terials are mixed in an iron vessel ; the 
wax and tallow are first put in, and heat- 
ed till they take fire, after which the 
ocfa^ insredientB are succesavely added ; 
the bummg is allowed to continue until 
the composition is reduced about one 
third. AU calcareous stones, being sus- 
cqitible of taking in a greasy substance, 
and of imbibing water with fiicility, are 
suitable for lithographic printing, provided 
they are compact, capable of receiving a 
fine polish, and of a clear and uniform 
color ; the more compact and uniform 
in color, the better. Those commonly 
used are a nearly pure carbonate of lime. 
Suitable stones are by no means scarce. 
Hie quarry fix>m which the first litho- 
graphic stones wbre extracted, is still that 
which furnishes them in the greatest 
abundance, and of the largest dimensions. 
It is situated at Solenhofen, near Pappen- 
heim, in Bavaria. No quarries hitherto 
known in France, afiford stones equal to 
the German. Those found near Chateau- 
roux are of a similar color to those of 
Solenhofen, and even harder, and of a 
finer grain ; but they are full of spots of a 
softer nature, so that it is difficult to pro- 
cure pieces of the necessary size. In 
Eng^d, a stone has been used which is 
found at Corston, near Bath. It is oneof 
the white Has beds^ but is inferior to the 
German in fineness of grain and closeness 
of texture. When proper stones cannot 
be obtained without dtmculQr or great ex- 

pense, it is mam advantBgeouBlo ftbricate 
artifioal elafas^ to which a proper densi^ 
and hardneas may be given* An intelh- 
gent potter can eaaihr imitate the densi^ 
of natural stones. Slabs, used fqr this 
piupose, have been made of stucco, com- 
posed of lime and sand, and fiuatened with 
the caseous part of milk. Artificial slabs, 
however, have not been made so as to 
equal the real ones ; and the royal insti- 
tute of France have thought the subject 
of sufilcient importance to ofifer a larse 
prize for the hesL The stones are poliso^ 
ed by putting fine sand between two of 
them, and thus rublnng them against each 
other till the surftce is smooth ; dien each 
separate stone is rubbed with water and 
pumice-stone. After the stone is thus 
prepared, it may be used for aU kinds of 
writing and drawing, with the brush or 
pen, £c. But if it is to be prepared for 
chalk, it must have a rougher sumce, and, 
after the application of the pumice-stone^ 
it is to be covered with very fine send, of 
a uniform size, and rubbed with another 
polished stone without water. This is 
turned round and round, till the necessary 
roughness is produced. Both kinds of 
plates must be carefully preserved against 
ffreasinesB, such as they would receive 
m>m the touch of the hand, since all the 
greasy spots appear in the impression, the 
greasy printing ink remaining on them^ 
If the drawing is to be prepared with 
ink, the stone is first covered with oil of 
turpentine or soap-water, to prevent the 
lines from spreadinff. Then tne drawings 
may be made on me stone with a black 
lead pencil or with a red crayon ; but the 
latter is preferable, because, when the ink 
comes to be applied, it is easier to discov- 
er how far the lines of the drawing are 
realty covered with ink. After having 
dissolved the ink in rain or river water 
(the former ought to have stood some 
time), these pencil outlines are covered 
with ink. If the sttoke is black, or, at 
least, dark brown, it may he inferred that 
the impression will succeed. But if li^ht 
brown, and transparent, it wiU not aye 
the impression. The ink may he laid on 
with the pen or brush. Goose quills^ 
however, are not well suited for this pur-^ 
pose, particularly if the strokes are to l)e 
very nne ; the pens are too quickly blunted^ 
but steel pens are used to great advantaffe t 
these are made of watch springs*. After 
the drawing, the plate is left several hours^ 
and then put under the press^ For draw^ 
ing with chalk, it is necessaiy to apply the 
finest and softest tintsfirst, and the strongest 
tfterwBxdsk Iftbe proper ofiect cannot bft 

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S'ren to the ibregiouiid by chaOc only, a 
tie ink is added with the brush or pen. 
If the drawing has very fine tints, it is 
necessary that the impression from the 
plate should be taken immediately, other- 
wise the oil will dry or evaporate, and 
the ink will not take e^ct on these parts. 
The oil varnish used must be of the best 
kind. Before the stone is covered with 
ink, it must first be dipped in nitric or 
sulphuric acid, diluted with water to such 
a degree, that only a slight effervescence 
is produced ; the proportion of acid 
should be but little more than one per 
cent ; this vrill make the stone in the 
parts not covered by the drawing more 
readily imbibe the water. This process is 
called etddng the drawing. Afler this, it is 
merely dipped in common vmter. Great 
care must be taken that the acid is not too 
strong, as it will then injure the fine strokes 
and tmta When the stone has imbibed 
sufficient water, a liquid mixture must be 
poured over it, consisting of one sixth lin-» 
seed oil, two sixdis oil of turpentine, and 
three sixths of pure water : this again must 
be vriped off clean, and the stone must be 
then covered vnih a solution of gum- 
arabic in water; this prevents the lines fipom 
spreading. Immediately afler tlus process, 
it is inked. The printing-ink is applied by 
means of leather printers' balls, stuffed 
vnth hair, or by cylinders, which must be 
of various sizes. The first impressions 
are seldom perfect After each impres- 
sion, the stone is washed with water, and, 
imm time to time, is sponged over with 
gum-water, which is prepared from one 
ounce of finely pounded gum-arabic, and 
half a pound of water. The ink which 
has settled on a spot that should be light, 
is either removed with a clean sponge, or 
by diluted acid, applied with a sponge, 
and the place is afterwards washed with 
pure water. The printing-ink is com- 
posed, like other printing-inks, of oil-var- 
nish and fine lamp-black. To nre])are 
the varnish, a vessel is about half filled 
with piu% linseed oil, and heated till it 
takes fire from the flame of a piece of 
burning paper. It is allowed to burn till 
reduced to the proper density. To de- 
scribe the press, a drawing would be neces- 
sary. Besides the mode of preparing 
the drawings above described, drawings 
are also cut into the stone, and from these 
impressions are taken. Engravings may 
also be multiplied by puttmg them wet on 
a stone, when they come from the copper- 
plate press, and subjecting tliem to pres- 
sure, by which the ink is made to leave 
the pq>er and adhere to the stone. Al- 

tfaoush lithography ia of great me, and 
exceUent impressions are produced, par- 
ticulariv at Munich, it is yet veiy impmecc 
In landscapes, the soft tints and the per- 
spective cannot be properiy given ; the 
lines are not sufficiently dehcate. The 
number of impresmons which can be 
taken from a Uthographic chalk drawmg, 
will vary according to the fineness of the 
tints. A fine drawins vriU give 400 or 
500 ; a strong one, 1000 or 1500. Ink 
drawings and vnritings give considerably 
more than copper-plates. The finest will 
yield 6000 or 8000, and stirong fines and 
virritings many more. Upwards of 80,000 
impressions have been taken, at Munich, 
firom one writing of a fonn for regimental 
returns. But it is probably susceptib^ of 
farther iniprovementa Stone pfH[)er, a 
substitute for stone plates, was invented bv 
Sennefelder, in 1817. (See Sennefelder^ 
VoUst&n diges Lehrbwik der SteindnAcktny^ 
Munich, 1818). Lithography is now 
very widely spread. In all parts of Ger- 
many, also in France, Rusma, England 
and the U. States, there are lithographic 
printing establishments. The lithographic 
process is generally employed for printing 
music, and has ^ven rise to lithochromics. 
(q. V.) The l^ lithographic establish- 
ments, at present, are at Munich (Bavarii(j 
and Paris. The French are the most ex- 
pert in the process of printing. Some 
beautiful lithographic prints have also 
been executed at Berlin. 

Lithotomy is the name given to the 
operation for extracting the stone fit>m the 
bladder. (See Stone.) 

LiTHOTRiTT ; a surncal operation, by 
which the stone in the oiadder is crudied 
by an instrument invented and first ap- 
plied by doctor Civiale, of Paris, in i8Sfe. 
He has written on the subject 

LiTHUAjriA (in the langua^ of the 
country, LUwa; in German, LUhauen)', 
an extensive country, formerly an inde- 
pendent ^rand-duchy, containing 60,000 
square miles, but in 1569 united to Po- 
laiid. Since the dismemberment of that 
kingdom in 1773, 1793, and 1795» the great- 
er portion of it has been united to Russia, 
and forms the governments of Mohilew, 
Witepsk, Minsk, vVilna and Grodno. The 
cUmate is temperate and heahhy, and 
the face of the country nearly a level, in- 
terrupted only by a few inagnificant hills. 
The soil is in some parts sandy ; in othera 
marshy, or covered with woods; but, 
wherever it is cultivated, very produc- 
tive. The principal rivera are the Dfina, 
or Dwina, the Dnieper, the Niemen, the 
Przypiec and Bug. There are also many 

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and monflBes. lithuania rmaoB 
ooDfliderable numben of cattle, and pro- 
ducea abundance of con, flax, hemp^ 
wood, honey, and waaL The mmeral 
kingdom TieldB iron and tuifl The forests 
are full of game ; among the wild animals 
are the urua, lynx, elk, beaver, &€. Com, 
wax, honey, wolf and bear skins, leath- 
er, wool, and small but good horses, are 
exported. The manufactures are iron, 
sli^a, leather, and there are numerous 
distiileries. The Lithuanians, who are of 
Lettish origin (see lAwnia), were in the 
eleventh centuiy tributary to Russia. They 
made themselves independent when Rus- 
sia was divided by the troubles under the 
successors of Wladimir, and soon became 
ibnnidable to their neighbors. Ringold, 
in 123S, bore the tide of grand-duke, and, 
under his successors, the whole of Rus- 
sian Lithuania was separated fit>m Russia. 
Gedemin conquered Kiev; Wladislaus 
Yagello was baptized in 1386, and, by his 
manriage with the Polish queen Hedwig, 
united Lithuania and the conquered Rus- 
sian provinces with Poland. A portion 
of Lithuania, 6675 square miles, with 
nearly 400,000 inhabitants, now forms 
pftt of Gumbinnen, in the province of 
£ast Prussia, and is fertile and well culti- 
vated. (See Rusiioj and PokauL) 

Litmus; a blue paste or pigment ob- 
tained from the lichen pwrtUus. It is 
brought from Holland at a cheap rate, but 
is not much used in painting, for the least 
add reddens it ; but the color is again re- 
stored by the application of an alkalL 
On this account, it is a veiy valuable test 
to the chemist for detecting the presence 
both of an acid and alkalL It is employ- 
ed also for staining marble, and by alk 
dyers for giving a gloss to more perma- 
nent coloia. Consideralile quantities of 
the lichen are collected in the northern 
parts of Great Britain. 

Litre. (See France^ division Decimal 

Litter ; a sort of vehiculary bed ; a 
couch or chair wherein the Roman pa- 
tricbus were borne by their servants, par- 
ticularly on solemn public occanons, such 
as triumphal pomps or religious ceremo- 
nies. These litlerB were niosdy provided 
with an awning or canopy, to preserve 
their occupiers at once fit)m the heat of 
tlie sun and from tlie general gaze. 

Little Rock; the seat of govern- 
ment of Aikansas territory, which is some- 
times called by the name of Acropolis 
or ArwpoUs. It is a high blufT point on 
the south bank of the river Arkansas, and 
doives its name from the masses of stone 

about it It 18 800 milea fnm die mouth 
of the river by its coune, and about half 
that distance in a direct line. The viUa^p 
of Acropolis was laid out in 1890, and is 
but small; 1237 miles west of Washington; 
lat 34'' 34^ N.; Ion. 9Sy> lO' W. 

Littleton, or Ltttletoit, Thomas, a 
celebrated English judge and law authori** 
ty, bom at the beffuming of the fifteenth 
century, at FranUey, havinf|^ been edu- 
cated at one of the universities, was re- 
moved to the Inner Temple, where he 
studied the law, and became very eminent 
in his profession. In 1455, he went the 
northern circuit as judge of assize, and 
was continued in the same post hf Ed- 
ward IV, who also, in 1466, appointed 
him one of the judges of the conunoa 
pleas. In 1475, he was created a knight 
of the Bath, and continued to enjoy the 
esteem of his sovereign and the nation 
until his death, at an advanced age, in 
1481. The memoiy of judge Littleton is 
preserved by his work on Tenures, which 
has passed through a very great number 
of editions, those from 1539 to 16S^ 
alone amounting to twenty-four. This 
work is esteemed the principal authority 
for the law of real property in England, 
while the commentary of sir E. Coke is 
the repositoiy of his learning on the sub- 
jects treated. 

Littorals ; an Italian word signifying 
the sea coast, applied particularly to the 
Hungarian province on the coast of the 
Adriatic, comprising the three towns 
Fiume, Buccan and Porto-Re, with their 
territories, on the northern coast of Dal- 
matia. It formerly belonged to the mili- 
tary district of Croatia. The emperor 
Joseph II annexed it to Hungary in 1776, 
and gave it a civil government for the 
encouragement of Hungarian commerce. 
The district had, in 1787, 19,928 inhab- 
itants upon 140 square miles. From 1809 
to 1814, it fonned part of the lUyrian 
provinces of France. In 1814, it was re- 
stored to the Austrian empire, and, in 
1822, was reunited with the provinces of 
the crown of Hungary. The seat of gov- 
ernment is at Fiume. (q. v.) 

Liturgia (Greek, Xurovpyia) ; the ofiice 
of the Xcirovpyot. These were persons in 
Athens, of considerable estates, who were 
ordered by their own tribe, or by tbe whole 
people, to perfonn some public duty, or sup- 
ply the commonwealth with necessaries at 
their own expense. This institution indi- 
cates the rudeness of an age in which po- 
litical science had made but little progress. 
These Xcirovpyoi were of. divers sorts, all 
elected out of 1200 of the richest citizens, 

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who wwe appointed by die people to un- 
dertake, when lequired, all the buiden- 
Bome and chargeable offices of the cook 
monwealtb, every tribe electing 120 out 
of their own body. These 1200 wme di- 
vided into two parts, according to their 
wealth. Out of the wealthiest hal( were 
•appointed 300 of the richest citizens, who, 
upon all exigencies, were to fiunish the 
commonwealth with necessary supplies 
of money, and, with the rest of the 1200, 
were to perform all extraordinarv duties 
in turn. If any person, appointed to un- 
dergo one of the duties, could find anoth- 
er person more wealthy than himself and 
finee finm all the duties, the informer was 
excused. This obnoxious institution was 
abolished on the proposidon of Demos- 
thenes. (See Wolf's Pnlewomena to De- 
matherus, Bockh's PoliUeci Economy of 
AthenSyBnA Potter's CTreeioiii^biKjitt^.)--- 
The word Xurov^ia is the origin of the 
English word liturgy (q. v.l the sense 
havmg become contracted m>m public 
ministry, in general, to the ceremonies of 
religious worship. 

LlTUEOT (Greek, Xureopyia, fix>m XuToVf 

public, and l^yov^ work) ; a piecomposed 
form of public worship. It is merely our 
intention here to mention some of the 
most important liturgies, without entering 
at all into the question of the primitive 
forms of worship in the Christian church. 
There are three lituigies used in the Greek 
church — ^those of Baol^ of Chrysostom, and 
of the Presanctified. They are used iu all 
the Greek churches subject to the patriarch 
of Constandnople ; also in the countries 
originally converted by the Greeks, as 
Russia, Georgia, Mingrelia, and by the 
Melchite patriarchs of Alexandria, An- 
tioch and Jerusalem. (King, Attef q/* ^ 
Gretk Church, ) TJiere are various liturgical 
books in use in the Roman Catholic church, 
the greater part of which are common to 
all the members in communion with the 
church, while others are only permitted 
to be used in particidar places, or by par- 
ticular monasteries. The Breviary con- 
tains the matins, lauds, &C., with the va- 
riations made therein according to the 
several days, canonical hours, and the 
like. There are various breviaries appro- 

Criated only to certain places ; as the Am- 
rosian breviary used m Milan, the Galil- 
ean, bv the church of France, and those 
of different monastic orders^ but the Ro- 
man breviary is generaL It consists of 
the services of matins, lauds, prime, thiiYl, 
sixth, non^ vespens, complines, or the 
pof^OMitffiimie, that i% of the seven hours, 
on aoeount of the nying of David, ^Sev- 

en timea a day do 1 pnuae thee," It ia 
recited in Latin. The Missal, or volume 
employed in celebrating mass, contains 
the calendar, the ipneral rubrics, or rites of 
the mass, and, besides such parts as are in- 
variably the same, the dc tempore^ that is, 
the variable parts on Sundays and holy- 
days that have proper masses ; the propri- 
urn aanetonmi, or the variable parts in the 
masses for the festivals of such saints as 
have proper masses ; and commune gando- 
rum, or the variable parts on the feasts of 
those saints that have no proper mass. 
The canon of the mass was committed 
to writing about the middle of the fifth 
century. Gregorv the Great made many 
additions to iL The Ceremonial contains 
the offices peculiar to the pope, treating 
of his election, consecration, benediction 
and coronation, the canonization of saints, 
the creation of cardinals, the vestments 
of the pope and cardinals when celebrat- 
ing the cQvine offices, &c. The Pontifi- 
cale describes the fimctions of the bishops 
of the Roman church, such as the con- 
ferring ecclesiastical orders, consecrating 
of churches, manner of excommunicating, 
absolving, &c. The Ritual treats of those 
fimctions which are to be performed di>v 
simple priests, or the inferior clergy, both 
in the public service of the church, and in 
the exercise of private pastoral dutie& The 
ancient Galilean litur^ is that which was 
in use amonff the Gauls before the time 
of Pepin and Charlemagne, who intro- 
duced the Roman mode of celebrating 
divine worship. The Spanish liturgy, 
more commonly called the Mozarabic Uiur- 
gy, is derived from that of Rome. The 
Ambrosian liturgy, used in the cathedral 
at Milan, derives its name froin St Am- 
brose, who made some changes in it It 
does not differ &om the Roman in doc- 
trines, though it does in form. The 
whole of the Roman liturpr is in Latin. 
The Protestants all adopted their vernao- 
ular tongue in the celebration of divine 
service. In 1523, Lutiier drew up a litur- 
gy, or form of prayer and administration 
of the sacraments, which, in many pointy 
differed but littie from the mass of the 
church of Rome (0^a,ii, 384). He did 
not, however, confine his followers to Uus 
form, and hence every countiy, in which 
Lutheranism prevails, has its own liturgjr, 
agreeing witii die otiiers in die essentiafa, 
but di^ring in many things of an mdif- 
ferent nature. The prayers are read or 
chanted by the minister at the altar, and 
the subject of the discourse is, in mort 
cases, lunited to the episde or gpepei of 
theday. A new lituigy lor the princ^al 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



dhrine flenice on Sundaya, holydaysy and 
the cetebiudoii of the ho^ oommunion, 
WBB publshed at BerUn, In 1822. This 
wasdeaeDed primarily for the use of the 
royal and cathedral church in Beriin, but 
haar been geneially adopted in Prussia. 
Calnn prepared no liturgy, but hia fbl- 
lowers in Geneva, Holland, France, and 
other places, drew up forms of prayer, of 
which the Genevese and the French are 
the most important. The Genevese litur- 
gy contains the prayer with which divine 
service begins, a confession of sins, public 
prayers for every day in the week, and 
for some paiticular occasions, the Lord's 
prayer, decalogue, and creed, &c. A new 
Utorgy of the French reformed church 
was compiled in 1826. The Kiric of Scot- 
land, or the Scotch Presbyterian church, 
has no liturgy. The Directory for the 
public Worship of God contains direc- 
tions for the assembling of the congrega- 
tion, the manner of proceeding, &c. In 
1562, the Book of Common Order, or 
Knox's Liturgy, was recommended to be 
used by those who were unable to pray 
withotit a set form. In England, before 
the reformation, the public service of the 
church was performed in Latm, and dif- 
ferent liturgies were used in different 
parts of the kingdom. The most cele- 
brated of these were the Breviary and 
Missal, secundum usum Sarum^ compiled 
fay the bishop of Salisbury about 1060. 
'niey consisted of prayers and offices, 
some of very ancient origin, and others 
the produce of later times. In 1536, by 
Henry VIII's direction, the Bible, Pater- 
noster, creed and decalogue were read 
in English. In 1547, Edward VI com- 
missioned Cronmer, Ridley, and 11 other 
fhvines, to draw up a liturgy in English. 
This was published in 15&, and again, 
with some changes, in 1551, whence it 
was called the Second Prayer Book of 
Edward VL In the reign of James 1, 
and, finally, at the restoration, it under- 
went new revisions. This was the last 
revisal in which any alteration was made 
by authority. A limrgy of the New 
Church (the Swedenbmgians) signified 
by the New Jerusalem in the Revelation, 
was published by the Swedenbornan 
general conference in England, in 1828. 
The litui^ of the episcopal church in 
Scotiand, is at present not very different 
fiom that of the church of England. 
The attempt of Charles I (1637) to mtro- 
duce into Scotland a book of common 
prayer, co{Med fiom the English, produc- 
ed the solemn league and oovenant The 
Diiectory was afterwards adopted, but 

by no means stricdy adhered to. In 17151; 
the Enirliah Book of Common Prayer 
vras finaUv adopted, with some modifica- 
tions. The Book of Common Prayer of 
the Protestant Episcopal church in the U. 
States was adopted in 1789, and, besides 
some minor deviations fiom the English, 
it omits the Athanasian creed, and, in the 
Aposties' creed, leaves the officiating 
minister the discretional power of substi- 
tutinff, fbr the expression ^he descended 
into heU," "he went into the place of de- 
parted spuits." It has adopted the obla- 
tion and invocation in the communion 
service, in which it approximates to the 
Scottisli communion office, and has add 
ed six forms of prayer— for the visitation 
of prisonere; for thanksffivins for the 
fruits of the. earth and omer blesBongs; 
for morning and evening prayer in fami- 
lies ; for tlie consecration of a church or 
chapel; and, lasdy, a beautiful and im- 
pressive office of institution of ministera. 
7See Koecher's BUdioiheca LUurgiea; 
Bingham's Originea EecUsiastjctt ; Com- 
ber's ScholasHcal History of LUurgies,) 

LivADiA ; the ancient Hellas (q. v.), or 
Middle Greece (see Greece)] situated to 
the south of Janna, or Thessaly (q. v.), 
and north of Morea (q. v.), bounded east 
by the iEgean, and west by the Ionian 
sea, 5800 square miles in extent, and 
containing 250,000 inhabitants, chiefly 
Greeks. The name is derived from the 
town of Livadia (or Lebadia ; 2000 houses 
and 6000 inhabitants). The boundary be- 
tween Livadia and Thessaly is formed 
by the mountain GSta (on whose summit 
Hercules was bumedj, now called Kumai- 
t€U It is only accessible, at least for artil- 
lery, by a narrow pass between CEta and 
the swamps on the Malian gulf (gulf of 
Zeitouni), or the famous pass of Ther- 
mopylee. (q. v.) In the war of the Greek 
revolution, several decisive battles were 
fought in this part of the country, the 
most bloody near the town of Zeitouni, 
the ancient Lamia, which lies to the 
north. From this pass, which is about 
mx miles long, we enter, 1. Locris, the 
northerly part of Livadia ; farther south 
lie, 2. Phocis, with the ancient ElatSBa, 
now Turko-Chorio, watered by the river 
Cephissus, and intersected by mount 
Parnassus (q. v.); and, still more south- 
erly, 3. Bceotia; 4. Attica; and 5. Me- 
r'is; to the west are, 6. iEtolia; and 
Acamania. The ancient names of 
places are now revived, and Middle 
Greece has been divided into East and 
West Hellas. (See Grtece^ RevchOUm ^ 
Modem,) The boundary of Greece, as 

Digitized by 

c^,. J 


aetded hy the protocol of Febraaiy, 1890, 
runs north or Liyadia, thus pladnff h 
within the kingdom of Greece. The 
character of the present inhabitants of 
these countries is as various as their de- 
scent and mode of life. The first in« 
habitants of the coast were chiefly of 
foreign, or, as the Greeks called it, of 
barbarian descent Their occupation 
was piracy. The mountaineers were 
robbers, constantly at war with their op- 
presBOFB. Missolonghi (q. v.), the only 
strong-hold on the western coast, has 
been rendered celebrated by late events. 
To the north is the ancient Actium (q. v.), 
or Azio. Preveso, which, with Parga (q. v. ), 
and the coast of Epirus, was ceded to the 
Turks in 1800, and Arts (q, v.), near the 
gulf of Arta, belong to Albania. In the 
southeriy part of Locris lies Lepanto. 
(q. V.) In JBoBotia (q. v.) is the town Li- 
vadia, formerly Lebadia, at the foot of 
noount HeUcon, near which are the cave 
of Trophonius (q. v.), and the fountains of 
Mnemosyne (memory) and Lethe (ob- 
livion). Not far off are Leuctra and Pla- 
tBML (q. v.), and the ruins of Thespiss, 
whose inhabitants were selected by Le- 
onidas to die for their country, with the 
300 Spartans. Tanagra, on the iEsopus, 
was the birth-place of the celebrated 
Corinna. (q. v.) Mount Cithaeron divides 
BcBotia from Attica (q. v.) and from Me.> 
8">™- (<1* '^•) (^^ Cfreece.) 

Livs Oak. (See Oak.) 

Liver (jeeur, h^ar)\ a large gland 
whicli occupies a considerable portion 
of the cavir^ of the belly, and which 
secretes the bile. It is a single organ, of 
an irregular shape, browntSi-red color, 
and, in eeneral, is snudler in propor- 
tion OS the individual is more healthy. 
It occupies the right hypochorubium^ or 
space included by the false ribs, and a 
pert of the epigastric region, and lies im- 
mediately under the diaphragm (midrifT), 
above the stomach, the transverse colon, 
and right kidney ; in front of the verte- 
bral column, the aorta and the inferior 
vena cava, and behind the cartilaginous 
edge of the chest The right falw ribs 
are on its right, and the spleen on its left 
The superior surface is convex, and the 
inferior is irregularly convex and concave, 
which has given rise to the division into 
the right, or large lobe, the smaU, or ifjfe- 
rior lobe, and the UJl k>be. The nshx ex- 
tremity of the liver is lower than &e left, 
and is the most bulky part of the oigon* 
The pressure of the surrounding organs^ 
and certain folds of perUoneum, called its 
UgameaUt which connect it with the dia- 

phnjgm, retain the liverin its pkoe, lesv- 
mg it, at the same time, a considerable 
power of changing its relative position. 
The organization of the hver is veiy 
complicaled. Be^des its peculiar tissue, 
or parenchyma, the texture of which is 
unknown, it receives a larger number of 
vessels than any other gland. A peculiar 
venous erpten^— that of the vena porta- 
rum — is cfistributed in it To this must be 
added the ramifications of the hepatic or 
tery and veins^ the nerves, which are 
small, the lymphatic vessels, the excreto- 
ry tubes, and a peculiar tissue, enclosed 
by a double membrane, a serous or peri- 
toneal, and a cellular one. Th^ excreto- 
2 apparatus of the bile is composed of 
e hepatic duct, which, rising imme- 
diately from the liver, unites with the 
cystic duct, which terminates in the gall- 
bladder. The choledochic duct is form- 
ed by the union of the two preceding, and 
terminates in the duodenuau (See Ckdl' 
Bladder, and BUeA 

Liverpool ; a twrough town of Eng- 
land, in the county palatine Lancaster ; the 
principal seaport in the British dominions. 
It extends aionf the eastern bank of the 
Meraey, about mree miles, and, at an av- 
erage, about a mile inland. On the west 
si4e of it, and forming a remarkable fea- 
ture in the town, lie the docks, which, 
with the wharfis, warehouses, dtc, extend 
in on immense range along the bank of 
the river. On the other sicto, the town is 
prolonged into numerous suburbs, con- 
sisting of villas and countiy houses, the 
residence or retreat of its wealthy citizens. 
The streets are mosdy spacious, airy, 
some of them elegant, and the greater 
part of them lighted with cool gas. The 
older and more confined parts of the 
town are in a state of improvement The 
public buildings are elegant The princi- 
pal of these are the town hall, exchange 
Duildinfls, com exchange, Wceum, athe- 
nsBum, Wellington rooms, innrmary, woik- 
house, blue-coat school, dispensary, and 
osylum for the blind. There are at pres- 
ent 20 churches belonging to the estab- 
lishment, many of them of much archi- 
tectural beauty ; a greater number of 
chapels belonging to various denomina- 
tions of dissentera ; with four Roman 
Catholic chapels, a meeting-house for 
Quakers, and a Jews' synagogue. The 
charitable institutk>ns are numerous ond 
well conducted. About 1500 patients are 
admitted annuallvinto the infirmarv. The 
blue-coat hospital maintains and educates 
about 900 boys and girls. The school fr, 
the blind is on a most eztaiuive scal^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



A handaome and apecioufl dieatre, and a 
drcofl^ are open during great fnit of the 
year. At the royal Liverpool uisdtution, 
poUic lectures are ^ven; and attached to it 
IS a phHosophical apparatus and a museum 
of natural curiosities. A botanic garden 
was abo established in 1801, at an expense 
of about £10,000. The lyceum and the 
adieneom consiat each of a news-room 
and fibraiy. There are also the Union 
newB-room, the music-hall, the Welling- 
ton rooms, opened in 1816, for balis, con- 
certs, &C., tne town haU, the exchan^ 
buildings, erected in lb08, for commercial 
purposes. The area enclosed by the fronts 
of these buildings and the town hall, is IS^ 
fiec l^ 178. In the centre of the area is 
ejected a suoerb group of broDZ« statua- 
ly, supposed to be the largest in the king- 
dom, to commemorate the death of loni 
Nelson. Tbe trade of Liyerpool is very 
extenave. The most important branch 
is the trade with Ireland, from whence are 
imported from 2300 to 2500 cargoes of 
provisions, grain, &c ; and in return are 
shipped salt, coaia, earthenware, &C. Tbe 
second branch of commerce is that with 
tbe U. States, which conaistB of more than 
three fourths of the whole commerce of 
this countiy vnth England. Of this com- 
merce, cotton-wool IS the chief articlei 
and may be termed the staple of the Liv- 
erpool trade. In 1830, of 793,695 bales 
of cotton imported into England, 703,200 
%vere carried mto Liverpool In 1824, the 
whole amount imported into liverpool 
was 578,323 bales, of which 413,724 were 
frun the U. States. The West India 
trade may be considered next in impor- 
tance. The trade of Liverpool to other 
parts of die gl6be, is very ^eat, and rap- 
idly increasing particulariy to the East 
Indies. In 1824, the amount of the ex- 
ports of Liverpool was £20,000,000 ster- 
ling ; the number of vessels belonging to 
the port in 1829, was 805, of 161,780 tons. 
Liverpool has an extended system of ca- 
nal navigation, which has grown up with 
its increasing trade, and by which it has 
a water conmiunication with the North 
sea. The manufactures are chiefly those 
connected with shipping, or the consump- 
tion of the inhabitants. There are ex- 
tensive ux>n and brass founderies, brewe- 
ries^ soap-woricB and suear-houses. In 
the vicinity are many wind-mills for grind- 
ing com, which have a veiy striking ap- 
pearance ; also a large tide-mill, and 
another worked by steam. A great num- 
ber of men are employed in building, re- 
pairing and fitting out vessels. Of the 
finer manufactures, the watch-movement 

and tool buaineea is earned on extensively, 
being almost entirely confined to this part 
of the kinsdoqi ; and in the neighbor- 
hood is a china-manu&ctoty, where beau- 
tiful specimens of porcelain are produced* 
Liverpool sends two memben to pariia- 
ment, chosen by about 4500 fifeemen. It 
is goveined by the corporation, consisting 
of a common council of 41 persons, from 
amonff whom a mayor and two bailiffs are 
anhuallv chosen by the free burgesses. 
The foUowing is an account of the pro- 
gressive increase of its population : — ^In 
n700, 5000 ; m 1760, 2^000 ; in 1773, 
34,407 ; in 1790, 56,000 ; in 1801, 77,653 : 
in 1811, 94,376 ; in 1821, 118,972 (or, in- 
cluding the suburbs and a floating popu- 
lation of 10,000 sailors, 151,000) ; m l&l, 
163,000; with die suburbs, 200,000. The 
Liverpool and Manchester rail-road com- 
mences with a tunneL 22 feet high, 16 
broad, 6750 long. The thickness mm 
the roof to the surftce of the ground, va- 
ries from 5 feet to 70. About two thirds 
of it is cut throuffh solid rock. The rail- 
road is continued through the remaining 
distance of 30 miles, wim embankments, 
viaducts and excavations. It is traversed 
by locomotive steam-carnages, consuming 
their own smoke, and running at the rate 
of 18 miles an hour. The quantity of 
merchandise conveyed between Liver- 
I)ool and Manchester, has lately b€«n es- 
timated at 1500 tons a day, the number of 
passen^rs at 1300. But the most remark- 
able objects in Liverpool are its inmiense 
docks. The old dock, the first opened, 
was constructed in the beginnmg of the 
eighteenth cenmry. In 1821, there were m 
docks and basins, covering an area of 63 
square acres. The Brunswick dock has 
since been added, of 10 acres, and addi- 
tional docks are in contemplation, which 
will give an area of 92 square acres. In 
1724, the dock dues were £810 lis.; in 
1828, £141,369, on 10,700 vessels. Before 
the sixteenth centuiy, Liverpool was a 
mere hamlet ; in 1716, her merchants be- 
gan to encage in the trade to America 
and the West Indies. The growth of the 
manufactures of Manchester promoted 
the growth of the place, while an exten- 
sive contraband commerce with South 
America and the chief portion of the AfH« 
can trade, made it the firat seaport in Great 
Britain. 204 miles f]x>m London ; 36 fit>m 
Manchester ; Ion. 2'' 59^ W. ; lat 53^ 25^ N. 
Liverpool, Charles Jenkinson, earl o^ 
wos tbe eldest son of colonel Jenkinson, 
the younsest son of sir Robert Jenkinson, 
the first baronet of tbe &mily. He was 
bom in 1727, and educated at the Cfaar> 

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ter-house, wnence he removed to Uniyer- 
aity coU^e, Oxford, where he took the 
degree of M. A. m 1752. In 1761, he ob- 
tained a seat in pariiament, and was made 
mider-secretaiy of state. In 1766, he was 
named a iora of the admiralty, from 
which board he subeequenth^ removed to 
that of the treasury. In 1772, be was ap- 
pointed vice-treasurer of Ireland, and was 
rewarded with the sinecive of the clerk- 
ship of the Pells, purchased back from Mr. 
Fox. In 1778, he was made secretary at 
war, and, on the dissolution of the admin- 
istration of lord North, joined that portion 
of it which supported Mr. Pitt, under 
whose auspices he became president of 
the board of trade, which office he held 
in conjunction with the chancellorship of 
the duchy of Lancaster, ffiven him in 
1786. In the same year (1786), he was 
also elevated to the peerage, by the tide 
of baron Hawkesbury, of Hawkesbury, in 
the county of Gloucester ; and, in 1796, 
he was created earl of Liverpool. He re- 
mained president of the board of trade 
until 1801, and chancellor of the duchy 
of Lancaster until 1803. His death took 
place on the 7th December, 1608, at which 
time he held the sinecures of collector of 
the customs inwards of the port of Lon- 
don, and clerk of the Pells in Ireland. 
The earl of Liverpool for a long time 
shared in all the obloquy attached to the 
confidential friends of the Bute adminis- 
tration, and, in a particular manner, was 
thought to enjoy the favor and confidence 
of emerge III, of whom it was usual to 
regard him as the secret adviser. The 
earl of Liverpool was the author of the 
following works — a Discourse on the Es- 
tablishment of a Constitutional Force in 
England (1756] ; a Discourse on the Con- 
duct of Great Britain in Regard to Neutral 
Nations, during the present War (1758) ; 
a Collection of Treaties, from 1646 to 
1673 (3 vols., 8vo., 1785) ; a Treatise on 
the Coins of the Realm, in a Letter to the 
King (1805). 

Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, 
earl of; son of the preceding; bom in 
1770, and died in 1828 ; known in public 
life, from 1796 to 1808, as lord Hawkes- 
bury ; from 1812 to 1827, first lord of the 
treasury. He was educated at the Char- 
ter-house; on leaving wliich, he was enter- 
ed of Christ-church, Oxford. His &tiier 
directed his reading and studies in polit- 
ical economy, and other branches of po- 
litical science at this time ; and, on leaving 
the miiversity, Mr. Jenkinson set out on 
his travels. He was in Paris at the out- 
break of the French revolution, and, in 

1791, took his seat in the house of com- 
mons, in which he distinguished himself 
as a debater and an efficient member of 
the house. In 1801, he was appointed 
secretary of state for foreign afl»irs, and, 
two yeara later, was called to the house 
of peers as baron Hawkesbury. On the 
death of Pitt (1806), the premiership was 
oflTered him, but declined ; and, after the 
short administration of Fox, his former 
office was again conferred on him, in the 
Percival ministry. After the assassination 
of Mr. Percival, lord Liverpool (as he had 
become, on the death of his fatiier, in 
1808) accepted (1812), though reluctantly, 
the post of premier. His administration 
was marked by great moderation and pru- 
dence at home, but the foreign dci>art- 
ment bore the different impress of lord 
Londonderry (q. v.) and Canning, (q. v.) 
Lord Liverpool lost popularity by the trial 
of the queen, which was closed, as is well 
known, by the abandonment of the bill 
of pains and penalties, on the part of the 
ministers. It was on this occasion, that 
earl Grey demanded of him '^how he 
dared, upon such evidence,to bring forward 
a bill of degradation, the discussion of 
which had convulsed the country fi^m 
one end to the other, and might have been 
fatal to her independent existence.** A 
paralytic stroke, in the beginning of 1827, 
having rendered him incapable of attend- 
ing to business, Mr. Caiming succeeded 
him in the premiership. 

Liverwort. The plant so called is tlie 
hepatica triloba of Pursh. Like many 
otner supposed remedies, it has had a 
temporary reputation for the cura of pul- 
monary consumption. It is a pretty uttlo 
plant, flowering very early in spring, and 
IS common to the U. States and Europe. 
There are two varieties, one with obtuse, 
and the other with acute lobes to the 

LivERT (Kvrie). At the plenary courts in 
France, under the sovereigns of the sec- 
ond and third races, the king delivered to 
his servants, and also to those of die queen 
and the princes, particular clothes. These 
were called livries, because they were 
delivered at the king's ex]3ense. The ex- 
pense of Uiese donations, together with 
that of the table, the equipages, the pres- 
ents for die nobles and the people, amount- 
ed to an immense sum. A prudent econ- 
omy afterwards suppressed these plenary 
courts, but the livery of the servants still 
remained. In London, by livenj or /iVe- 
ry menj are meant tiiose frecnien of the 
city who belong to tlie 91 city conipaniea, 
which embrace the various ti*ades of the 

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metropolfe ; they have the ezclmive priv- 
ilege of voQDg at the ejection of membeia 
of parliameDtand of the lord majror. Out 
of this hody, the common council, aher- 
if&y aldermen, and other officers for the 
government of the city, are elected. 

Ljtia DausUiLA ; wife of the emperor 
Augustus, daughter of Livius Drusus 
Claudjanus, whp lost his life in the battle 
of Phiiippi, on the side of Brutus and 
Cassius. She was first married to Tibe- 
rius Claudius Nero, by whom she had two 
fiona, viz. Drusus and Tiberius. When 
she fled with her husband to Italy, before 
the triumvir Octavianus, she narrowly es- 
caped lieing made prisoner by him, who 
afterwards became her husband. From 
that place, she went with her son to An- 
tony, in Achaia, and when her husband 
was reconciled to Augustus, returned to 
Rome. Here her personal and mental 
charms made such an impression on the 
triumvir, that he repudiate his wife Scri- 
bonia, in order to many her, and, in the 
7 I5ih year of Rome, tore her, though preg- 
tuuit, from her husband. Livia knew how 
to use her power over the heart of Augus- 
tus, for the attainment of her ambitious 
purposes, and effected the adoption of 
one of her sons as successor to the throne. 
I At her instigation, Julia, the only daugh- 
ter of Augustus, was banished. Ancient 
wrilGis, too, almost universally ascribe to 
Iter the deaths of the young Marcellus, of 
Lucius Ciesar, and the banishment of 
Agrippa Poethumus. Augustus, having 
no longer any near r^tives, yield- 
ed to her requests in favor of Tiberius. 
In the emperor's will, Livia was consti- 
nited the first heiress, was received into the 
Julian fiimily, and honored with the name 
of Auf^usta. She vras also made chief 
priestess in tbe temple of the deified Au- 
gustus, and many coins were struck in 
her honor. But Tiberius proved himself 
veiy ungrateful to his mother, to whom 
he was indebted for every thing, and 
would not allow the senate to bestow up- 
on her any further marks of respect. He 
did not, however, treat her in public with 
disrespect ; but, when he left Rome, in 
order to gratify his lusts in an uulnter- 
nipled solitude, he fell into a violent dis- 
pute with her, did not visit her in her last 
ncknesB, would not see her body afler her 
death, and forbade divine honors to be 
paid to her memory. 

Livingston, Philip, one of the signers 
of the American Declaration of Inde- 
nendence, was bom at Albany, in New 
York, January 15, 1716, was graduated 
at Yale college, in 1737, and became a 

VOL. VIIL. 3 * 

merchant in New York. In 1750L he was 
returned a member to the geneial anem- 
bly of the colony, and afterwards to dbe 
general congress of 1774, and to the con- 
gress that issued the Declaration of Incto- 
pendence. In 1777, Mr. Livingston was 
a senator in the state legislature of New 
York. In 1778, he viras again deputed to 
the general congress, where his efforts 
aggravated a dropsy of the chest He 
^ died, Juue 12, 1778, at Yoik, PennsyJ- 
' vania, to which congress had retired. 

Livingston, Robert R., an eminent 
American politician, was bom in the city 
of New York, Novemlier 27, 174a He 
was educated at King's college, and grad- 
uated in 1765. He studied and practised 
law in that city with great success. Near 
the commencement of the American rev- 
olution, he tost the office of recorder, on 
account of his attachment to liberty, and 
was elected to the first general congress 
of the colonies ; was one of the commit- 
tee appointed to prepare the Declaration 
of Independence ; in 1780, was appoint- 
ed secrctaiy of foreian affairs, and, 
throughout the war of the revolution, 
signalized himself by his zeal and effi- 
ciency in the revolutionary cause. (See 
his letters, in the DipLomatk Correspand- 
ence qf the Revolution,) At the adoption 
of the constitution of New York, he wa«i 
appointed chancellor of that state, whicli 
office he held until he went, in 1801, to 
France, as minister plenjpotentiaiy, ap- 
pointed by president Jefferson. He was 
received by Napoleon Bonaparte, then firet 
consul, with marked respect and cordiali- 
ty, and, during a residence of several yean 
in the French capital, the chancellor a|>- 
peared to be the favorite foreign envov. 
He conducted, with the aid of Mr. Mon- 
roe, die negotiation which ended in the 
cession ^f Louisiana to the U. States, 
took leave of the first consul (1804), and 
made an extensive tour on the continent 
of Europe. On his return from Paris, as 
a private citizen, Napoleon, then emperor, 
presented to hun a splendid snuit-box, 
with a miniature likeness of himself (Na- 
poleon), painted by the celebrated Isabey. 
It was in Paris that he formed a friend- 
ship and close personal intimacy with 
Robert Fultou, whom he materially as- 
sisted with counsel and money, to mature 
his plans of steam navigation. (See iW- 
ton, and Steam-Boat,) In 1805, Mr. Livings- 
ton returned to the U. States, and thence- 
forward employed ^imself in promoting 
the arts and agriculture. He introduced 
into tiie state of New York tbe use of 
gypsum and the Merino race of sheep. 

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He was president of die New Yoik acad* 
emy of nne aits, of which he was a chief 
founder, and also of the society for the 
promotion of agriculture. He died March 
26, 1813, with the reputation of an able 
statesman, a learned lawyer and a most 
useful citizen. 

Livingston, Brockholst, judge of the 
supreme court of the U. States, was the 
son of William Livingston, governor of 
New Jersey, and was W)m in the city of 
New York, November 25, 1757. He en- 
tered Princeton college, but, in 1776, left 
)t for the field, and became one of the 
family of seneral Schuyler, commander 
of the northern army. He was afterwards 
attached to the suite of general Arnold, 
with the rank of major, and shared in the 
honor of the conquest of Burgoyne. In 
1779, he accompanied Mr. Jay to the court 
of Spain, as his private secretary, and re- 
mained abroad al)out three years. On his 
return, he devoted himself to law, and was 
admitted to practise in April, 1783. His 
talents were happily adapted to the pro- 
fession, and soon raised him into notice, 
and, ultimately, to eminence. He was 
called to the bench of the supreme court 
of the state of New York, January 8, 
1802, and, in November, 1806, was trans- 
ferred to that of the supreme court of the 
U. States, the duties or which station he 
discharged, with distmguished &ithful- 
ness and ability, until his death, which 
took place during the sittings of the court 
at Washington, March 1^ 1823, in the 
66th year of his age. He possessed a 
mind of uncommon acuteness and ener- 
gy, and enioyed the reputation of an ac- 
complished scholar, and an able pleader 
and jurist, an upright judge, and a Uberal 
patron of leammg. 

Livius, Andronicus, the &ther of Ro- 
man poetry, by birth a Greek of Taren- 
tum, nrst went to Rome at the commence- 
ment of the sixth century from the foun- 
dation of tlie city, as instmcter to the 
children of Livius Salinator. He intro- 
duced upon the Roman stage, dnunas 
after the Grecian model, and, besides seve- 
ral epic poems, wrote a translation of the 
0<lysBey, in tlic old Saturnine verse. We 
have only a few fragments of his writings, 
which may be found in the CmniciLalim, 
and the Corpus PoHarum, (See Fabricius, 
Bib. Lot, iv, 1. ; Tit. Livii, Hist, vii, 2.) 

Livius, Titus, bom at Padua, m the 
year of Rome 695 f59 B. C), came from 
the place of his birth to Rome, where he 
attracted the notice of Augustus, after 
whose death he returned to his native 
town, where he died A. D. 16. His his- 

tory of Romei to iidiich he dBnuM SK> 
years, rendered him 00 celebrated, that a 
Spaniard is said to have gone fiom Cadiz 
to Rome merely for the purpose of seeing 
him. Of the circumstances of his life we 
know little. He was caQed, by Augustus, 
the Pompeian, because he defended the 
character of Pompey, in his histoiy ; this, 
however, did not prevent his enjoying the 
patronage of the emperor till the time of 
his death. According to Suidas, Livy did 
not receive, during his hfetime, the ap- 
plause which his history deserved, and it 
was not till after his death that full justice 
was rendeincd him. In the fifteenth cen- 
tury, his body was supposed to have been 
discovered at Padua, and a splendid mon- 
ument was raised to his memory. HiH 
Roman history begins at the landing of 
iEueas in Italy, and comes down to tlie 
year of the city 744. His style is clear 
and intelligible, labored without allecta- 
tion, diffuzjive without tediousucss, and 
argunientuti ve without i>edantry. H is de- 
scriptions are singularly lively and pictu- 
resque, and there are tew specimens of 
oratory superior to that of many of tbo 
speeches with which his narratives are 
interspersed. Yet he was accused (see 
QutniifZian, viii, 1) of provincialism (^ pa- 
taviniias"). His whole work consisted of 
140 or 142 books, of which we have 
remaining only the first 10, and those 
from the 21st to the 45th, or the first, 
third and fourth decades, and half of the 
fifth. In the first 10 books, the histor}' 
extends to the year 460 ; the portion 
between the 21st and 45th books contains 
the account of the second Punic war 
(A. U. C. 5361 and the history of the city 
to the year 586. In the year 1772, Bruus, 
while engaged in collecting various read- 
ings, discovered, ui a codex rescryrtusj in 
the Vadcan, a fragment of the 91st book ; 
but it is not of much importance. It was 
printed at Rome, and reprinted at Leipsic, 
m 1773. The epitome of tlie whole work, 
which has been preserved, has been as- 
cribed, by some, to Livy, by others, to 
Florus. Following this outline, and de- 
riving his facts firom other credible sources 
of Roman history, Freinsheim composed 
his Supplement to Livy. The l)est e<li- 
tions or Livy are those of Gronovius 
(Amsterdam, 1679, 3 vols.), of Dndcen- 
borch (Leyden, 1738—46, 4 vols.), and, 
among the later editions, those of Emesti, 
Schafer, Ruperti find Doring. The best 
English translation .is that of George 
Baker (6 vols., 1797), which has been 
often reprinted in England and the U. 

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LiToiiiA. The RuflBiaDimfTuioes upon 
tfie Baltic, tIz. Livonia, EsdKmia, Cour- 
land and Semigallia, early belonged to the 
Ruflrian atate^ aa tributaneB, wliile they 
retained their on^ institutioiifl, and were 
nerer protected by the RusBiaiia from hos- 
tile inroads. During the period' when the 
ltiMM««« empire was in a state of confii- 
■ion, they became independent, but were 
again reduced to subjection by Peter the 
Great. Livonia was little known to the 
rest of Europe till 1158, when some mer- 
dianta of Bremen, on their way to Wisby, 
in Gothland, in search of new sources of 
commerce, were thro^vn upon the coasts 
of Livonia. The countiy was afterwards 
frequently visited by the people of Bre- 
men, who soon formed setdetnents there. 
An Augustine friar, Meinhard, with other 
Gennans, emigrated thither about 28 
years after. He converted the inhabitants 
to Christianity, and was their first bishop. 
The third bishop after him, by name 
Albert, who advanced as far as the Dwina, 
fint firmly established the foundations of 
the 8|riritual authority. He built the city 
of Riffa, in the year 1200, and made it the 
see of the bishopric. At the close of this 
centuiy, the Danish king, Canute VI, 
made lumaelf master of these provinces, 
which were, however, given up by his 
BQCcessor, Wladimir ill, for a sum of 
money, to the Teutonic knights, with 
whom the order of Brethren of the Sword, 
founded by Albert, in 1201, had been 
imited, so that the dominion of the Teu- 
tonic order comprehended all the four 
provinces above mentioned. They were, 
however, too weak to hold them against 
the Rosnan czar, John II Wasiliwitcb, 
who was bent upon reunitirg them with 
the Russian empire, and the sbite was 
dJsBolved. Esthonia then placed itself 
under the protection of Sweden ; Livonia 
was united to Poland ; and Courland, with 
Semigallia, became a duchy, under Polish 
protecdoii, which the last grand master of 
the Teutonic order held as a Polish fief 
From this time, Livonia became a source 
of discord between Russia, Sweden and 
Poland, ibr near a century, from 15G1 to 
1660. At the peace of Olivo, in lOtiO, this 
province was ceded to Sweden by Poland, 
and it was again united to the province 
of Esthonia. (q. v.) By the peace of 

Nyatadt, in 1731, both pfoviiieea wwa 
again united to the RiMun empire. li- 
▼(Miia 18 bounded eaat bjr Ingria, south by 
Lithuania and Samoiiitia, west by the 
Baltic, and north by the gulf of Finland. 
It is productive in grass and grain, and 
consists of two provinces, Esthonia and 
Livonia, of whicn the first lies upon the 
gulf of Fmland, the last upon the borden 
of Courland and Poland. The Livoniani^ 
like the Lithuanians, are a branch (^ 
the Finns, and are, for the most part, in a 
state of servitude ; but the grievous op- 
pression, under which they were hekl by 
theu- tyrants, the nobility, has been much 
lightened by an imperial decree of 1804. 
l^ides the original mhabitants, there are, 
in the countiy, many Russians, Germans 
and Swedes. The greater part are Lu- 
therans ; but Calvinists, Catholics, and the 
Greek church, enjoy liberty of worship. 
In 1783, the country was newly organized, 
and Livonia became the govenmient of 
Riga, and Esthonia that of Revel. The 
name of Livonia was, however, restored 
by the emperor Paul, in 1797. It is, at 
present, divided into ^ye circles. The gov- 
ernment of Riga contains 20,000 square 
miles, and 980,000 inhabitantB. — See the 
Eisai star VIKtioirt dt la Uioome^ by 
count de Bray (Dorpat, 1817, 3 vols.), 
and Granville's Jovrney to St, Peten- 

LivRE ; an ancient French coin. Tbs 
word is derived from the Latin libra 
(q. v.), a pound. It appears as early as 
810 B. C. At first, the hvre was divided 
into 20 totidoa ; afterwards into 10 ious ; 
in Italy, into 20 soldi; in Spain, into 
20 sueidoB^ as the old German pound into 
20 schilUngey and the English mto 20 
shillings. The livre was, at first, of high 
value. The revolution changed the name 
into franc, (See FhmCj and Coins,) 

LivT. (See Licius,) 

Lizard. All reptiles having a naked 
body, four feet and a tail, are vulgarly 
known under the name of lizards, lin- 
nsus himself only constituted two gene- 
ra of this numerous class of animals — 
ikaco and lacerta; but more modem nat- 
uralists have gready increased the num- 
ber of genera. The following is the- ar- 
rangement followed by Cuvier in the 
kist edition of his Rignt t ' ' 

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Beoond Order of REPTILIA, or 8AURIENS. 

Fahilt I. 
Crocodilui, Br. 
8ub-genera, 3. 
Family II. 
Sab-geoera, 7. 
Family III. 
Sbctioit L 

Stellio, Cm, 
A^nuii Dtmd, 
lotiuraa, Cw. 
Draco, Lm. 

Sttb-genera, 18. 

Bbotioit n. 
I^uaniena proper. 
Iffuana, Cuv. 
Ophr^essa, BaU. 
BasiliscoB, Daud, 
Polychras, Cuv. 
Ecphimotefl, Pitz, 
Oplurus, Cut. 
AnoliuB, Cuv. 

Family IV. 


Gecko, Baud, 

Sub-genera, 8. 

Family V. 



Family VI. 
Scincus, Daud. 
Sepi, Daud, 
Bipes, Lacep. 
Chalcides, Daud, 
Chirotes, Cuv. 

BeaideB these, the salamandere, which 
belonff to the fourth order, or Batraciens, 
are awo geDerally termed lizards. (See 
n^mgatoTj BasUisky ChameUori, CrocodUe, 
Dragon, Gtcko, J^uanOj MoftUor, &c.| 

Lizard, 'Cape ; the most soutliem 
promoDtoiy of England, in the county 
of Cornwall. 

Llama iauchenioj Ulig.). This valuable 
animal, which supplies the place of the 
camel to the inhabitants of Southern 
America, is much more graceful and del- 
icate than the Eastern ** ship of the desert** 
Then* slender and well formed leffs bear 
a much more equal proportion to the size 
and form of their body. Their necks are 
more habitually maintained in an upright 
position, and are terminated by a much 
smaller head. Their ears are long, point- 
ed, and very movable; their eyes large, 
prominent and brilliant, and the whole 
expression of their physiognomy conveys 
a degree of intelligence and vivacity that 
is wanting in the camel. There has been 
much di&rence of opinion among natu- 
ralists as regards the number of species. 
The first travellers in America spoke of 
the Uama, the ptanaco, the alpacOy and 
the vicugna, without giving such details 
as were requisite to identify tliem. Most 
of the eariy naturalists, including Linneeus, 
reduced them to two species, the llama or 
gwmacoy used as a beast of burden, and 
me alpaca, paco or vicugna, prized for its 
wool and ;^esh. Buffon was at first of the 
same opinion, but, subsequently, admitted 
the vicugna as a third species. Motina 
also separated -the guanaco, and added a 
fifth, the hueque or Ualian ahup, both of 
which species were adopted by most sub- 
sequent compilere. Mr. F. Cuvier, howev- 
er, limits the number to three, rejecting the 
two last mentioned ; whilst baron Cuvier 
only admits the Uama and the vicugna, con- 
Mdering the alpaca as a variety of the first 

The llamas inhabit the CordiUerss of the 
Andes, but are most common in Peru and 
Chile ; tliev are rare in Colombia and Par- 
aguay. They congregate in Urge herds, 
which sometimes consist of upmrds of a 
hundred individuals, and feed on a grass 
peculiar to the mountains, termed ycho. 
As long as they can procure green herb- 
age, they are never known to drink. At 
the period of the arrival of the Europeans 
in Peru, these animals were the only ru- 
minants known to the inhabitants, by 
whom they were used as beasts of burden, 
and killed in vast numbers for their flesh 
and skins. Gregory de Bolivar asserts 
that, in his time, 4,000,000 were annually 
killed for food, and 900,000 used in the 
service of the mines of Potosi. From 
the form of their feet, they are pecu- 
liarly fitted for mountainous countries, 
being, it is said, even safer than mules. 
They are also maintained at a trifling 
expense, wanting, as is observed by 
fiither Feuiil^e, "neither bit nor saddle ; 
there is no need of oats to feed them ; it 
is only necessary to unload them in the 
evening, at the place where they are -to 
rest for the night ; they go abroad into the 
country to seek their own food, and, in 
tlie morning, return, to have their baggage 
replaced, and continue their journey." 
They cannot cany more than from 100 
to 150 pounds, at the rate of 12 or 15 
miles a day. Like the camel, they lie 
down to be loaded, and when they are 
wearied, no blows will compel them to 
proceed. In fact, one of their mat fiiults 
IS the capriciousnesB of their disposition. 
When provoked, thev have no other mode 
of avenging themselves than by spittings 
which &cuTty thef possess in an extraor- 
dinary degree, being capable of ejecting 
their saliva to a distance of several yards. 
This is of a corroding quality, causing 
some degree of irritation and itching^ If a 

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ftOs on llie naked flkin. Bendes their 
aeiTioes as beasts of burden, the llamas 
afibrd Tarions articles of no sofiaU utility 
to human fife. The flesh is considered very 
wholesome and saroiT, especiaUy from 
the young animal. Their wool, though 
of a strong, disaneeable scent, is in great 
request, especially among the native In- 
dians, who emplov it in the manuforture 
of Btuffii, rop^ bags and hats. Their 
skins are of a very close texture, and were 
formerly employed by tlie Peruvians for 
soles ofshoes, and are much prized bv the 
Spaniiuds for harness. The female llama 
goes five or six months with young, and 
produces one at a birth. The growth of 
the young is very rapid ; being capable of 
producing at three years of age, and be- 
ginning to decay at about twelve. The 
Uama is four feet and a half high, and not 
more than six in length. He has a bunch 
on his breast, which constantly exudes a 
yellowish oil^ matter. His hair is lone 
and soft ; his colors, various shades of 
white, brown, &c The tail is rather 
short, curved downwards. Tbc hoofs are 
divided ; or, rather, the toes are elongated 
forwanls, and tenninatcd by small homy 
appendages, surrounding the Ust ]:>ha!anx 
only, rounded above, and on either side 
somewhat curved. There are several 
specimens of the Uama in the differ- 
ent menageries in Europe, where they 
appear to thrive very well. 

Lui^TEROs (fiiom Uano, plain)'; the in- 
Iialntants of tlie plains, or Uanos (q. v.). 
In this article, we speak more parlicu- 
lariy of those in Venezuela. Tne im- 
mense plains of Venezuela, which afford 
excellent pasture for all kinds of flocks 
and herds, are generally inhabited by con- 
verted Indians or descendants of Indians 
and whites, who are distiuffuished for activ- 
ity, ferocity, ignorance and semi-barbarous 
liairits, and are called LUmeros, From 
childliood they are accustomed to catch 
and mount wild horses, which roam by 
hundreds over the savannas. When at war, 
they are generally armed with a long lance, 
and often have neither swords nor pistols. 
Uniform is unknown among tiiem ; a few 
mgs cover the upper part of their body ; 
their pantaloons are broad and full, some- 
what in the Bf ameluke style. Thev have 
Uankets {manUu),aB is the case with most 
Indians in habits of intercourse with 
whites ; many of them have hammocks. 
They are brave in d^endin^ their plains. 
Tbeur manner of fighting is much like 
that of the Goasacks ; they never attack 
in regular flks, but disperse themselves 
ID ereiy direction, rushing onward, flying, 

repeatedly attackkig and 
ing the enemy. Paez, who was bom and 
bred among them, and is in manners, lan- 
guage and ferocity, a complete Llanero, 
commanded them during the war of Co* 
lombian independence, and is adored by 
them. They choose their own ofitcers, 
and dismiss them at pleasure. They 
sufler no foreicners among them. As 
they have played a conspicuous part in the 
revolutions of Colombia, we subjoin the 
description of them by colonel Hippisley, 
which is corroborated by general Ducou- 
dray Holstein,in his Memoirs of Simon Bol- 
ivar. ** Sedeno's cavalry (Lktnenty* says 
colonel Hippisley, ** were composed of all 
sorts and sizes, some with siuddles, very 
many of them without ; some with bits, 
leather head-stalls and reins ; others with 
rope lines, with a bite of the rope placed 
over the tonnie of the horse as a bit ; 
some with old pistols hung over the saddle 
bow, either incased in tiger-dtin, or ox- 
hide holster-pipes, or hanging by a thong of 
hide, one on each side. As for the troop- 
ers themselves, they were fix>m 13 to 46 
years of age, of black, brown, sallow 
complexions, according to the castes of 
their parent& The adults wore coarse, 
large mustachios, and short hair, either 
woolly or black, according to their cli- 
mate or descent They liM a ferocious, 
savage look. They were mounted on 
miserable, half-starved, jaded beasts, horses 
or mules; some without trowsers, smaU 
clothes, or any covering, except a bandage 
of blue cloth or cotton rouna their loins, 
the end of which, passing between their 
legs, was fiistened to the girth, round the 
waist; others with trowsers, but without 
stockings, boots or shoes, and a spur gen- 
erally gracing the heel of one side ; and 
some wearing a kind of sandal made of 
hide, witk the hair side outward. In 
their left hand they hoM their reins, and 
in their right a pole, fix)m eight to ten feet 
in length, with an iron head, very sliarp at 
the point and sides, and rather flat ; in 
shape like our sergeants' halbert. A blanket 
of about a yard square, with a hole, or 
rather a slit, cut in the centre, through 
which the wearer thrusts his head, falls 
on each side of his shoulders, tlius cover- 
ing his body, and leaving his bare arms at 
perfect liberty to manage his horse, or 
mule, and lance. Sometimes an old musket, 
the barrel of which has been shortened 12 
inches, forms his carbine, and a large sabre 
or hanger, or cut and thrust, or even a 
small sword, bancs by a leather thon^ to 
his side. A flat hat, a tiger skin or high 
cap^ coven his bead, tvitb ft nrhite featber 

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or a irhitio ng iKiMk into it" Thkme- 
ture will remmd die reader of some or the 
eavilfj wbieh Runia marcbed from lier 
Aaiatic dominions uainst France in the 
final strugp^e with Napoleon. 

L1.ANO8 ; the name given in the northern 
part of South America, particulari^ in 
Colombia, to vast pbuns, almost entirely 
IcTcl, and interrupted only by detached ele- 
vationsy called-in Spanish, meMtf. The su- 
peracid area of the Uanos is estimated at 
296,800 square miles ; they extend from 
the coast of Caracas to Guiana, and from 
Merida to tiie mouth of the Orinoco and 
the Amazons. A large portion of them is 
sandy and without much vegetation, ex- 
cept on^he banks of the rivers and durinr 
inundations: some fim-palms are found! 
When the inundations occur, the beasts 
take refuge upon the .mMos. The Uanos 
have been suppcNaed by some to have for- 
meriy been the bottom of the sea. They 
are distinguished into the (a.) Llano ofCo- 
Jom&io, extending firom the mountains of 
Caracas to the mouth of the Orinoco, and 
to the mountains of St F6, and contain- 
ing several meMU (de Amana, de Guani- 
pa, de Paja, 50—65 feet in height), which, 
in the rainy season, are covered with rich 
verdure, and inhabited by herds and flocks 
of all descriptiona— (6.) LUmo de Casor 
ruare; a contmuation of the former, be- 
tween the Orinoco, Meta and Sinaruca. — 
(c.) Llano de & Juan ; very fertile, woody, 
often so thickly overgrown, that it can 
only be penetrated by means of the nu- 
merous nvers ; lies on the southern bank 
of the' Meta, reaching to the Amazons, 
and was discovered in 1541, by Gonzalo 
Ximenes Quesada.— ((f.) Llano of the 
Jtnazons, or the Maranhon ; on botii sides 
of the river, extendinff from the Andes to 
die mouth of the Manmhon, over 2100 
miles ; it is also wooded, and rich in 
grass, entirely without stones,* and. inhab- 
ited by many species of animals. The 
inhabitants of these plains are called 
Zdaneros (q. v.). Farther to the south, such 
plains are called pampas (q. v.). 

Llorxnte, don Juan Antonio, bom in 
1756, near Calahorra, in Arra^on, author 
of the first history of the Spanish inquisi- 
tion, drawn from its own records, re- 
ceived his education at Tarragona, enter- 
ed the clerical order in 1770, received a 
benefice at Calahorra, and, in 1779, by 
means of a dispensation (as he was hardly 
23 years old), was consecrated a» priest. 
This, however, did not prevent him from 
pursuing the study of the canon law, 
while he devoted his leisure to the musea 
At Itfadridy he was. attracted by the theatre, 

and composed a sort of melo-dnaHiv tfie 
Recruit of Galicia. A tr^pedy, entitled 
Eric, the King of the Goths, was not rep- 
resented, as it contained allusions to ex- 
istingdifficulties at the court of Madrid. 
In 1/89, he was made chief secretary to 
the inquisition. Here he had an oppor- 
tunity to learn from the archives of^the 
tribunal the history of its shamefiil and 
barbarous proceedines. In 1791, he was 
sent back to his pariui, on suspicion of be- 
ing attached to the principles of the 
French revolution, and in spite of the 
protection of the minister Florida Blanca, 
who was an enlightened statesman. Here 
he occupied himself actively in the sup- 
port of emiffranf French priests ; and many 
of these unfortunate men were indebted to 
him alone for their subsistence. The man- 
uscript of a history of the emigration of 
the French priesthood, founded upon the 
knowledge ootained from these aiMiuaint- 
ances, and written in 1793^ was lost oy the 
fault of the censors of the press. In the 
mean time, don Manuel Abad la Sierra, an 
enlightened man, was made grand inquis- 
itor, who, intending to reform the admin- 
istration of this tnbunal, employed Llo- 
rente to prepare a plan for me purpose. 
But, before it was completed, the removal 
of Abad la Sierra was obtained by his 
enemies. Some time after, the design was 
taken up aeain at Madrid, and Lu>rente 
repaired thither to submit the plan which 
he had 2)repared in conjunction with the 
bishop of Calahorra. Jovellanos (q. vA 
minister of justice, supported them. It 
was proposed to make the proceedings of 
the tribunal of the inquisition public. AH 
depended upon their obtaining the assist- 
ance of the prince of peace, the fitvorite of 
the queen. But Jovellanos was suddenly 
removed fiom office, and the inquisition 
remained as it was.* (See biqviiUion,) 
Llorente soon felt its arm hiinsel£ His 
correspondence was seized ; the most in- 
nocent expressions were misinterpreted; 
he was sentenced to a month's confine 
ment in a monasteiy, and to pay. a fine of 
50 ducats, and was removed from the ap- 

*A French u1tra,Clau9el de Coassergues, having 
publicly asserted that the inquisition had not 
Durnl any person since 1680, Llorente, in his 
Lettre ^ Mi Clausely SLC.fSur PLtqmtition <r£s. 
pagne (Paris. 1817), proved, that from the year 
1700 to 1808 alone, no less than 1578 persona 
had perished at the stake by its means ! And 
how long is it sbce this holy tribunal suffered the 
body of general Miranda, who had died in their 
dungeons, to be devoured by dogs, and buint a 
German officer in effigv, because he had, during 
the war under N^x>Ieon, translated a bool^ 
which, in Spain, was coasidered boeiical t 

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whidi be hdd in tbe Hdy 
He lived in diagreee till 1805, 
wben lui leputatioii caueed him to be re- 
celled to Madrid to inveetigete some daiic 
poiniB of histoiy. He wee then appointed 
a canoD of tlie cathedral of Toledo in 
1806^ and, in 1807, after he had proved 
himeelf of noble descent, he was made a 
knii^t of the order of don Carlos. In the 
next year, when Napoleon undertook to 
reflate the afidirs or Spain, Llorente re- 
paired to Bayonne, at Jdurat's request, and 
look part in organizing the new institu- 
tians of his country, which, however, 
could not take permanent root, as the cler- 
gy saw in them the destruction of theu* au- 
thori^. When Joseph Bonanarte entered 
Madnd, in 1809, he chargea Llorente to 
take poasession of the paperB of the inquisi- 
tion, and of the buildings and archives 
which were under the superintendence of 
the general commandant of the place. In 
1812, Llorente published a historical me- 
mcnr on the inquisition, with the view of 
fiedn|[the Spanish nation from the charge 
of havmg ever been attached to this institu- 
tion, and to the aiutos dafi, Llorente was 
alfflolier ofking Joeeph,who nusde him, suo- 
oeaavely, counsellor of state, commander 
of the royal order of Spain, commissioner- 
gaieral of theChoflufa. He followed Joseph 
to Paris after the disastrous campaign of 
the French in Rusna, and in 1615 hiui the 
intention of accompanymg him to the U. 
States; but, remaining to take leave of 
his fionily, he was induced to eive up the 
plan. In 1817, he published his history 
of the inquisition in Spain, in Freich — a 
wcttk which vms soon translated into most 
European languages, and which has be- 
come a historical source. An abrids- 
TnaA has been published by Leonard Gd- 
lois. When the old authorities were re- 
8ioffed,he was obliged toftee. Banished 
fiom his country, deprived of his property 
and of his fine library, Llorente lived in 
France, after the down&li ^f tbe French 
party in Spain, in indigence. But the hatred 
of the illiberal party arose, at last, to such 
a height, that the university of Paris for- 
bade him from teaching the Spanish 
language in the boarding-schools, which 
had b^n his only means of support. 
The rage of his enemies was raised to the 
highest pitch by the publication of his 
Pminats polUiquea des Popes, and the 
old man was ordered, in the middle of 
the winter of 1822, to leave Paris in three 
da3rs, and France in the shortest pos- 
fliUe time. He was not allowed to rest 
one day, and died exhausted, a victim to 
the peisecuti(»is of the nineteenth eentu- 

ly, a ftfw dm after hfai aitival tai Madrid - 
(Feb. 5, 1833). Daring hia resideDce in 
France, he published his Mhiumt9 oaur 
servir h VHuAoirt dt la lUwduHon iTff- 
pagnty awe det Piiicet juttjfieatiiveSf under 
the name of R. Nelleto (an anagram of 
Llorente), in three volumes (Paris, 1815) — 
a work of value, as illustrative of the events 
of 1808, in Spain. He alao wrote a bio- 
graphical account of himself {MHcia high- 
grtUica de Don J. A. LhrtnU, Paris^ 1818), 
and Afmsmos PoiUkos. The Ducunoi 
sobre una Congtitueion rdigioBa was act- 
ually written by an American,* but arrang- 
ed and edited by Llorente. He also su- 
perintended an edition of (Euvrts com- 
plHes de BarihS/mii dt la$ Casas (Paris, 

Llotd, Henry, a military ofticer and 
eminent writer on tactics, bom in Wales, 
in 1729, was the son ofla clergyman, who 
instructed him in the mathematics and 
classical literature. At the age of 17 he 
went abroad, and he was present at the 
battle of Fontenoy. He afterwards trav- 
elled in Germany; and having resided 
some years in Austria, he was appointed 
aid-de-camp to marshal Lascy. tie was 
gniduallv promoted, till, in 1760, he was 
mtrusted with the command of a large 
detachment of cavalry and inftmtry, des- 
tined to observe the movements of the 
Prussians. Lloyd executed this service 
with great success ; but soon after resign- 
ed his commission in disgust He was 
then employed by the king of Prussia; 
find dunng two campaigns, he acted as 
aid-de-camp to prince Ferdinand of 
Brunswick. After the peace of Huberts- 
bur^, he travelled, till tne occurrence of 
hostilities between Russia and Turkey, 
when he oftered his services to Catharine 
II, who made him a major-ffeneral. He 
distinguished himself in 1774, at the siege 
of Si&tria; and, subsequently, he had the 
command of 30,000 men, in the war with 
Sweden. At length, he left Russia, and 
travelled in Italy, Spain and Portugal. 
He visited general Eliott, at Gibraltar, 
whence he proceeded to England. Hav- 
ing made a survey of the coasts of the 
country, he drew up a Memoir on the 
Invasion and Defence of Great Britain, 
which was published in 1798. He re- 
tired, at lengtii, to Huy, in the Nether- 
lands, where he died, June 19, 1783. Be- 
sides the memoir, he was the author of 
an Introduction to the Hlstoiy of the 
War in Germany, between the King of 
Prussia and tiie Empress-Queen (London, 
1781, 2 vols., 4to.) ; and a Treatise on the 
Compoeitiou of aifterem Armies, ancient 

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iSJP mid modenL Then works have been 
tnudated into French and German, and 
Jomini made use of the Introduction for 
I his TVaiU de$ Grandes On^ations MU- 
tairu. Other works of Lloyd's are said 
to have been bought up and suppressed 
by the English government, and many of 
his papers are said to have been taken 
possession of, at his death, by a person 
supposed to be an emissary of the English 
ministry, amonff which were the Contmu- 
ation of the History of the Seven Years' 
War, and a History of the Wars in Flan- 
ders. The truth, however, of these state- 
ments seems douhtfiiL 

Llotd, James, was bom in Boston, in 
1769, graduated at Harvard college in 
1787, and. on leaving college, entered the 
couniing-bmise of Thomas Russell, whose 
extensive foreign trade made it by far the 
most suitable pUse in New England to 
acquire a practical knowledse of business. 
He vifflted Europe, and resided some time 
in Rus^ about the ^ear 1792, and, a^r 
a successful career m commerce, was 
elected by the legislature of Massachusetts, 
in 1808, a senator in congress. During 
five years, and at a period of great party 
excitement and national difficulty, Mr. 
lioyd conducted himself with pru- 
dence, intelligence, firmness and integrity. 
Brought up in the school of Washington, 
he kept the political maxims of that great 
man always in view. When war was 
declared against England in 1812, he op- 
posed that measure more Grom a convic- 
tion of our incompetent preparation, than 
fix>m anv doubt of our ability to contend 
successnilly when properly armed. His 
speeches, on that memorable occasion, bear 
ample tesdmony to this, as well as to his 
warm attachment to his country, and soli- 
citude for its naval and military fame. In 
1822, the legislature of Massachusetts re-' 
appointed him to the national senate. 
During another period of five years that 
he held his seat in that body, he added 
to his previous reputation by a constant 
application to business. For the greater 
part of the time, he was chairman of two 
important committees — that on commerce 
and that on naval affairs ; a station that 
obliged him to arrange the numerous 
reports incidental to the current concerns 
of each session. The invesdgations to 
which he was led, in tlie discharge of 
these duties, gave rise to several pamphlets, 
which he published at different times. 
The last of these was published Decem- 
ber 30, 1826, at Boston, and entitled Re- 
marks on the Report of the Committee of 
Commerce of the Senate of the U. States^ 

March 31, 1826, on the British colonial 
Intercourse. He died at New York in 

liLOTn's CoFFEE-HouBK, Loudon, 4>a 
the northern side of the royal exchange, 
has long been celebrated as the resort of 
eminent merchants, underwriters, insur- 
ance brokers, &c As Lloyd's is one of 
the most extensive and best known insur- 
ance offices, the estimate of a vessel at 
Lloyd's tends much to determine her char- 
acter among merchants. The books kept 
here contain an account of the arrival and 
saiUng of vessels, and are remarkable fi>r 
theur earlvinteUigence of maritime affiiirB. 

Lloyd's List, a publication in which 
the shippmg news received at Lloyd's 
coffee-house is published, on account of 
the extensive information contained in it, 
is of great importance to merchants. 

Loadstone. (See MagneL) 

Loan, Public, is the name given to 
money borrowed by the state. There 
may occur cases which require expenses 
for which the ordinary revenue of the 
state is not sufficient. If, in such cases, 
it is not possible to increase the usual 
revenue by augmenting the taxes, 'with- 
out great inconvenience to the natjon, 
the state will find it advisable to borrow, 
and to pay interest till it can discharge the 
principal. If such loans are appropriated 
to objects by which the means of produc- 
tion are augmented, the state strengthen- 
ed, and industry increased, they answer 
the same purpose as those which an in- 
dustrious tradesman makes in order to 
enlar]|e and improve his business. If he 
is successful, he will increase his property, 
and the loan itself will afford the means 
for repaying it This will be the case 
also with the state, when it employs the 
borrowed capital to open to the nation 
increased means of profitable industry, by 
facilitating its intercourae with other coun- 
tries, giving security to its commerce, and 
increasing its means of production. But 
if the loans are expended in useless or 
unfortunate wars, or in other unprofitable 
ways, they diminish the means of labor or 
enjoyment, and burthen the nation vrith 
taxes to p|av the interest and discharge the 
capital. The capitalists who aid in pro- 
ducing, when Uiey lend their capital to 
men of business, and receive their inter- 
est fiY>m the proceeds of their capitals^ 
become uuproauctive subiects as soon as 
they lend it to the state which expends it 
uselesdy, for now they live on the prod- 
ucts of'^the capitals of others, when be- 
fore thev lived on the products of their 
own» As loans, however, may become 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


neoeamT to die Mate, the only quea- 
tion ii| What k the most adTantaffeotis 
me^od of making them? A chief dia- 
tinction among loans is this— that the 
government promises either the repay- 
ment of the capital at a particular time, until 
which it pays mterest, or reserves the liber- 
ty to retam the capital, according to its own 
pleasure, only paying interest regularly. 
The first kind is Imble to occasion trouble 
to the state, because the payment may 
often fill! at an inconvenient time. The 
payment of lai^^ sums, too, at a particular 
jieriod, has this disadvantage, that the 
nation, when the payment is to be 
made, becomes destitute of ready money. 
Therefore large loans are usually con- 
tracted in such a way that the payment is 
made, siiccesnvely, at many periods, or re- 
miuns entirely indefinite. The last kind 
of loans requires that the credit of the 
state should be undoubted, and also that 
large capitals should have been accumu- 
late in the hands of many rich jseople, 
wtio find their greatest advantage in dis- 
pofling of them m loans. Where there is 
a welffounded system of credit, statesmen 
think it most advantageous to secure only 
the regular payment of the stipulated in- 
terest, but to leave the payment of the 
capital at the pleasure of the state. This 
is called the^ndtng' system, as far as fixed 
iimds are assigned for the perpetual pay- 
ment of the interest These perpetual 
anmdtUSf as they are called, had their 
origin in Endand, but have since been im- 
inued in Holland, France, Russia, Austria, 
and many other states. In order to pro- 
vide for the redeeming of the capital, a (French, amortissement) is 
established, together with the fund appro- 
priated to tlie payment of the annuities. 
This is procur^ by me^s of a tax large 
enough to pay the annui^ as long as it 
lasts, and to redeem, annually, a part of the 
capital debt This sinking fund is in- 
creased every year, if the annuities, annual- 
hf redeemed are added to it (See Sinkr 
mg FSauL) According to this method, the 
Slate cannot be said, properly, to borrow 
capita] ; it sells annuities, and fixes, at the 
sake, the rate at which they may be redeem- 
ed. They are commonly estimated at so 
much per ceot. The government says — I 
ofier you an annuity of three, four, five, 
Ac per cent, redeemable at my pleasure. 
How much win you give me fi>r it ? Ac- 
eofdia^to the maiket rale of interest, and 
the degree of credit which the state en- 
joji^ the capitalisiB offer 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 
tot^ ^per cent The rinkinff fUnd aims to 
^charge the debt, gradua%, by redeem- 

ing, annually, port of the annuities, at tlit 
market price. If the latter exceeds the 
price for which it had sold its annuities it 
will be obliged to redeem them with 
loss ; but if it is less, it can redeem them 
with gain. Another kind of loan is, 
when the caf>italists pay 100 per cent at a 
fixed rate of interest, the government re- 
serving the right to^y the capital at any 
convenient time. Suppose that the state, 
when it wishes to borrow, is obliged lo 
pay eight per cent, and that these stocks, 
m the course of three years, should rise in ' 
the market 100 per cent above par ; the 
state would easily find capitalists, who 
would lend at the rate of four per cent 
annuaUv, and with this it could redeem 
the eight per cant stocks. If, therefore, 
the state has reason to expect that the 
price of the stocks will rise, its best plan 
IS to receive a fixed capital sum at such a 
rate of interest as it is obliged to give. 
But if it fears that the interests or the 
prices of the stocks will fall, it is for its 
advantage to procure the necessary money 
by the sale oi stocks at the market price, 
because it may hope to redeem them at a 
reduced rate. Sometimes premiums, or 
the chances of a lottery, are employed to 
stimulate reluctant capitalists, and some- 
times even force. If a government must 
have recourse to other means tlian Uiose 
arising from the annuity or interest offered, 
it is a certain sign that it enjoys but a fee- 
ble credit, or tliat there is a want of capi- 
tal. How fertile modem history is in loans 
of eveiy kind, and into what an unhappy 
situation many states have fellen, by reason 
of them, is well known. In Austria, the 
proprietors of the stocks have been forced, 
several times, to advance further sums, to 
avoid losing what they hod ahx^ady lent 
(See JsTaJtumal Debt.) 

LoANDA, or LoANDo, or St. Paul ds 
LoANDA ; a city of Angola, in a province 
of the same name, capital of the Portu- 

Siese possessions in this part of Africa ; 
ngitude 13° ^d' E.; latitude 8° 55" S.: 
population, stated by Clarke at 5,000; by 
Hassel at 18,000. It is pleasantly situated 
on the declivity of a hill, near the sea- 
coast, and the streets are vride and regular. 
It covers a large extent of ground, but is 
neither walled nor fortified. It is the seat 
of a bishop, and contains three convents. 
The pott is safe and spacious ; the coun- 
try around pleasant ana fertile, abounding 
in cattle, com and fiuits; provienons plen- 
tiful and cheap ; but the water bad, and 
must be bronght fh>m a neighboring river, 
on an island opposite. The houses be- 
longing to the Portuguese are built of 

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atone ; the houses of the oatiTes are mors 
nameroafl^ but mean. The Jesuits officiate 
as miestBy and preside over the schools. 

LoANoo ; a country of Western Afiica, 
of limits somewhat vague. The countiy 
subject to the king of Loango extends 
from the Zaire or Cougo^ on the south, to 
cape St Catharine, a coast of upwards of 
400 miles; but Loango proper occupies 
only the middle pert, excluding Mayom- 
ba on one side, and Malemba on the other. 
The climate is described as fine ; rain of 
rare occuirence, and never violent, but 
dews abundant; the soil a red, stiff clay, 
and veiy fertile, but little culdvated ; the 
grains are manioc, maize, and a species 
of pulse, called mtcmgen; the sugar-cane 
grows to a great size; palm-trees are 
abundant; also potatoea'nnd yams, and 
the finest fiuits grow wild. Among the 
animals are tiger-cats, ounces, hysBnas^ 
hares, and antelopes. The country is 
thinly inhabited; the population is esd- 
mated by De Grandprfe at 600,000. The 
inhabitants are very indolent, and live in 
the most fimple manner. Their houses 
are formed of straw and junk, roofed with 
palm leaves. The government is despot- 
ic, and the dignity is transmitted only in 
the female line. Almost the only object 
for which Europeans resort to this coast 
is the trade in slaves. While Loango was 
in the height of its power, its i>ort was 
almost the exclusive theatre of this trade. 
The trade has of late much diminished. 
(See Tuckey's Expedition to the Congo,) 

LoAZf GO ; a«ity, and the capital of Loan- 
go, on a river which forms a bay at its 
mouth, about six miles fiiom the Atlantic ; 
longitude, according to captain Tuckey, 
nPWE.; laamde4°40'N. It is about 
fi>ur miles in circuit, containing only 
about 600 enclosures, in each of wliich 
there is a number of cottages ; and the in- 
habitants are computed at 15,000. The 
land in the vicinity^is yery fertilcj and the 
water excellent The entrance of the bay 
is attended with some danger. The town 
18 called also Lovcmgo^ Loangirij Bangcty 
and Bucdi ; by the natives, Borai, or Booru 

LoBAU, George Mouton, count, lieu- 
tenant-general, and, in 1830, commander 
of the national guards of Paris, one of 
the pupils of the French revolution of 
1789, and a distinguished actor in that of 
July, 1830, was bom in 1770, and de- 
signed for commercial pursuits. On the 
invasion of France, in 1793, he entered 
the military service, and obtained his first 
promotion on the Rhine. Having serv- 
ed with distinction In Italy, where he 
was dangerously wounded, he was cre- 

atedy If die firrt eoosui, Bonapeite^ 
general of brigade, and aflerwards accom- 
panied the emperor in all his campaigns^ 
m the capedgr of aid. In 1807, he warn 
wounded at Fiiedland, and {nomoted to 
the rank of general of divisron. His bril- 
liant services in Spain, in 1808, and in 
Germany, obtained him Ins tide of count 
(See Aipem.) Afler having served in the 
Rusatau campaisn, he was made prisoner 
in Dresden, in 1813, but set at libeit^ after 
the abdicatk>n of Napoleon. He rejoined 
the emperor during the hundred days, 
was named peer of France, received the 
command of^a diviaon, and distinguished 
himself at Waterloo. On the second res- 
toration of the Bourbons, count Lobou 
was banished from the kin^om (se^ 
Louis XVIII\t and he resided m Belgium 
till 1818, when he was allowed to return 
to France. During the revolution of 1830, 
he took an active part on the popular side, 
and, when Lafayette resigned the command 
of the national guards, was appointed (De- 
cember 26) commander of those of Paris* 

LoBEiiu, Vasco, author of the cele- 
brated romance of AmaeUs de Gaul, was 
born at Porta, in Portugal, in tlie four- 
teenth centuiy. In 1386, he was knighted 
on the fieki of batde, at AHubarrota, by 
king Joam L He died at Elvas, where 
he possessed an estate, in 1403. The 
original of his celebrated romance was 
preserved in the library of the duke of 
Aveiro, who suffered for the conspiracy 
against Joseph I ; but whether still m ex- 
istence or not, IS doubtful. This romance 
has been claimed for France, it having been 
asserted that Lobeira was only a transla- 
tor ; but doctor Southcy has succeeded in 
refuting that pretension. (See Armdis,) 

Lo'BEL, Martio de (Latinlz^, Lobdius\ 
was bom at lille, in 1538, studied medi- 
cine at Montpellier, travelled through 
Italy, Switzerland, Germany, became 
physician to the prince of Orange, and 
was, at a later period, invited to England, 
as botanist, by king James. He died in 
1616, at High^te, near London. His chief 
works are Shrpium cuhersaria nova, with 
engravings (London, 1570, folio ; several 
times reprinted ; the last time, Frankfort, 
1651, foho) ; Plantarum aeu ^irpium His" 
toria cum Moersanorum VoLumine, with 
engravings (Antwerp, 1576, folio ; in 
Dutch, ibid, 1581) ; -/cone« Stirpium (Ant-, 
werp, 1581, 4ta; also London, 1605, 
4to.). Afler him, a genus of plants has 
been called Lohe&u All the *4>^i^ <ure 
poisonous; some veiy much so. 

Lobeua; a genus of plants distinr 
guished by the lahiate oorolki, and by 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


faiimg the five stamens iiniiBd in die ibna 
of a cylinJer, as in the opaoMnke. About 
150 spedea are known, which are Hetba- 
ceouB or fintescent, having aheinate kave^ 
and fiowera disposed in terminal racemes. 
The juice in all is milky, and more or less 
amd and caustic Among the species 
inhaUting the U. States, the most re- 
markable are the three following : — ^Tbe 
2«. syMHtka is found in moist places 
thiougnout the Middle and Westem states. 
It grows to the height of three or four 
ieet, and bears large and beautiful flowers^ 
of a fine blue color. It was, formerly, a 
celebrated remedy with the aborigines, 
and, as such, has been brought into no- 
tice among medical practittonen ; but its 
virtues have been overrated, and it is now 
larely employed. It, however, possesses 
diuretic properties. — ^The large scarlet 
flowers of the L, eardmaU9j or cardinal 
flower, are conspicuous in the low srounds, 
and alon^ the banks of streams, uuough- 
out the U. States. The brilliancy of the 
flowers has rendered this plant a fevorite 
in the European gardens, where it has 
been cultivated for more than two centu- 
ries. — ^The L. ifjflaiay or Indian tobacco, 
is an upland plant, oft^ growing even in 
cultivated grounds, from Canada to Caro- 
lina. The flowers are very small, blue, 
and are succeeded by inflated capsules. 
It possesses emetic properties, and is an 
acrid and dangerous plant It was em- 
ployed asa medicine by thelDdians,and has, 
of late, acquired some celebrity from being 
used by a certain class of empirics.. Ten 
other species oClobdia inhabit die U. States. 
Lobster {astaeus). This well known 
CTu^aceous aoimol has already been cur- 
sorily mentioued under the head of Craw^ 
Juk (q. v.), and it was there inadvei^ntiy 
stated, that the lobster, found on the Amer- 
ican coast, was the A. ptmmanu^ or, in 
other words, identical with the European 
species. It was so considered by most 
namralistS) until Blr. Say pointed out the 
differences between them. (See Jourru 
Acad. JVaLScLPkUad^ 1^165.) He terms 
it A. marinus. Mr. Say ooserves that 
Seba, however, was aware that. this Bpe- 
cies was distinct from the European, and 
figured it in his great work. They are 
exceedingly alike, mough there are certain 
traits of diflbreuce, sumcient to authorize 
a senaration. The habits of the American 
i^peaes are, as far as they have been ob- 
serred, anaJogous to those of the ttavvma* 
n». They are taken by means of |iots or 
traps, ma(ie of strips or osiers, formed 
somewhat like a mouse-trap, baited with 
garisage, attached to a cord and buoy, and 

by means of a weight The Eurh 
pean lobster having been more studied by 
naturalists, the following particulars re- 
specting it have been obtained. Like the 
crsbs, tiiey change their cnist annually. 
Previous to this process, they appear 
sick, languid and r^ess. They acquire 
the new shell in about three or fi>ur days, 
durinff which time, being perfecdy de- 
fenceless, they become the prey, not 
only of fish, but also of such of dieir 
brethren as are not in the same condition. 
It is difficult to conceive how thejpfare 
able to draw the muscles of their claws 
out of tiieir hard covering. The fisher- 
men say, that during the pining state of 
the animal, before casting its shell, the 
limb becomes contracted to such a de- 
gree as to be capable of being withdrawn 
through the joints and narrow passage 
near the body. Like all other crusta- 
ceous animals, they only increase in size 
whilst in a sofi state. The dreinnstance 
of lobsters losing their claws on occasion 
of thunder-claps, or the sound of cannon, 
is well authenucated. The restoration of 
claws lost thus, or from theu* frequent 
combats with each other, in which the 
vanquished party generally leaves one of 
his limbs in his adversary's grasp, may be 
readily observed, as the new limb seldom, 
if ever, attains the size of the former. 
These animals are so sensible to the shock 
communicated to the fluid in which they 
live, by the firing of cannon, that it is said 
they wholly deserted New York bay, 
fix>m this cause, during the war of inde- 
pendence. In the water, they are veiy 
rapid in their motions, and, when sud- 
denly alarmed, can spring to a great dis- 
tance. They attain tht/ir retreat in a rock 
with surpriswg dexterity, tiurowing them- 
selves into a passage barely sufficient to 
permit their bodies to pass. They are 
extremely prolific : doctor Baster says that 
he counted 12,444 eggs under the tail of a 
female lobster, besides those that remained 
in the bo<ly uuprotruded. The female 
deposits these eggs in the sand, where 
they are soon hatched. , 

Loch ; the Scotch for lake. 

Loch Katrine, or Catherine ; a 
small lake of Scotland, in the county of 
Perth, in the Grampian hills, celebrated 
for the picturesque beauties of its shores. 
It has t^come famous as the scene of the 
Lady of the Lake. Boixleiiug on it are 
the Trosachs, rough and stupendous 
mountains, full of wildness and rude gran- 
deur. The^cccss to the lake is through 
a narrow pass, about half a mile in lengm, 
'* Uie Trosachs' nigged jaws." 

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LocrXiEtxit. (See Leven,) 

Locn LoMOivD ; a lake of Scotland, in 
the coun^ of Ai^le. It communicates 
with the Clyde by a riyer, which joins the 
Clyde at Dumbarton, and is about 90 miles 
long, and, in some parts, 8 or 9 broad, 
and contains about 30 islands. This 
beautiful lake is surrounded by hills and 
mountains, and is celebrated for the 
grand and picturesque sceneiy of its 
shores. Its depth is various, in some 
parts 100 fathoms. It abounds in trout. 

Lock ; a well known instrument, used 
for fastening doors, chests, &c., generally 
opened by a key. The lock is reckoned 
the master-piece in sraithery, a great deal 
of art and delicacy being required in con- 
triving and vaiying the wards, springs, 
bolts, &C., and adjusting them to the 
places where they are to be used, and to 
the several occasions of using them. The 
principle on which all locks depend, is the 
application of a lever to an interior bolt, 
hy means of a communication from with- 
out ;' so that, by means of the latter, the 
lever acts upon the bolt, and moves it in 
such a manner as to secure the tid or door 
from being opened by any pull or push 
from without The security of locks, in 
general, therefore, depends on the number 
of impediments we can interpose betwixt 
the lever (the key) and the bolt which 
secures the door ; and these impediments 
are well known by the name of tcardsy the 
number and intricacy of which are sup- 
posed to distinguish a good lock from a 
bad one. If these wan£, however, do not, 
in an effectual manner, preclude the ac- 
cess of all other instruments besides the 
proper key, it is still possible for a me- 
chanic, of equal skill with the lockmaker, 
to open it without the key, and thus to 
elude the labor of the other. Various 
complicated and difficult locks have been 
constructed by Messrs. Bramah, Taylor, 
Spears, and others. In a very ingenious 
lock, invented by Mr. Perkins, 24 small 
blocks of metal, of different sizes, are in- 
troduced, corresponding to the letters of 
the alphabeH Out of these, an indefinite 
number of combinations may be made. 
The person locking the door selects 'and 
places the blocks necessary to spell a par- 
ticular word, known only to himself, and 
no othet person, even if in possession of 
the key, can open the door, without a 
knowledge of the same word. 

Locks. When a canal changes from 
one level to another of dlfiereut elevation, 
the place where the change of level takes 
place, is commanded by a lock. Locks 
are tight, ohlong enclosures, in the bed of 

the canal, fbmisbed with pStea at each 
end, which separate the hidier from the 
lower parts of the canal. When a boat 
passes up the canal, the lower gates are 
opened, and the boat glides into the lock, 
after which the lower gates are shut. A 
sluice, communicating with the upper part 
of the canal, is then opened, and tlie lock 
rapidly fills with water, elevating the boat 
on its surface. When the lock is filled to 
the highest water level, the upper gates 
are opened, and the boMat, being now on 
the level of the upper part of the canal, 
passes on its way. The reverse of this 
process is performed when the boat is 
descending the canal. Locks are made 
of stone or brick, sometimes of wood. 
The gates are commoiilv double, resem- 
bling folding doors. They meet each 
other, in most instances, at an obtuse 
angle, and the pressure of the water serves 
to keep them firmly in contact Cast iron 
gates are sometimes used in Eqgland, 
curved in the form of a horizontal arch, 
with their convex side opposed to the 
water. In China; inclined planes are said 
to be used instead of locks, along which 
the boats are drawn up or let down. They 
have also been used in Europe, and on the 
Morris canal, in New Jersey. 

Locke, John, one of^e most eminent 
philosophers and valuable writers of his 
age and country, was bom at Wrington, 
in Somersetshire, Aug. 29, 1633. liis 
father, who had been bred to the law 
acted in the capacity of steward, or court- 
keeper, to colonel Alexander Popham, by 
whose interest, on the breaking out of ihe 
civil war, he became a captain in the ser- 
vice of parliament The subject of this 
article was sent, at a proper age, to West- 
miiftter school, whence he was elected, in 
1651, to Christ-church college, Oxford. 
Here he distinguished himself much by 
his application and proficiency ; and, hav- 
ing taken the degree of B. A. in 1655, and 
of M. A. in 1658, ho applied himselfto tlie 
study of physic. In the year 1664, he 
accepted . an offer to go abroad, in tho 
capacity of secretary to sir William Swan, 
envoy fit)m Charles II to the elector of 
Brandenburg, and other German princes ; 
but he returned, in the course or a year, 
and resumed his studies with renewed 
ardor. In 1666, he was introduced to 
lord Ashley, afterwards the celebrated 
earl of Shaftesbury, to whom he libcame 
essentially serviceable in his medical 
capacity, and who formed so high an 
opinion of his general powers, that he 
prevailed upon him to take up bis resi- 
dence in his house, and urged him to 

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t|>p]y hiB Mndlettopolidct and ptakmo^ 
phy. ^y his acqiuuntance with this ikh 
Manan, Mr. Locke was introdaoed to the 
duke of Bockingham, the earl of H»life'r^ 
and otheiBof the meet eminent penons of 
their day. In 1668. at the request of the 
earl and countess or Noithumberiand, he 
accompanied them in a tour to France, 
and, on his retuni, was employed by lord 
Ashley» then chancellor of the exchequer, 
in drawing up the Fundamental Constitu- 
tioDS of Carolina. He also superintended 
the education of that nobleman's son. In 
167Q, he began to form the plan of his 
Easay on the Human Understanding: and, 
about the same tune, was made a ifeUow 
of the royal soAety. In 1672, lord Ash- 
ley, having been created eaii of Shailes- 
bu^, and chancellor, appointed Mr. Locke 
secretary of presentatious, which office, 
however, he lost the 'following year, when 
tbe earl was obliged to resign the seals. 
Being still president of the Ixmrd of trade, 
that nobleman then made Mr. Locke sec- 
retaiy to the same ; but, the commission 
beiog dissolved hi 1674, he lost that ap- 
poiDcment'also. In the following vear, he 
graduated as a bachelor of physic^ and, 
being apprehendve of a consumption, 
tr&veUed into France, and rended some 
time at MontpeDier. In 1679, he returned 
to England, at the request of the eail of 
Shaftesbury, then again restored to power ; 
and, in 1&2, when thaf^obleman was 
obliged to retire to Holland, he accompa- 
nied him in his exile. On the death of hia 
patron, in that country, aware how much 
he was disliked by the predominant artn- 
traiy &ction at home, he chose to remain 
abroad; and was, in consecjuence, accused 
cf being the author of certam tracts against 
the English government; and, although 
diese were afterwards discovered to be the 
work of another person, he was arbitrarily 
ejected fom his studentship of Christ- 
chwch, by the king's command. Thus 
asohed, he continued abroad, nobly refus- 
ing to accept a pardon, which the cele- 
brated William Penn undertook to pro- 
riire for him, expressing himself, like the 
chancellor L'Hospital, m similar circum- 
litaiices, ignorant of the crimes of which 
he had been declared guilty. In 1(>^^5, 
when Monmouth undertook his ill -con- 
certed enterprise, the English envoy at the 
Hague demanded the person of Mr. Locke, 
and several othei's, which demand obliged 
him to conceal himself for nearly a year ; 
but, in 1G86, he again appeared in public, 
and formed a literary society at Amster- 
dam, in conjunction with Lamborch, Le- 
ckrc and others. During the time of his 
VOL. viii. 4 

eooeeahneot, he also wrote his fifft Letter 
oonceming Toleration, which was printed 
at Gk>udiL m 1689, under the dtleof Epu* 
toia de Ih^afU^kif and was rapidly 
latfid inu^^B, French and £ 
At the revolmm, he returned to £n^ 
in the fleet which coiy^n^ the pnncese 
of Orange, and, being d^Hted a sufierer 
for the principies on which it was estab- 
lished, ne was made a commissioner of 
appeals, and was soon after gratified by 
the establishment of toleration by law. 
Ib 1090, he published his celebnitecl Easav 
concerning Human Understanding, which 
he had written in Holland. It was in- 
stantly attacked bv various writers. It 
was even proposed, at a meeting of the 
heads of houses of the university of Ox- 
ford, to formally censure and discourage 
it; but nothing was finally resolved upon, 
but that each master should endeavor to 
prevent its bemg read in his college. Nei- 
ther this, however, nor any other oppoaitiQn, 
availed ; the reputation, both of the work 
and of the autnor, increased throuchout 
Europe ; and, besides bemg translated mto 
French and Latin, it had reached a fourth 
Endish edition, in 1700. In 1690, Locke 
published his second Letter on Toleration ; 
and, in the same year, a{)peared his two 
Treatises on Government, m opposition to 
the principles of sir Robert Filmer, and 
of tne wnole passive-obedience schooL 
He next wrote a pamphlet, entitled Some 
Considerations of the Consequences of 
lowering the Interest and Value of Honey 
(1691, ^o.), which was followed by other 
smaller pieces on the same subjecL In 
1699, he published a third Letter on 
Toleration, a^d, the following year, his 
Thoughts concerning Education. In 
1696, he was made a commissioner of 
trade and ))lantations, and, in tJie same 
year, publislied his Reasonableness of 
Christianity, as deUvered in the Scriptures, 
which being warmly attacked by doctor 
Edwards, in his Socinianism Unmasked, 
Locke followed, with a first and second 
Vindication, in which he defended him- 
self in a masterly manner. The use 
n)ade by Toland, and other hititudinarian 
writers,' of the prHmises laid down in the 
Ksst'iy on the Human Understanding, at 
length produced an opponent in the cele- 
brated bishop Stillingfleet, who, in hifi 
Defence of the Doctrine of the Trinity, 
censured some passages in Lockers Essav ; 
and a controversy arose, in which the 
great reading and proficiency in ecclesias- 
tical anti(iuitic8 of the prelate yielded, in 
an ai'mimcntative contest, to the reasoning 
powers of the philosopher. With his 

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puMicatiotM in dui coBCmnsnyy inuch 
wen dndncuidied by mild&eM aad ar- 
boiity, Locke retired nom the pven^ and, 
hii asthmatic complaiii^|MBaflinffy he 
reaigned bis postof com^^HIr of trade 
and plantaticoB, obeenrin^Kat he could 
not, in cogaainGi, hold a situation, to 
which a conRerable aalny was attached, 
without performinff the d uties of it From 
this time, he lived wholly in retirement 
where he applied hunself to the study of 
Scripture ; while the sufTeriiigs incidental 
to his disorders were materiaUy alleviated 
by the kind attentions and agreeable con- 
versation of lady Mashain, who was the 
daughter of the learned doctor Cud worth, 
and, for many years, his intimate fiiend. 
J.<ocke continued nenriy two years in a 
declining state, and at length expired in a 
manner correspondent with his piety, 
equanimity ana rectitude, Oct 28, 1704. 
He was buried at Oates, where there is a 
neat monument erected to his memory, 
with a modest Latin inscription indited by 
himselfl The moral, social and political 
character of this eminent man, is sufS- 
cientiy illustrated by the foregoing brief 
account of his lifo and labors; and the ef- 
fect of his writinji^ upon the opinions and 
even fortunes ot mankind, is the best eu- 
logium on his mental superiority. In the 
opinion of doctor Reed, he gave the first 
example in the English language, of writ- 
ing on abstract sumects with simplicity 
and perspicuity. No author has more 
succMfuily pointed out the danger of 
ambiguous words, and of having indistinct 
notions on subjects of judgment and rea- 
soning ; while his observations on the 
various powers of the human understand- 
ing, on tbp use and abuse of words, and 
on the extent and limits of human knowl- 
edge, are drawn from an attentive reflec- 
tion on the operations of his own mind. 
In order to study the human soul, he 
went neither to ancient nor to modem 
philosophers for advice, but, like Male- 
branche, he turned within himself and, 
after having long contemplated his own 
mind, he gave his reflections to .the world. 
Locke was a very acute thinker, and his ' 
labors will always be acknowledged with 
gratitude, in the history of philosophy ; but, 
at the same time, it must be remembered, 
that, in attempting to analyze the human 
soul, as an anatomist proceeds in investi- 
gating a body, piece by piece, and to 
derive aU ideas fixim experience, he has un- 
intentionally supported materialism. His 
declaration, that God, by his omnipotence, 
can make matter capable of thinkiug, has 
been considered dangerous in a religious 

pont Oi view* Jauoutb 8Nat woiky lii0 
Eanr od the Human undenMandiiigy 
nHiioh he was 19 years in preparing owes 
its ezisteDoe to a diqMUe^ at which he was 
present, and wluch he perceived to reat 
entirely on a verbal misundentanding; 
and, considering this to be a oommoii 
source of error, he was led to study the 
origin of ideas, &c. The influence of this 
work has rendered the empirical, philoao- 
phy ceneral, in England and rranoe, 
though, in both countnes, philosophers of 
a different school have appeared. (See 
Cousin,) Henry Lee and Norris (in Ox- 
forrl) were amonff his eariiest opponenta. 
In France, Jean Leclere (Clericus) distin- 
guished himself particuftrly as a partisan 
of Locke; and 'sGravesande spread his 
philosophy, by compendiums, in Holland. 
Amidst the improvements in metaphysical 
studies, to which the Essay itself has main- 
ly conduced, it will ever prove a valuable 
guide in die acquirement of the science 
of the human mind. His next great work, 
his two Treatises on Government, was 
opposed by the theorists of divine right 
and pasnve obedience (see Legitimacy)^ 
and by writers of Jacobitical tendencies ; 
but it upholds the great principles, which 
may be deemed the constitutional doc- 
trine of his country. It was a favorite 
woric with the statesmen of the American 
revolution, by whom it is conetantiy ap- 
pealed to in tifeir constitutional arguments. 
His Reasonableness of Christianity main- 
tains, thaf there is nothing contained in 
revealed reli^on inconsistent with reason, 
and that it is only necessary to believe 
that Jesus is the Messiah. His posthu- 
mous works, also, have caused him to 
be considered, bv some, as a Socinian. 
Besides the works already mentioned, 
Locke left several MSS. beliind him, from 
which his executors, ar Peter King and 
Mr. Anthony Collins, published, in 1706, 
his Paraphrase and* Notes upon St Paul's 
Episdes to the Galatians, Coiindrians, 
Romans and Ephesians, with an Essay 

?refixed for the Understanding of St 
'aid's Epistles, by a reference to St 
Paul himself. In 1706, the same parties 
published Posthumous Works of Mr. 
Locke (8vo.), comprising a Treatise on the 
Conduct of the Understanding, an Exam- 
ination of Malebrancfae's Opinion of see- 
ing all Things in God. Ifh works 
have been collected together, and fii- . 
quenUy printed in 3 vols., folio, 4 vols., 
quarto, and, more lately, in 10 vols., 8vo.^ 
with a life prefixed, by Law, bishop of 
Carlisle. Some unpublished MSS. yet 
remain in possession of lord King, who 

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gif«B to Ae jmblie mna» ifakiaUe 
enalB in his Lin and ComspoDdettce 
of JflriiD Locke (London, 1839).--See, abo, 
8tewait% Philosophical Eoaaya. 

LocKXR) a kind of box, or cheat, made 
along the eode of a ship, to put or stow any 
thinf in. — Shot lockers ; strong irarnes of 
pfaiuc near the pump-well in we hold, in 
wtdch the shot are put 
LocKVAN. (See Lokman^ and FaUe.) 
LocoMOTios. The arts of locomotion 
are verv well described in Bigelow's 
Technology (Boston, 1829), and the few 
remaikB that follow are abridged from the 
first part of the article. The chief obeta^ 
des which oppose locomotion, or change 
of place, are grayity and fiiction, the last 
of which is, in most cases, a consequence 
of the fireL Gravity confines all terres- 
trial bodies, asainst the suriace of the 
earth, widi a force propoitionate to the 
quantity of matter which composes them. 
Most lands of mechanism, both natural 
and artificial, winch assist locomotion, are 
anangements for obviating the effrctsof 
gravity and fiiction. Animals that walk, 
obmte firiction by substituting points of 
thdr bodies instead of large sur&ces, and 
upon these pomts they turn, as upon cen- 
tres, lor the length of each step, raising 
themselves wholly or partly irom the 
ground in successive ares, instead of 
diawing themselves along the surface. 
As the feet move in separate lines, the 
body has also a lateral, vibratory motion. 
A inan, in walking, puts down one foot 
before the other is raised, but not in run- 
ning. Quadrupeds, in walking, have three 
feet upon the ground for most of the time; 
in trocting, only two. Animals which 
walk against grevity^ as the common fly, 
the tree-toad, &c^ support themselves by 
sucti<Mi, using cavities on the under side 
of their feet, which they enlarge, at pleaa- 
ore, till the pressure of the atmosphere 
causes them to adhere. In other respects 
theif locomotion is effected like that of 
other walking animals. Birds peifonn 
the motion of flying by striking the air 
with the broad surface of their wings in a 
downward and backward direction, thus 
propelling the body upward and forward. 
After each stroke, the wings are contract- 
ed, or aligfady turned, to lessen their re- 
■stenoe to the atmosphere, then raised, 
and spread anew. The downward stroke 
aln^ being more sudden than the upward, 
■ more resisted by the atmosphere. The 
ttnl of biids serves as a rudder to duect 
the course upward or downward. When 
a biid sails in the aur without moving the 
» it m dooe in some cases by the ts- 

fecity previoi^y i4M]uired, and aQ oliliiiQs 
direetion of the wings upward ; in otb* 
era^ by a gradual descent, with the winga 
slightly turned, in an oblique direction, 
downward. Fishes^ in swimming for- 
ward, are propdled chiefly by strokes of 
the tail, the extremity of which being bent 
into an oblique position, propels the body 
forward and laterally at the same time. 
The lateral motion is corrected by the 
next stroke, in the oppgaite dirBction» 
while the forward course continues. Hie 
fins serve pardy to assist in swimming , 
but chiefly to btdance the body, or keep it 
upright ; for, the centre of gravity being 
nearest the back, a fish turns over, when 
it is dead or disabled.* Some other aquat- 
ic animals, as leeches, swim with a sinu- 
ous or undulating motion of the body, in 
which several parts at once are made to 
act obliquely against Uie water. Serpents, 
in like manner, advance by means of the 
winding or serpentine direction which 
they give to their bodies, and by which a 
succession of oblique forces are brought 
to act against the ground. Sir Everand 
Home b of opinion that serpents use their 
ribs in the maimer of le^ and propel the 
body forwards by bringmg the plates on 
the under suriace of the iKHly to act, suc- 
cessively, Uke feet against the ground. 
This he deduces from the anatomy of 
the animal, and from the movements 
which he perceived in suflferinir a large 
coluber to crawl over his hand. Soine 
worms and larvae of slow motion, extend 
a part of their body forwards, and draw 
up the rest to overtake it, some perform- 
ing this motion in a direct line, others in 
curves. When land animals swim in 
water, they are supported, because their 
whole weight, with the lungs expanded 
with air, is less than that of an equal bulk 
of water. The head, however, or a part 
of it, must be kept above water, to enable 
the animal to breathe ; and to eflTect this, 
and also to make progress in the water, 
the lunbs are exerted, in succeaave im- 

Eiilses, against tlie fluid. Quadrupeds and 
irds swim with less eflfort than man, be- 
cause the weight of the head, which is 
carried above water, is, in them, a smaller 
proportional part of the whole than it is 
m man. All «>nimnlg are provided, by na- 
ture, with organs of k>conK>tion best 

* The swimminj^-bladdery which exists m most 
fishes, though DOt in all, is sapposed to have sa 
agency in adapting the specific gravity of the 
fisn to the paiiicouir depth in which it resides. 
llw power of the animal to rise or sink, by al- 
tering the dimensions of this organ, has besa, 
with sons reason, dispoted. 

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adttitad to their Bmietaie- and atiutioD; 
and it is {Hobable that no animal, noan 
not beinff excepted, can exert his strength 
more aavantageously by anv other than 
the natural m<Me, in moving himself over 
the common surfiice of the ground.* 
Thus walking cars, velocipedes, Sic^ al- 
though they may enable a man to increase 
his velocity, in fevorable situations, for a 
abort time, yet they actually require an in- 
creased expenditure of power, for the 
puipose of transporting the machine 
made use o^ in addition to the weight 
of the body. When, however, a great 
additional load is to be transported with 
the body, a man, or animal, may derive 
much assistance from mechanical ananffe- 
ments. For moving weights over the 
common ground, with its onlinaiy asperi- 
ties and inequalities of substance and 
structure, no piece of inert mechanism is 
80 &vorably adapted as the wheel-car- 
riace. It was introduced into use in very 
eany ages. Wheels diminish friction, 
and also surmoimt obstacles or inequali- 
ties of the road, vritb more advantage 
than bodies of any other form, in their 
place, could do. . The friction is dimin- 
i^ed by transferring it from the sur&ce 
of the ground to the centre of the wheel, 
or, rather, to the place of contact between 
the axletree ana the box of the wheel; 
so that it is lessened by the mechanical 
advantage of the lever, m the proportion 
which the diameter of the axletree bears 
to the diameter of the wheel The rub- 
bing surfoces, also, being kept polished 
and smcAred with some unctuous sub- 
stance, are in the best possible condition 
to resist friction. In like manner, the 
common obstacles that present themselves 
in the public roads, are surmounted by a 
wheel with peculiar fiicility. As soon as 
the wheel strikes against a stone or simi- 
lar hard body, it is converted into a lever 
for lifting the load over the resisting ob- 
ject If an obstacle eight or ten inches in 
height were presented to the body of a 
carriage unprovided vrith wheels, it would 
stop its progress, or subject it to such vio- 
lence as would endanger its safety. But 
by the action of a wheel, the load is lifted, 
and its centre of gravity passes over in 
the direction of an easy are, the obstacle 
fiunishing the fulcrum on which the lever 
acts. Rollers placed under a heavy body di- 
minish the friction in a greater degree than 
wheels, provided they are true spheres or 
cyUnders, without any axis on which they 

* This remaik, of coane, does not apply to 
shuatioiu in which friction is obviated, as upon 
water, ice, Fail-roads, dec. 

are constrained to move; buta^Biflrieal 
n^ler occasions friction, whenever its 
path deviates in the least from a straij^t 
line. The mechanical advantages of & 
wheel are propordonate to its size, and 
thelarjperit is, the more effectually does 
it dimmish the ordinary resistances. A 
large v^eel will surmount stones and sim- 
ilar obstacles better than a small one, since 
the arm of the lever on which the force 
acts is longer, and the cun'e described by 
the centre of the load is the arc of a larger 
circle, and, of course, the ascent is more 
gradual and easy. In passing over holes, 
ruts or excavations, also, a large wheel 
sinks less than a small one, and conse- 
quently occanons leas jolting and expend- 
iture of power. The wear also of large 
wheels is less than that of small opes, for 
if we suppose a wheel to be diree feet in 
diameter, it will turn round twice, while 
one of six feet in diameter turns round 
once ; so that its tire will come twice as 
often in contact with the cround, and its 

rkes will twice as often have to support 
weight of the load. In practice, how- 
ever, it is found necessary to confine the 
size of wheels within certain limits, part- 
ly because the materials used would make 
wheels of ^reat dze heavy and cumber- 
some, since the separate parts would ne- 
cessarily be of large propordons to have 
the requisite strength, and partly because 
they would be disproportioned to the size 
of the animals employed in drought, and 

compel them to pull obliquely downwards, 
and therefore to expend a part of their 
force in acting against the ground. 

Locomotive Engine is that which is 
calculated to produce locomotion,or motion 
from place to place, (See Steam^Engine,) 

LocRis was a country of Middle 
Greece, whose inhabitants, the Locrians, 
were among the oldest Grecian people. 
There were four brandies of them — ^the 
Epicnemidian, the Opuntian, Ozolian, 
and Epizephyrian Locrians. The last 
were a colony from the OzoUan stock, 
and lived in Lower Italy. Their capital, 
Locri, was one of the most powerful, 
splendid and wealthy cities of Magna 

Locust. The misapplication of popu- 
lar appellations, and the mutations of en- 
tomology, have introduced some confri- 
sion in regard to the scientific names of 
many insect& Our American deader are 
)[x>pulariy known here both by the names 
of harvulfy and locuH ; the latter term, 
however, is incorrecdy applied. Under 
the generic name loauta is included, fay 
■evml modem entomologiBCs^ thedevoor- 

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_ of die eastem coodnent, and 

die oomnioD groBtihoppen (as they are 
here caUed] of our country. These ento- 
mologiatB use the tenn ui nearly the same 
senee as Linnsusy who affixed it to a 
group of bis great genus gryUtu, which 
ooDstitutes the genus gryBua proper of 
Fabricius. The ffraashopper may be thus 
chaiacterized. The wings and wing-cases 
are applied obliquely to the aides of the 
body iu repose ; the antennee are short, 
and do not taper towards the ends ; the 
feet have only three joints ; and the tail 
is not furnished with a projecting oviduct, 
or piercer, for the deposition of the eggai 
These insects have the bind legs formed 
for leaping, and the males produce a 
acridulous sound, by scraping these legs 
against their wing-cases. The female de- 
posits her ' eggs in the earth, and the 
young survive the winter in the larv» 
state, concealed amonffthe decayed veg- 
etatioa of the surface. They pass through 
an imperfect metamorphosis, for both 
larviB and pup® resemble, somewhat, the 
]ierfect insects in form, are active, and take 
food in the same way, but are destitute 
of wings. In all stages, they are her- 
bivorous, and sometimes do immense in- 
Cr to vegetation. Our salt marshes har- 
an innumerable host, which not un- 
frecpiendy stripe them of every blade of 
grass ; or, when a scanty crop is gathered 
into the bam, the hay is so filled with the 
putrescent carcasses of these grasshoppers, 
or locusts, as to be highly ofiensive, and 
totally unfit for forage. In some sections 
of our country, they occasionally appear 
in such numbera as to fill the air m 
cknids, and wherever they alight they de- 
vour every green thing in their path. It 
is stated, on good aumority, that, more 
than once, when they visited some parts 
of New England, they not only ate up aU 
the grass in the fields, but actually attack- 
ed dothinff and fences to appease their 
insatiable hunger. Some workmen, em- 
pk>yed in raising the steeple of a church, 
in Williarostown, Massachusetts, were, 
while standing near the vane, covered by 
them, and saw; at the same time, vast 
swarms flying at a great height far above 
their heads. These swarms are said to 
return after a short migration, and perish 
on the very grounds they have ravaged. 
(See Dwight's Ihmds,) Many of these 
insects are ornamented with various beau- 
tiful colors, particularly on the wines, 
which, however, in repose, are not visible, 
being folded like a sm, and covered by 
tfaeknig, narrow wing-cases. One oC the 
JaifMt and most common Anmcan spe- 

dei is the locufto CaroKna of lAmmim, 
It is about one inch and throe quarteiB in 
length, and the wings are of a deep black 
color, surrounded with a broad yellow 
border. The most celebrated species of 
grasshopper is xherryUuam^ratoriui (mi- 
gratory locust). Of all ammals capable 
of adding to the calamities of mankind, 
by destroymff the vegetable products of 
the earth, the migratory Iscusts would 
seem to possess the most formidable pow^ 
ers of destruction. In Syria, Egypt, and 
almost all the south of Asia, these insects 
make their appearance in legions, and 
carry desolation with them, in a few hours 
changing the most fertile provinces mto 
barren deserts, and darkening the air bv 
their numbers. Happily for mankind, 
this calamiQr is not fi^[uentiy repeated, 
for it is the inevitable precursor of mmine, 
and its horrible consequences. Xhe an- 
nals of most of the southern Asiatic cli-^ 
mates are filled with accounts of the de-« 
vastations produced by locusts. They 
seldom visit Europe in such swarms, 
though the^ are occasionally formidable 
to the agriculturist Even when dead^ 
they are still productive of evil conse^ 
ouences, since the putrefaction which-arisea 
from their inconceivable number, is so 
great, that it is jusdy regarded as the 
cause of some of'^thoee desolatmg pestin 
lences which almost depopulate whole 
districts of country. When' locusts thus 
make their appearance, they are said to 
have 1^ leader, whose flight they observe, 
and to whose motions Uiey pay a strict 
regard. We are told that nearlv as much 
damage is occasioned by what they touch, 
as by what they devour. Theu- bite is 
thought to contaminate the plants, and 
either to destroy or greatly weaken their 
vegetation. Of the innumerable multi-* 
tudes in which they occur, scarcely an 
adequate conception can be formed. Ear^ 
row (TVooeb, &c.) states that, in Southern 
Afiica, the whole surfiice of the ground 
might literally be said to be covert with 
them fi>r an area of 2(XX) square miles, 
The water of a very wide river vraa 
scarcely visible on account of the dead 
carcasses that floated on the sur&ce^ 
When the larvae (for these are much more 
voracious than the perfect insects^ are on a 
march during the day, it is utterly imposn 
sible to turn the dunection of die troop, 
which is generally with the wind. In 
some pans of the world, these insects are 
used ror food. For this purpose, they are 
caught in nets, and, wnen a sufficient 
number is procured, they are roasted over 
• atow&eiiQ ao earttvA Tenali txtt tbi 

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inrings and legi drop off; when thus pre- 
paml, they are aud to taste like craw- 
fish. Mr. Adaoaon (Vbyagt to Serugid) 
says, however, that he would'willingly re- 
sign whole annies of locusts for the mean- 
est fish. The locust constituted a com- 
mon food among the Jews, and Moses 
has specified the difierent kinds which 
they were permitted to eaL <* Even thes^ 
thou mayest eat ; the locust after his kind; 
the bald locust afler his kind ; the beetle 
after his kind ; and the grasshopper after 
his kind." (I^m^. xi, v. ^.) 

The popular term gra8$hopper is also 
applied, and with more propriety, to in- 
sects in another group or the gn^i — ^the 
tettigonuB of Linnaeus [loeugla of Fabricius). 
They are distinguished firom the locusts 
of the preceding section, b^ their very 
long, bnstle-shaped, or tapenng antennee, 
and by having four joints to their feet, 
and an ezserted oviduct The latter in- 
strument often has the form of a 'curved 
sword or sickle, and is used in prepariug 
a hole,, and conveying the eggs to their 
appropriate nidua oeneoth the soil. These 
insects have lonff, sledder hind legs, form- 
ed for leaping ; out the males do not play 
with them against their wing-cases, for 
the production of sounds. Their musical 
organs consist of a pair of frames, within 
each of which is stretched a transparent 
membrane. These tabourets are affixed 
to that part of the base of each wing-case 
which taps on the top of the back, and 
one lies direcdy over and in conu^ct with 
the other ; so that, whenever the wing- 
cases are opened and shut, the finmes 
grate together, and, as often as the shuf^ 
fling motion is repeated, a grating sound 
is produced. These musical grasshoppers 
are usually of a green color, and are noc- 
turnal in their habits. During the day- 
time, they conceal themselves in the grass 
or the foliage of trees ; but at night, they 
quit their lurking places, and the joyous 
male commences the song of love with 
which he recreates his silent |)artner. It 
would be well to restrict the popular ap- 
pellation grasshoppers to these insects, 
which have been distributed into several 
modem genera. Two only need here be 
mention^ viz. conocephtdus (Thunl)ei^), 
[acridOf Kirby], including the feipecies 
whose head terminates in front in a coni- 
cal projection, and pterophyUa (Kirby), 
whose head is obtu^ and not produced 
infixmt The latter senus contains the 
well-known insect, culed, fh)m its note, 
kaiy-dH pierophyUa concava (hcitsta con- 
awat Say). Its large, oblong-oval, concave 
wing-cases, inwrap the abdomen, and 

meet at«thdr edges above and b^w 
somewhat like the two sides or valves of a 
pea-pod. Perched on the topmost twiff 
of a tree, the insect begins his noctum«d 
call by separating, closing, and re-opening 
his wing-cases. The friction of the ta- 
bouret-frames upon each other, thrice, 
produces three distinct notes, which is 
the usual numl)er ; occasionally, only two 
are given, when the wing-cases are mere- 
ly opened and shut ouce. The mechan- 
ism of these organs reverberates, and in- 
creases the sound to such a deeree, that it 
may he heard, in the stillness of the night, 
at the distance of nearly a quarter of a 
mile. At intervals of three or four min- 
utes, he repeats his obstreperous babble, 
while rival songsteis echo the notes, and 
the woods resound with the call of ludy- 
didy slu did, the live-long night The td&- 
gonuB of Linnaeus, or ffrasshoppers above- 
mentioned, are not to be confounded with 
the insects referred to the modem genus 
tetHgonia of Olivier, Lamarck and La- 
treifle. The'fonner, with all the frylli of 
Linnaeus, have jaws for masticatmg their 
food, and belong to the order orthoptera ; 
while the latter, with the cicada or Junr^ 
vest'fy (misnamed locust), have suctori- 
ous tubes, for puncturing plants and im- 
bibing their jui(^ and belonff to die order 
omoptera. In the genus cicaaa, the anten- 
nae are six-jointed ; there are three ocelli, 
and the le^ are not adapted for leaping. 
In tdtigoma, the antennae are three-joint- 
ed ; there are only two ocelli, the thorax 
is transverse, not produced behind, and 
the legs are formed for leaping. To the 
genus tettigonia (Olivier) may be referred 
the minute insect which attacks the grape 
vine, and injures it to a great extent by 
noxious punctures, and the exhaustion of 
its sap. When the leaves of this valua- 
ble plant are agitated, the little tettigortUt 
leap or fly from them in swarms. The 
infested leaves soon become yellow, sickly, 
and, losing their vitality, give to the plant, 
in midsummer, the aspect it assumes, nat- 
urally, at the approach of winter. On 
turning up the leaves cautiously, the in- 
sects will be seen busily employed upon 
the under side, with their proboscis thrust 
into the tender epidermis. These insects 
pass through all their metamorphoses, 
which are imperfect, upon the plant ; the 
vringless larvae a^ pupae, having a gene- 
ral resemblance to the perfect insects, feed 
together in the same manner, and their 
innumerable white cast skins will be 
found adhering to every part of tho 
kvves. This species survives the winter 
in the jperfoct state, hybemating beneath 

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mkka, mmiM, and amonff die roots €(f 
mn. It may be called UHigoima viHs 
(Uarris). It is, is lis peiiect atate, oeariy 
oneteDdi of an inch long; of a straw 
color, with two broad, scarlet bands across 
the wing-cases, one at the base and the 
odier on the middle, and the tlys of the 
wing-casea are blackish^ — ^Tbe cicada iei" 
Hgfmia (Fab.), popularly misnamed lociutj 
and found in various parts of the world, 
subsists on the leaves of trees and other 
vegetable substances. These insects are 
fiiinisbed with a hard proboscis, capable 
of boring wood. They are well known 
fiom the peculiar noise made by the 
males. The instruments for this are sit- 
uated on each side of the base of the ab- 
domen, and each is covered by a kind of 
cartUaginous lamina. The cavity which 
contains theae is divided by a triangular 
partition. Examined from its internal 
side, each cell presents, anteriorly, a white 
and plaited membrane, and below this, a 
tense, thin, transparent lamina, tenned, by 
Aeaumur, the mirror. Viewed £rom the 
extemal side, there will be seen another 
plaited membrane on each mde, which is 
acted on by a powerful muscle, composed 
of a great number of straight and parallel 
fihrea ; this membrane is 3ie drum. The 
muscles, in rapidly contracting and relax- 
ing, act on this drum, and thus produce 
the noise. It is said, that in some species, 
in tropical climates, diis is very powerful. 
Mr. smeathman speaks of some of these 
insects^ whose notes can be heard at the 
distance of half a mile. The most re- 
markable species is the 17 years locust 
(C aepiemdecim), so common, m particular 
seasons, in some parts of the C. States. 
These insects emerge from the ground 
towards the end of April, and always dur- 
ing the night. On their first coming out, 
they are in the pupa state ; but the back 
soon bursty and the perfect flv appears. 
They begin to lay eg^ about the end of 
May ; these are deposited in close Imes of 
two inches long, m the tender twigs of 
tree& As soon as the young attain theif 
growth, in the grub state, they foil to the 
ground, and vnSke their way two or three 
Ket underneath the surface, in order to 
undeigo their change into the pupa form. 
Soon after attaining their last transforma- 
tion, they are found in great numbers 
over huge districts of country. They ap- 
pear about every 17 years, though it is 
lofjtdy probable, that the periods of their 
retuni vary according to the heat of the 
climate, and other circumstances. These 
insects have been known to make their 
appearance in tiie city of Phj^elphia in 


gnat niui^mi^ jMnetmii^ fiom uiaur 
subtennanean resiaenoe, between the bricka 
of a pavement. Notwithstanding the 
usual idea, they are in no way iniurioua 
to veffetation, except from the damage 
done by the female m depositing her efga. 
This insect is the fiivorite food of various 
species of animala Immense numbera 
are destroyed by the hog, before they 
emerge fit>m the sround ; they are, also, 
when in their pemct state, eafferlv de- 
voured by squirrels. Some of me laiger 
birds are also fond of them. The Indiana 
likewise consider them as a delicate food 
when fiied. In New Jersey, they have 
been converted into soap. It is stated, on 
good authority, that they never light on the 
pine, nor does the female deposit her eggs 
m this tribe of trees. There are many oth- 
er species in the U. States, which have 
been described by Mr. Say, in the Joum. 
Acad. Nat ScL, Philadelpnia. (See Bar- 
ton's Medical and PhfsicM Jovarnal, &c.) 

Locust Irobinia pseudacacia). This 
valuable and ornamental tree, which is so 
frequently cultivated in the Atlantic States^ 
and which is highly prized in Europe, 
grows wild in great profusion among the 
Alleghany mountains, and throughout the 
Western States, even to the borders of the 
sandy plains which skirt the base of the 
Rocky mountains. When in bloom, the 
lar^ nendulous racemes of framnt, 
white dowers, contrasting with the ught- 
green foliage, produce a fine effect, and 
give this tree a rank among the most or^ 
namental. The leaves are pinnate, and 
the leaflets very thin and smooth. The 
flowers, resembling in form those of the 
pea, diffuse a delicious perfume, and are 
succeeded by a flat pod. The branches 
and younff stems are usually armed with 
thoma The wood is compact, hard, ca- 
pable of receiving a fine polish, and has 
the valuable property of resisting decay 
longer than almost any other. The color 
is greenish-yellow, with brown streaks. 
Locust-posts are consumed in enohnous 
quantities, and are eveiy wherepreferred, 
when diey can be obtained. This wood 
is also very much employed in ship-build- 
ing, in the upper ana lower parts of the 
mine, together with the white and live 
oaks and red cedar ; but it is difficult, in 
^e Atlantic poits, to procure stocks of 
sufficient dimensions. For tree-nails, it is 
prefeired to aU other kinds of wood, as it 
acquires extreme hardness with age, and 
considerable quantities of these are annu- 
ally exported to Great Britain. It is also 
employed by turners, and, from its fine 
grain and lustre, forms a yeiy good sub 


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•titata for boz^ The locuit grows veiy 
impkUy, but, when cultivated in tiie Atlan- 
tic states, it is found to be exceedingly lia- 
ble to the attacks of an insect, which, by 
boring into the wood in various direc- 
tions, weakens the tree so much, that it is 
easily broken by the wind. In various 
parts of Europe, great attention has been 
paid to the propagation of this tree, for 
ornament as well as for its useful proper- 
ties, and its cultivation is further encour- 
aged by the absence of the destroying 
iosect aibove-mentioned. The usual stat- 
ure of the locust is 40 or 45 feet, but, in 
the fertile regions of the south-west, it at- 
tams much greater dimensions, sometimes 
reaching die height of 80 feet, with a 
trunk 4 feet in diameter.— The IL viseosOf 
a smaller tree than the common locust, 
from which it is distinguished by its rose- 
colored flowers, and by having the young 
branches covered with a viscous sub- 
stance, is, in its natural state, confined to 
the south-western parts of the Alleghany 
mountains. It usually does not exceed 
40 feet in height, with a trunk 13 inches 
in diameter, and is a more ornamental 
tree than even the preceding. The prop- 
erties of the wood are very similar to 
those of the common species, and it will 
bear cultivation in the same climates. — 
The R. hiapida is also a native of the 
south-western ranges of the AUeghanies. 
It is a lAnib with veiy hispid branches, 
often cultivated in our gardens on account 
of its veiy large and beautiful rose-colored 
flowers, which, however, like those of the 
R. vi9co8a^ are inodorous. — A fourth spe- 
cies of robinia is sard to exist vridiin or 
near the basin of the Red river, but, vrith 
respect to its character, botanists are, at 
present, entirely uninformed. This genus 
IS thus peculiar to North America. 

LoDER, Ferdinand Christian von, an 
anatomist and philosophical pbyslcian, 
and physician to the emperor of Russia, 
was bom at Riga, 1753, and studied med- 
icine at G6ttingen. In 1778, he took the 
degree of doctor of medicine and surgeiy, 
and was immediately appointed professor 
in the medical faculty at Jena. He then 
travelled two years in France, Holland 
and England, and formed an acquaintance 
with the most distinguished men of sci- 
ence. In 1782, he returned to Jena, 
where he established an anatomical the- 
atre, a lying-in hospital, and a cabinet for 
the natural sciences. He likevrise found- 
ed a medico-chiraigical clinicum, in which 
Hufeland and othera assisted. He then 
became physician to the grand-duke of 
Weimar, ahd delivered kcttiiee on several 

bruicbeBofmedieiiM. In 1808; he entered 
the Prussian service, and was q>pointed 
ordinaiy professor of medicine in tne uni- 
veraity of Halle. In 1806^ he declined an 
invitation .to enter the service of the king 
of Westphalia, to whom Halle then be- 
longed, and went to St Petersburg. The 
emperor Alexander appointed mm one 
of his physicians in 1810, after he had 
been raised to the dignity of a noble by 
the king of Prussia. Loder setded in 
Moscow ; in 181^ was charced with 
making provision for the wounded ; and, 
when the French occupied the city, he 
established hospitals for 600 officera and 
31,000 privates, in difierent towns, the di- 
rection of which he held for eight months. 
In 1813, the great militaiy hospital at 
Moscow was intrusted to him ; out, in 
1817, he resigned this trust, thou^ he 
continued to be active in the service of 
the hospitals. In 1818, he was employed 
in instituting an anatomical theatre at 
Moscow, at the expense of the imperial 
treasuiy. Six days in the week, for ten 
months in the year, he lectured in Latin, 
besides devoting much of his time to the 
church, the schools, the practice of medi- 
cihe, and public aftairB. Besides his 
translations of Park, Johnson, &c., and 
many academical dissertations and pro- 
grams in Latin, at Jena and Halle, he has 
written AnatomiBehes Handbuch (2d edition, 
Jena, 1800); AnfmgB^ndt der Medic 
AnihropoU^rit una GenehiL ArzneiwisHfv- 
achqften (3d edition, Weimar, 1800J ; Jour- 
tud f&r die Chirurgte^ Geburtskmfe und 
GenchtUcke Aarineikunde (vol 1 — 4, Jena, 
1797—1804); TabtdtB Amdomiea (Latin 
and German, Weimar, 1803); Mementa 
AncdomuB hum. Corp, (1 vol, Moscow, 
Riea and Leipsic, 1822); and other works. 

Lodge. This word, with several sym- 
bols and ceremonies, was taken from the 
corporations of stone-cuttera and masons, 
by the fiieemasons. The former called 
the place where they assembled a lodge ; 
and, in freemasonry, lodge signifies the 
place of meeting; and hence that body of 
masons, with necessary officers, &c., who 
meet at such place. Each lodge is dis- 
tinguished bv its particular name, with the 
addition of the name of the place where it 
holds its meeting. (For further informer 
tion, see Masonry.) 

LoDi, a well-built town, since 1814 the 
chief town of the province of Lodi in the 
govemmentof Lombardy,in the Lomber- 
do- Venetian kingdom, lies on the Adda, 
in a fertile teiritory; Ion. 9° 3V £.; let. 
4SP Id' N.; i>opulation, 17,800. The 
biahopriiyfteubject to the archbiahop of 


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MHaiL The town contairw a itrong dta- 
dd. Tlie celebrated Panneaan cheeae la 
made, not at Pamia, but at and wheat the 
town of Lodi alone, and k considered the 
beat m Italy. The manaftcturea of eaith* 
en ware are abo cetebrated. It was at 
this plaee that general Bonaparte gained 
the fiimoua victory, May 10, 1796, over 
the Auscriana, under Beaulieu. They had 
paaaed the Adda, evacuated Lodi, and 
taken a very atrong position, defended by 
SO pieces of cannon, which could be ap- 
proached only by a narrow bridge over the 
Adda. Bonaparte formed a part of hia 
foroea into a close column, brought his 
whole ardlleiT into play, and charged at a 
quick step. The slaughter was dreadful, 
as the Austrian artillery swept down whole 
ranks at once on the bridge. The French 
wavered ; but, at this critical moment, the 
French generals Berthier, Mass^na, Cer- 
voni, Lannes, &c., placed themselves at 
the head of the column, forced their way 
ov€T die Inridge, and took the Austrian 
batteries. The Austriaos fought bravely ; 
both armies struggled vrith the greatest 
obstinacy, and victory long remamed in 
suspense, till the division of Augereau 
came up, and decided the fete of the bat- 
tle. The Austrians, driven from their 
port, lost a part of their artillery and over 
9000 men ; but Beaulieu saved the honor 
of the Austrian arms by a retreat conduct- 
ed with coolness. The French loss was 
not less. If they did not lose 4000 men, 
as the Austrians stated, they certainly lost 
more than 2000, which was their own ac- 
count Men of science have censured 
both generals, — ^Bonaparte, for taking a post 
with an immense sacrifice, of which, say 
they, he might have been master, in 24 
hours more, with comparative ease ; and 
Beaulieu, for having evacuated the town 
of Lodi in such haste, as to neglect break- 
ing down the bridge, by which alone the 
enemy could approach his position ; but 
it is idle to dispute with Raphael about 
per^iecdve. Lodi remains one of the most 
striking military achievements of Napole- 
on ; not merely from the personal courage 
which he displayed, but nom the boldness 
with which the action was planned, and the 
eneigy with which it was executed. At 
Lodi, Bonaparte received the title of petit 
etfond (little corporal). (See Thiers's lEs- 
Unrt de la RhoiutUm Francaiu (vol. 8th) ; 
Botta's lEsUnrt de VBalie de 1789 h 1814.) 
Loo; a machine used to measure the 
rate of a ship's velocity through the water. 
For this purpose, there tare several inven- 
tiooa^ but the one most generally used is 
the fi^wing, called the common log. It 

10 a piece of thin board, fbnmnff the qaad- 
lant of a circle of about six inchea ndhm, 
and balanced by a small plate of lead, 
nailed on the circular part, so as to awim 
perpendiculariy in the water, with the 
ffreater part immersed. The log-line is 
nstened to the k>g by means of two lega, 
one of which is dotted, through a hole at 
one comer, while the other is attached to 
a pin, fixed in a hole at the other comer, 
so as to draw out occasionally. The log- 
line, being divided into certain spaces, 
which are in proportion to an equal num- 
ber of geographical miles,* as a half or 
quarter minute is to an hour of time, is 
wound about a reel. The whole is em- 
ployed to measure the ship's head-way in 
the following manner: The reel being 
held by one man, and the half-minute 
glass by another, the mate of the watch 
nxes the pin, and throws the log over the 
stern, which, swimming perpendicularly, 
feels an immediate resistance, and is con- 
sidered as fixed, the line being slackened 
over the stem, to prevent the pin coming 
out The knots are measured from a mars 
on the line, at the distance of 12 or 15 &th- 
oms f]t>m the log. The glass is therefi>re 
turned at the instant that the mark passes 
over the stem ; and, as soon as the sand in 
the glass has mn out, the line is stopped. 
The Mrater, then being on the log, dislod^ 
the pin, so that the board, now presentmg 
only its edge to the water, is eaaly drawn 
aboard. The number of knots and fiith- 
oms which had run off at the exfHration 
of the glass, determines the ship's velocity. 
The half-minute glass, and divisions on 
the line, should be frequently measured, to 
determine any variation in either of them, 
and to make allowance accordingly. If 
the glass mns 30 seconds, the distance 
between the knots should be 50 feeL 
When it runs more or less, it should there- 
fore be corrected by the following analogy : 
As 30 is to 50, so is the number of seconds 
of the glass to the distance between the 
knots upon the line. As the heat or moist- 
ure of the weather has oflen a considerable 
effect on the glass, so as to make it run 
slower or faster, it should be flrequently 
tried by the vibration of a pendulum. As 
many accidents attend a ship durinff a day's 
flailing, such as the variableness of winds, 
the dm*erent quantitv of sail carried, &C., it 
will be necessary to heave the log at every 
alteration, and even if no alteration be per- 
ceptible, yet it ought to be constandy heav- 
ed. The inventor of this simple but valu- 
able device is not known, ojkd no mention 
of it occura till the year 1607^ in an East 
India voyage^ pdblidied by Puiclia& 

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Loa-BoAB»{ two boards shutting to- 
gether like a book^jcid divided into sev- 
eral columns, contiuoliig the houis of the 
day and night, the direction of the winds, 
and the course of the sliip, with all tiie 
material occurrences that happen during 
the 24 hours, or from noon to noon, to- 
gether with the latitude by observation. 
From this table, the officers woriL the 
ship's wav, and compile their journals. 
The whole, being written with chalk, is 
rubbed out every day at noon. 

LoG-BooK ; a. book into which the 
contents of the log-board is daily trsuQ- 
scribed at noon, together with every cir- 
cumstance, deserving notice, that may hap- 
, pen to the ship, or within her cognizance, 
either at sea, or in a harbor, £c The 
intermediate divisions or watches of a 
log-book, containing Ifbur hours each, are 
usually signed by the commanding officer 
thereof in ships of war or East Indiamen. 

Loo-Line; the line which is &stened 
to the log (q. v.). 

LooAN, James ; born at Lurgan, in Ire- 
land, Oct 20,. 1674, of Scottish parents. 
At the age of 13 years, having learned 
Latin, Greek, and some Hebrew, he was 
put apprentice to a liuen-draper in Dublin ; 
but, the country being involved m much 
confusion by the war of the revolution 
(1688), he returned to his parents, at Bris- 
tol, in Endand, where he devoted all the 
time which he could command to the im- 
provement of his mind. In his 16th year, 
having happily met with a small book on 
piathemaucs, he made himself master of 
It vrithout any manner of instruction. 
Having, also, further improved himself in 
the Greek and Hebrew, he acquired the 
French, Italian and Spanish languages. 
He was engaged in a trade between Dub- 
lin and Bristol, when Willian Penn made 
proposals to him to accompany him to 
Pennsylvania, as his secretary, which he 
accepted, and landed, with the proprietor, 
in Philadelphia, in the begmning of De- 
cember, 1699. In less than two years, 
William Penn returned to England, and 
left his secretary invested with many im- 
portant offices, which be discharged with 
fidelity and judgment He fifled the 
offices of provincial secretary, commis- 
sioner of property, cMefjustice, and, upon 
the demise of governor Ubrdon, governed 
the province for two years as president of 
the council He had, for a long time, 
earnestly solicited from the proprietary 
family a release fiom the fatiguing care of 
theur business ; but, even after this release, 
he was constantly consulted and appeal- 
ed to m difficult. And the quiet and 

good govemment of the ptovinoe, Ibr m 
number of yeaia^ was due to his prudence 
and experience. He lived about 20 yeavp 
at Stdlton, enjoying literary leisure, cor- 
responding with enunent men in various 
countries, and engaged in coUecdng that 
library which he bequeathed to the pub- 
lic. He was ajso the author of sevend 
learned works. His Ej^erimenia MdeU- 
mala dt PtaiUarum GeneraHone entitles its 
author to be ranked among the earliest un 
pfovers of botany. It was written in 17:19 
He corresponded with the great Swedish 
botanist The aborigines, of whose rela- 
tions with the government of Pennsfylvania 
he had the chief management, paid an af- 
fecting tribute to his worth, when, in his 
old age, ihey entreated his attendance, on 
their behalf, at a treaty held in Philadel- 
phia, 1742, where they publicly testified 
oy their chief, Cannaasatego, their satis- 
faction for his services, calling him a wise 
and good man, and expressing their hope 
that, when his soul ascended to God, one 
just like him might be found for the good 
of the province, and their benefit .He 
was a man of uncommon natural and ac- 
quired abilities, of great wisdom, modera- 
tion and prudence ; well acquainted with 
the world and mankind, as well as with 
books; of unblemished morals, and in- 
flexible integrity. He died at Stenton, 
near Philadelphia, Oct 31, 1751, having 
just completed his 77th year. 

LooAN, GeoTffe, doctor, son of William 
and grandson of James Logan, was bom 
at Stenton, near Philadelphia, Sept 9, 
1753. He was sent to England for his 
education when very youns, and, on his 
return, served an apprenticeship with John 
Reynolds, merchant of Philadelphia. He 
had early a great deshxs to smdy medicine, 
which he undertook after he had attained 
the years of manhood. After spending 
three yeare at the medical school of Eld- 
inburgh, he travelled through France, It- 
aly, (^rmany and Holland, and returned 
to his own country in 1779. Here he ap- 
plied himself to agriculture with success, 
and was one of the first who made exper- 
iments with gypsum as a manure. He 
was, m a few years, elected to the legisla- 
ture, and served in several sessions. His 
character, as a representative, was marked 
by strict integriQT, and an adherence to 
what he beUeved to be the public benefit 
The pubhc mind being much agitated, on 
account of the French revolution, and the 
violent ascendency of party spirit, and the 
nation stau^nff on the brink of a war with 
France, he embarked for that country in 
June, 1796, hi order to tiy to prevent such 

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■Diane. For this step he wis denounced 
as a pairicide to hie coontry, and loaded 
with the utmost abuse. But be succeeded 
in his intentions. Upon his arrival at 
Hamburg, he found that all entrance into 
the French territoiy was interdicted to 
American citizens; yet, by the friendly 
imerference of Lafayette in his &Yor, he 
obtained a passport from the French ehaargi 
d^qfatire$y and proceeded to Paris, where 
he neaid that Elbridj^ Geny (q. v.), the 
last of our commissioners, had left that 
city for the U. States, that an embanro had 
been laid on all our shipping in French 
ports, that sevend hundreds of our sea- 
men were confined in French prisons, and 
that all negotiation was at an end. Find- 
Ine that he could not get introduced to the 
chief directdr, Merlin, then the highest 
fonctionaiy in France, by means of Tal- 
leyrand, — wbo,neveitheless, received doc- 
tor Logan himself with courtier-like com- 
placency, and used eveiy art to sound 
what was his message or intentions, in 
vain,— doctor Loean introduced himself 
to M. Schimmeipennick, the Batavian 
minister, who presented him to Merlin, by 
whom he was veiy cordially received. In 
the visits which he made him, he succeed- 
ed in convincing the director of the im- 
poHcy of the measures pursued by France 
towards this country, and, finally, obtained 
a decree, raising tjie embargo, and liberat- 
ing our seamen, and giving, through the 
American consul-general, assiininces to 
our goveinraent that they desired to re- 
new their former amity and ^friendship 
with the U. States. He returned to the 
U. States in 1798, and published, in the 
Aurora of Jan. 12 (date of bis Letter to the 
PobKcl 17U9, a justification of himself, 
most decidedly repelling the charge of 
having been sent to France by a fiiction, 
&C. Directly afler his return, the law 
fiuniliariy called LogdaCa law, was enacted 
by congress, and a ne^tiation was en- 
tered upon which termmated in a peace 
with France. Mr. Logan sat in the sev- 
enth and eighth congreflses, from Decem- 
ber, 1801, to March, 1807, as senator from 
Pennsylvania, and might have continued 
knitter in that station, nut he declined a 
reetection. In 1810, he visited Engkmd, 
with the same philanthropic desire of |)re- 
serving peace between the two countries. 
Here, though be failed in effecting the good 
which he had so much at heart, yet his re- 
ception, by men of the highest respectability 
of both parties, was highly flattering. He 
was exceedingly prieved at the war which 
followed. HisJtecdth gradually declined for 
some years, and he died Apnl 9, 1821. 

LooAEiTBiff (fiom the Greek >^tt 
proportion, and i^^H, number). "Tlie 
iO||farithms of numbers are the exponents 
or the difierent powers to which a con- 
stant number must be raised, in order to 
be equal to those numbers ; the princi* 
pies, therefore, which apply to exponents 
m general, apply to logfuithms." To con- 
stitute a logarithm, it is neceasaiy that the 
exponent should refer to a system or se- 
ries. These exponents, therefore, consti- 
tute a series or numbers in arithmetical 
proportion, corresponding to as many oth- 
ers m geometrical proportion. Take, for 
instance, the series 10'«10; 10»-=100; 
10» — 1000; 10* — 10,000: then we 
have the logarithm of 10«=1 ; logarithm, 
100 «2 ; logarithm, 1000—3 ; logarithm, 
10,000=4, &.C. Perhaps the definition 
of a logarithm may be more scientifically 
expressed thus : iMgarUkm is a mathemat- 
ical term for a number by which the mag- 
nitude of a certain numerical ratio is ex- 
pressed in reference to a fundamental ra- 
tio. The value of a ratio becomes known 
to us by the comparison of two numbers, 
imd is expressed oy a number called the 
quotient of the ratio ; for instance, 12 : 4 is 
expressed by 3, or 18:9 bv 2; 3 and 3 
bemg caUed'the qwOienU of the two pro- 
portions, 12:4 and 18:9. If we now 
imagine a series of proportions, which 
have all the same value or quotient, as, 
for insuince, 1 to 3, 3 to 9, 9 to 27, 27 to 
81, &c. (in which 9 and 3, 27 and 9, 81 
and 27, are in the same ratio as 3 and 1), 
and if we at the same time adopt the ratio 
3 to 1, as the fundamental ratio (or the 
unit of these mtiosV^then 9 to 1 is the 
double of this ratio, 27 to 1 the triple, 81 
to 1 the quadruple, and so on. The num- 
beis 1, 2, 3, 4, which indicate the value of 
such ratios, in i^espect to the fundamental 
ratio, are called logarithms. If, therefore, 
in this case, 1 is the logarithm of 3, !2 
must be the k>garithm of 9, 3 of 27, 4 of 
81, &c. If we adopt, however, the ratio 
of 4 :1 as the fundamental one, and hence 
1 as the logarithm of 4, then 2 would be 
the logarithm of 16, 3 of 64, &c. The 
logarithms of the numbers which lie be- 
tween, must be fractions, and are to be 
calculated and put in a table. A table of 
logarithms, made according to an assumed 
bifiis or fundamental ratio, of all numbers 
to a certain limit, is called a logarithmic 
sugtem. The most common, at present, is 
tnat of Briggs, in which the fundamental 
basis is 10 to 1 ; hence I is the logarithm 
of 10, 2 of 100, 3 of 1000, 4 of 10,000, 
&c. It is evident that all logarithms of 
numbers between 1 and 10, must be more 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



than 0> yet lem than 1« L e. a firaetion; 
thuB the logarithm of 6 is a77815ia la 
the same way, the logarithms of the num- 
bera between 10 and 100 must be more 
than 1, bat less than 2, &c ; thus the Ipgw 
arithm of 05 is = 1.0777296. All loga- 
rithms of the nambers between 0, 10, 100, 
1000, &c, are arranged in tables, the use 
of which, particularly in calculations with 
kr^ numbers, is very great The process 
is smipte and easy. If there are numbers 
to be multiplied, we only have to add the 
logarithms; if the numbers are to be di- 
vided, the logarithms are merely to be 
eabtracted; if nambers are to be raised 
to powers, their logarithms are^^moltiplied ; 
if roots are to be extracted, the logarithms 
are merely to be divided by the exponent 
of the root In a table of logarithms, the 
integer figure is called the index or charao- 
terisHc The decimals are called, by the 
Germans and Italians, the mantiss<i. In 
general, the logarithms of the system in 
which 1 indicates 10, are called common or 
Brig f 8*9 logarithms. The properties of 
logarithms, and some of their uses, were 
talen notice of by Stiefel or Stifelius, a 
German clergyman, who wrote as early as 
1530 ; but the use of them in trigonometrv 
was discovered bv John Napier, a Scotch 
baron, and made known by him in a work 
published at Edinburgh, m 1614 Loga> 
rithmic tables are of great value, not only 
to mathematicians, but to all who have to 
make calculations with large numbers. 
The best logarithmical tables are those of 
Vega (q. v.) and of Callet The former 
are calculated with ten decimals.* Loga- 
rithms are of incalculable importance in 
trigonometrv and in astronomy. Vega's 
edition of Vlacq*s tables contains a trl- 
gpnoroetrical table of the common logap 
rithms of the radius or log» sin. (ot.= 
10.0000000, which gives the logarithms of 
sines, arcs, co-sines, tangents, and co-tan- 
gents for each second of the two first and 
two last degrees, and for each ten seconds 
of the rest of the quadrant Under Nar 
pier's direction, B. Ursinius first eave the 
logarithm of the sines of the angles from 
10 to 10 seconds, the l^rithm of the 
tangents, which are the differences of the 
logarithms of each sine and co-siue, to- 
gether with tlie natural sine for a radius 
of 100,000,000 parts.* Kepler turned his 
attention particularly upon the invention 
of Napier, and gave a* new thee y and 

♦ Logarithmic nn<i Trijjonometric TnMns have 
lately been publifhcd by F. R. HafrVr (iVew 
York, JRIfl)); and Mathematical Tablea. cr)mpri«itig 
Logarithms of Niimbcrfi, &c. (Itosloii, I^TO). The 
English Tables are too numeroas to meutiou. 

new tablea Bnfgs was also conspieiioiis 
in the construction of tables. Mercator 
shows a new way for calculating the log- 
arithms easily and accurately. Newton, 
Leibnitz, Hsllev, Euler, UHulllier, and 
others, perfected the system much, by ap- 
plying to it the binomial theorem and dif- 
ferential calculus. The names of Vlacq, 
Sherwin, Gardiner, Hutton, Taylor, Callet, 
and others, deserve to be honorably mei»- 
tioned. The edition of Vlacq, within a 
few years, by Vesa, is particularly valua- 
ble. During the French revolution, when 
all measures were founded on the decimal 
division, new tables of the trigonometrical 
lines and their logarithms became neces- 
sary. The director of the bureau du cc^ 
tastre, M. Prony, was ordered, by govern- 
ment, to have tables calculated, which 
were to be not only extremely accurate, 
but to exceed all other tables in magnitude. 
This colossal work, for which me first 
mathematicians supplied the formulas and 
the methods for usmg the differences in 
the calculations, was executed, but the 
depreciation of the paper money pre- 
vented its publication. The tables would 
have occupied 1200 folio pagea {NoiM^s 
sur lesgrandes Tables Logariihmiques et 
TrigonometriqueSf caicuUs au Bureau du 
Caidstre d Paris, an IX.) 

LoGAV, Frederic, baron of; an epigram- 
matist, bom in Silesia, 1604, and died in 
1655l He early showed poetical talents, 
but, at a later period, his avocations appear 
to have prevented him from attempting 
any large poems, and his poetical produc- 
tions were confined to short pieces and 
epigcama He published a selection of 
200 epigrams, which were so well receiv- 
ed, as to induce him (probably in 1654) to 
publish a new collection of 3000^ A 
contemporary of Opitz, he followed in 
the steps of his ^eat predecessor, and 
oflen expresses himself with as much 
vigor. Many of his epigrams are original 
and happy, and are the more striking as 
this department has been little cultivated 
by German writers. Logau is particu- 
larly original in the gnome, and truly 
poetical m a form which is now becoine 
foreign to poetry. Ramler and Leabing, 
who edited a coIlecUon of hia epigrams 
in 17o9, revived h s reputation. After 
Lessin^'s death, Ramler r publi&ied the 
foliection, in 1' U. Select poems of 
Logau are coi2tali. jd in W. i\r"*ilkr's Bib- 
liothek deulsc/rr Dicntu dcj 17 JahrK 
(Library of t > German Pixels of the 
snventeenth Century, volume vi, Leipsic, 

LooGE DI Ratfaello; part of the 

DigiSed by Google 


ToiieHi, and one of those bemtiftil loeiiei 
to be found nowhere bat in Rome. Leo 
X had tfaeee logge or arcades built 
nadeat the direction of the immorlal Ra- 
phael Theve are iht&e stories which en- 
closeaeouitcaUed U CortUe di & Dama^ 
so. The middle story is the most cele- 
brated. It is fiMPmed by thirteen arches, 
and the vault of each contains four paint- 
iugB in finusco, repres^iting scenes from 
the Old Testament, and executed by 
Giolto Romano, Pierin dal Vanu Pelle- 
siino da Modena, Polidoro, and Maturino 
da Camva^io, and others, after cartoons 
prepared by the great Raphael himsel£ 
The number of these exquisite pictures is 
fifty-two; the arches and pilasters are 
adorned with grotesque pamtingB, exe- 
cuted by Giovanni da Udine, so famous 
io this branch, also under the direction of 

Looic {^vytKii, L e. hitmifin) ; the science 
of tlie laws of thoueht,and the correct con- 
nexioD of ideas. It is not certain, how- 
ever, whether the name was derived orig- 
inally from thought or from language^ be- 
cause both mav be designated by Xdyitt, 
1 e. reason and word. In German, this 
science has also been called Denk'Lehrty 
or Ventandea-Lehre (rule of thinkinff, or 
rule of the understanding), because logic 
strives to represent, in a scientific way, 
those laws which the understanding is 
bound to follow in thinkiuf, and with- 
out the observance of which, no correct 
conclusions are possible. Logic is valua- 
ble, not only as a£S)rding rules for the 
practical use of the understanding, but 
also as a science preparatory to ail other 
sciences, particularly mental philosophr, 
as it aficsds tlie rules for giving scientinc 
connexion to all knowledge, the laws of 
thinking determining the character of 
scientific arranxemenL But, inasmuch 
as the laws of losic can only determine 
the form of our knowledge, but can by 
no means teach us how to obtain the ma- 
tetials of knowledge, and gain a clear in- 
sight into things (which is the business of 
mentid vhUo9ophfj properly so called), in 
so fiur logic has been, of late, separated 
from inteUectual philosophv. But i^ as 
is not unfinequendy done, all sciences are 
divided into the historical (those which 
proceed finom experience, as history, 
natural philosophy, medicine, &c.) and 
the phikieophical (the subjects of which 
do not foil within the domain of expe- 
rience), logic is a philosophical science, 
because the laws of the connexion^ of 
thouj^hts and ideas are founded in reason 
itself and not in experience, and the sub- 


jeois of loM am, tbsMAn^ capable of a 
demoostrstive certaiaqr beyond those of 
any other philosophioal scaeoce. Logic 
has not uiifim)uemly been overvaliied, 
paiticuhurly by the ancient philosonbeni. 
It should be always kept in mino, that 
the most systematic order, alone, does not 
render assertions trutli. The province 
of logio has been enlarged or restricted 
by different philosophers. Among the 
ancients, logic was made to include the 
deeper philosophical investigation of the 
general characteristicsof truth, orthe essen- 
tial conditions of the uruth of our knowl- 
edge, which some modem pliiloBopheni 
have referred to metaphysics. Logic may 
be divided into the pure and the applied ; 
the former treats of the general laws and 
operations of thought (conceiving, judg- 
ing, concluding), and their products 
(notion, judgDient, conclusion). AppUed 
logic treats of thought under particular 
and special relatione^ which are to be 
taken mto consideration in applying tlie 
general laws of thought, viz. the connex- 
ions of thought with other operations of 
the mind, and the impediments and limi- ' 
tations which it thereby experiences, as, 
also, the means of counteracting them. 
For the first scientific freauuent of logic, 
we are to look to the Gtreeks. Zeno of 
Elea is called the father of logic and dia- 
lectics; but it was then treat^ with par- 
ticular referenoe to the art of dlsputauon, 
and soon degenerated into the minister of 
sophistry. The sophists and the Mega- 
rean school (founded by Euclid of Mega- 
n) greatiy developed tins art The latter, 
therefore, became known under the name 
of the heuriatic or diakciic school^ and is 
famous for the invention of several soph- 
isms. The first attempt to represent the 
forms of thinking, in ohMtrado, on a wide 
scale, and in a purely scientilic manner, 
was made by Anstode. His lo^^cal writ- 
ings were cadled, by later ages, orgcmon^ 
and for almost two thousand' veare after 
him maintained authority in the schools 
of the philosophers. His investigations 
were directed, at the same time, to the cri- 
terion of truth, in which path Epicurus, 
Zeno, the founder of the stoic school, 
Chryfflppus and othero followed him. 
Loffic, or dialectics, enioyed great esteem 
in bter times, particulariy in the middle 
ages, so that it was considered ahnost as 
tiie spring of all science, and was taught 
as a hberal art firom the eighth centuiy. 
The triumph of logic was the scholastic 
philosophy (which was but a new form 
of the ancient sophistxy) ; and theology^ 
particukrly, became filled with veibal 

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BabtUdoL ^ymaadiim Lullin ■trove to 
give logic anotnor fbmu The Bcbobfltics 
were attacked bf CampaneHa, Gasaendiy 
Peter Ramus {P%em de la Ramie^ Bacon 
and otbera with well-ibanded objectiona. 
Descartes and Malebranche again con- 
founded logic and metaphyaics. Locke^ 
Leibnitz and Wol^ Tchirnhausen, Tho- 
niasius, Cruaius, Ploucquet, Lambert (in 
bis New Organon), Reimarua and others, 
have rendered great service to modem 
logic Kant, Fichte, Scfaelling, Hegel, have 
maintained veiy various opinions on the 
subject Whatelev's Treatise on Logic, 
fint published in the EncycloptBdia Mdro- 
pomtmoj and ranee in a separate volume, 
IS one of the best treatises, in English, on 
the subject. 

LoGiER, John Bernard, descended from 
a ^mily of French refugees, was bom in 
1780, at Kaiserslautem m the Palatinate, 
where his grandfather was organist His 
father was appointed, in 1796, violinist in 
the chapel of the elector of Hease-CasseL 
When the subject of this article was ten 
years old, he played the flute, then his 
fiivorite instrament, at a public concert 
His parents having died, his guardian en- 
deavored to dissuule him from cultivating 
music, and he aocepted the offer of an 
Englishman to accompany him to Eng- 
land, in 1805. De Gnffe instmcted him 
on the piano-forte. He received an ap- 
pointment in the band of a regiment, com- 
posed several pieces for the band, and 
gave instmction on the piano-forte, which 
Jed to his attempts to simplify the manner 
of teaching. He was appointed organist 
in Westport, Ireland, the regiment having 
been disbanded in consequence of peace. 
Wiahing to teach his daughter, then seven 
years old, to play the organ in his absence, 
and finding her bond defy aU his endeav- 
ors, he was led to think of some contriv- 
ance for giving it the necessary flexibility. 
The result was his valuable chiropUut 
(former of the hand), which was com- 
pletely successful. In 1814, be began to 
teach his system more generally in Dub- 
lin. In 1817, Mr. Lo^er went to London 
to have his system examined by the phil- 
harmonic society. Although the result 
of the examination vras not favorable, the 
system became veiy popular. In 1821, 
the Prasnan government sent an agent to 
London to inquire into its merits, and Mr. 
Logier was soon after invited by the same 
government to introduce it in' Beriin, 
whither he went in ISZl, and, at die end 
of five months, received an order fix)m 
the kinpf to instmct twenty persons so that 
they might spread his method throu^out 

It was iiMnodneed into LeipaiCi 
and many other places of Geimany. Its 
peculiarity consists in giving oastnictkm 
to many pupils at the same time, and, 
though open to the objection to which 
all svstems are exposed, that they cannot 
produce genius, its success sufficiently 
shows not only its practicability, but also 
its advantl^|e8. 

Logos (Greek, Xtfyof, firom \iyttv,to speak) 
has a great variety of meanings: 1. lan- 
guam speech in general ; hence, 2. every 
mamiestation of the reason and under- 
standing by language^ so that it has the 
meanings of oration, eloquence, conver- 
sation, address, also of the right and op- 
portunity of speaking, &c. Lansuage 
being peculiar to man, as a reasonabK to- 
ing, and speech presupposing thouglity 
lo^a signifies, 3. reason, the faculty of 
thmkiog in general ; 4. every tiling which 
is a production of tlie latter; as notions, 
conceptions, demonstration, calculation, 
explanation, condition and relation, nay, 
even wisdom and logic. Thus logos has 
the meaning both of ratio and gratio.* 
In Christian teleology, the word X^yos, as 
used in certain passages in the Scriptures, 
has been the source of continual disputes 
ever since the third centuiy of our era. 
The passage in the Bible which chiefly 
gives rise to this discussion, is the opening 
of the gospel of St John : — ^ In the begin- 
ning was the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was God. Tlie 
some viros in the beginning with God. All 
things were made by him, and without him 
was not any thing made that was made," 
&c In the Greek text, the expression here 
translated Word (le verbtj das loortj &c.) is 
Uyos. What is here to be understood by 
Uyoif what is its essential character 
whether it is a person of the Deity or not, 
the creative intellect of God, or ^e Son, 
through whom he created, or the divine 
tmth which was to hp revealed, &c. — ^this 
work is not the proper place to examine, 
nor will our limits permit us even to enu- 
merate the diflerent opinions which have 
been entertained on this interesting point 
of Christian metaphysics. We can refer 
the reader to no better source of informa- 
tion than the General History of Chris- 
tianity and the Church (in German), by 
Augustus Neander, Hamburg, 1827 et seq. 

* A slight stody of cultivated laa^uagcs will 
show how generally the word signifying speech^ 
or some word derived from the origual verb to 
apeak f has acquired a very extended meaninr; 
as t}ie Latin re«, from the Greek ^^ I speu, 
Afyoc from Acyuv. Em€r and Debet, sisnifyinr 
wrdf are the most generic terms in the Orients 

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— « woik of disdDffuiflhed research and im- 
poitiality. The Roman Catholic doctrine 
of the Xoyof {verhum) makes it a person, 
and not a mere name, and maintains that 
the Word is called God, not by catachre- 
818, but in the strict and rigorous meaning 
of the term ; that the most ancient Others 
of the church always taught the divinity 
of ibe Word, and that diey derived the 
idea from the Holy Scriptures alone, and 
not from the Platonic philosophy, as many 
have asserted. For a view or th^ Catholic 
doctrine, we must rejfer our readers to the 
Catholic DictUmnaire de ThMogie (Tou- 
louse, 1817), article Verbe, and to the 
worics particularly devoted to this subject 
Some of the opinions of modem theolo- 
eians on the meaning of the logos are as 
foflowB : — It is necessary, some say, in or- 
der to understand the true meaning of 
l^oij to begin with the examination of 
99^, which was previously used. (See 
the book of Prorero*, viii, 1 et seq., and the 
book of fVisdom, vii, 82 et seq.) The po- 
etical author of the Provem does not 
imagine a peison separate from God, but 
onlv an interior power of God, because, 
in bis time, there could be no idea of a 
being proceedinff from God, the Jews 
havine borrowed this notion at a later 
period from the Oriental doctrine of ema- 
nations. The author of the book of Sirach 
(xnv, 3) first uses Xdyo^ rs ea, as equivalent 
to co^j to fflgnify die almighty power of 
God. The Word being an act oi wisdom, 
gave rise to the rjrmbol. John speaks of 
the logos in the beginning of his gospel 
only, and afterwards uses the expression * 
KvOtta ri OtS. FroHi his representation, the 
following positions have been deduced : — 
the k^gos was (a.) from the beginning of 
all things (comp. Proverbsfy'm, & ; Sirwh^ 
xxiv, 9) ; (6.) from the beginning with God 
(comp. Sir, i, 1 ; Wisd. ix, 4, 9) ; (c.) 
throuffh it the world was created {Prov. 
SdL viii, 31 ; iStr. xxiv, 9) ; (d.) in the per- 
son of Christ, the logos was manifested as 
aman to the world (fftsd, SoL x, 16 ; ii, 14 ; 
Sir, xxiv, 12). St John, therefore, say those 
who thus Interpret him, had the same idea 
ofthe2o)gw as the apociyphal writers; for 
the circumstance tnat the latter ascribe 
to the logos the creation of all things, 
while St. John leaves this point unoe- 
cided in his iv i^ Jfn, does not amount to 
a contradiction. CHhers^ particulariy the 
earfier commentator^ understand by logos, 
the Deity himself that is, the second per- 
son of the deity (according to St John viii, 
58]b But those who adhere to the fomier 
opmkm maintain that this is in contiadic- 
tnitDJohnziVy98; zii, 4^-^ $ ▼, 10— 

90; and that he underatood by lo^f, only 
a power of God, which was communi- 
cated to Jesus, on account of which he 
could claim divine attributes, and yet call 
the Father, as the source of this power, 
greater than himself. Others, as Herder, 
Paulus, Eckerman, understand by logos, 
the Word of God (niH* IDI)* which, 
in the Old Testament, as the expression 
of the will of God, is the symbol of his 
creative power ( Gtru i, et seqA The later 
Jevrs also represented the divme omnipo- 
tence by the toord of God, But it is 
maintained, on the other hand, from the * 
manner in which John speaks of the logos, 
that he did not understand by it merely 
the divine omnipotence. A similar ac- 
count is ffiven of the creation by the 
Word, in me religion of Zoroaster. Ac- 
cording to Richter (Dtu ChrisUrUhwn und 
dU &Uesten Rdigionen des Otierds), the 
logos correspon<£ with the Indian Om, 
the Persian Hanover, the Egyptian Kneph. 
Others, following the fiithers of the church, 
particularly Eusebius, undentand by logos 
an independent substance, external fi^m 
God, like the v9( of Plato. But this, again, 
it is said, involves an error, because Plato 
means by y9(, only a power of God. Still 
others, as Mosheim, Schlegel, Jerusalem, 
declare, with Ireneeus, the logos of St John 
to be identical with the logos of the Gnos- 
tics (q. v.) ; but it is object^, that John did 
not conceive of a plurality, like that in 
the doctrine of ceons. Lange considered 
logos equivalent to the sophia of the Old 
Testament, and that to the logos of Philo, 
and as a distinct peison from God ; bu^ 
say the others, m^ta is not som#hing 
distinct from God. Paulus, in his Com- 
mentaiy, also identifies the logos of Phi- 
lo with that of St. John. But it is said, 
on the other hand, that John cannot be 
supposed to have been acquainted with 
Philo's notion, as it was not an opinion 
commonly known at the time, and that 
the view of the apocryphal writers is 
more nmilar to his; moreover, that if 
St John meant any thin^ more than an 
original, eternal power m God, his Oak 
Jlv would imply dualism. Others have 
attempted grammatical explanationa D/^ 
derlein and Storr translated the word 
X&yoi by dodnna, the abstract being put 
for the concrete, dodrint for Uadtar, as 
in Gtn. xlii, 88 ; 2 Sam. xxii, 23; Lukt 
iv, 96. According to others, h Xdyof means 
h Xsy^iuvot (the promised) ; but histoiy makes 
no mention or Christians who still expect- 
ed a Messiah. The ancient philosophers 
often distinguish two logoses, an interior 
in Qod or many wfakh merely tlunka 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

L0G06— IX>IR£. 

{^Syot MitfOcm ), and an ^terior or uttering 

LoflTHiNe ; the legislative poition of 
the Norwegian gUnihinf^y or diet As 
soon as the king or his representative 
has opened the seaaion, the storthing 
choose one quarter of their members to 
compose the logthing. The remaining 
threo-fourtbs constitute the odeUithing, or 
representatives of the landed property. 
• These bodies conduct their deliberations 
separately, and each chooses its own pres- 
ident and secretaiy. Eveiy law is first 
proposed in ^e odelsthing, either by its 
own members or by the govemmeut 
through a counsellor of state. If the 
proposition is then accepted, it is then 
sent to the logthing, who either accept or 
reject it, at pleasure, in the latter case giv- 
ing their reasons. These are considered 
by the odelsthing, who either abandon the 
proposed measure, or send it again, either 
with or without alteration, to the logthing. 
If the proposition is twice sent down by 
the odelsthini^ to the other bouse, and is, 
by them, twice rejected, the whole stor- 
thing then assemble together, and the 
queedon is decided by a vote of two thirds 
of all the members. At least three days 
must elapse between each of the conad- 
erations. When a measure, proposed by 
the odelsthing, has received the assent of 
the other division of the assembly, or of 
the whole storthing, a deputation from 
both branches of the storthing is sent to 
the kmg, or, in his absence, to the viceroy 
orreffency, to obtain the ro3ral sanction 
for me measure. The sessions of both 
hoises are public, and their deliberations 
are daily made known to the public by 
means of the press. The members of the 
logthing form, together with the highest 
judiciaT authorities, the supreme court of 
the kingdom, which decides on charges, 
preferred bv the odelsthing, against the 
members of the council of state, or of 
the members of the superior courts, for 
violation of their official duties, or mem- 
bers of the storthing, for any offences 
which they may have committed in that 
capacity. In tins ^tribunal, the logthing 
presides. Against a sentence pronounced 
by this supreme tribunal, no pudon avails, 

* Gothe, in his celebrated Faustus, makes use 
of this passa^ of St. John to plunge Faustus 
deeper mto his despondency. He endeavors to 
translate Xiyot by word, mmd. power: nothing 
jJU do I at last he chooses deed, and is satisfied. 
Thoiwfa this agrees well enough with the^diarac- 
ter ofthe hero, Uie poet ought to have considered 
that if Faustus understood Oieek, he must have 
knowa that XSyvg never means deed or anymaai- 
*—- "^^i of tMMB by — '— 

ezoepc in caaea where the poniahment as 
death. (&ee Shrikmf.) 

Loowoon. This important article of 
commerce is the wood ofthe JuaiutUanfian 
Campeckkmumf a small strag^ing tree, be- 
longmg to the &niily [e^nmtnovce, which 
grows wild, in moist places, along the 
western shores of the gulf of Mexico. 
From its abundance in some parts of the 
bay of Campeachy, it is sometimes called 
Campeachxhxoood, The leaves are pin- 
nate ; thenowers small, yellowish, and dis- 
posed in axillaiy racemes at the extremity 
of the usually spinous branches. The 
wood is red, tinged with orange and black, 
so heav^ as to sink in water, and susceptible 
of receiving a good polish ; but it is chiefly 
employed in dyeing. The black and pur- 
ple colors are very much used, but they 
are not so permanent as some obtained 
from other substances. Though culti- 
vated to some extent in Jamaica, the log^ 
wood of commerce is chiefly obtained flroin 
Honduras, where the cutting of it fomis 
an extensive, but unhealthy, branch ofbusi- 
ness. From Honduras it is exported in 
great quantities to the U. States. 

LoHENSTEiN, Daniel Caspar von, a 
Grerman poet ofthe Silesian school, was 
bom 1635, m Silesia, and died 1683, at 
Breslau. He wrote a great deal, particu- 
larly tragedies and comedies ; and we men- 
tion him merely as a model of bad taste. 
His bombast is pushed to the fiirthest ex- 
travaffance, and, as an instance of aberra- 
tion from taste, is not uninteresting in the 
history of the human mind. I&s dra- 
matic extravagamas are collected in his 
TrawT' und LuutgedickU (Breslau, 1680, 
1689 ;Leipsic, 1733). 

Loir-and-Cher ; a department of 
France, so called from the two rivers 
which cross it; the former in the south 
and the other in the north. (See 

iOiRE (L!ger)j the largest river of 
Fnmce, rises m the Cevennes, in the de- 
partment ofthe Ard^che, and empties into 
the Atlantic ocean below Nantes in Bre- 
tagne. Its length is about 520 miles. It 
is shallow in many places, but is naviga- 
ble for large merchant ships to Nantes, 
for smaller ones to Briaiie, and for boats 
to Boanne. The levee upon the Loire is 
one of die most stupendous works ia 
France. It extends from Angers to Or- 
leans, and was constructed to confine the 
river within its banks, and to exclude the 
waters from a tract of country which is said 
formerly to have been a morass 100 miles 
in length, and 30 or 40 in breadth. Its 
boae is about 40 feet wide, and its elava. 

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ikn neariy 25 ftom the aiyoiiiing lerel ; 
and its upper surftce, which is paved with 
bige stones, is just capacious enough to 
admit three carriages abreast By the 
new division of France, since the revolu- 
tion, three departments have received their 
name from the river — the Loire, and the 
Upper, and Lower Loire. In 1815, the 
river became of historical importance. 
The Frencb armv, which, after tne battle 
of Waterloo, had fallen back to the vralls 
of Paijs, having, by the terms of capitu- 
lation made by the proviaionarY govern- 
ment, retired without fiirther hostilities, 
under the command of Davoust, beyond 
the Lmre, it was called the army of the 

Loire, Loire Upper, and Loire Low- 
er ^ three French departmentBi (See Z>e- 

LoiRET ; a French department. (Bee 

LoiZEROLLES, M. dc, WBS a barrister at 
the time of the revolution, and was arrest- 
ed, with his father, in 1793, on suspicion, 
and conveyed with him to the prison of 
Sl Lazare. On the 7th of Thermidor, 
two days before the fall of Robespieirb, 
the messengers of the revolutionaiy tribu- 
nal arrived at the prison with a list of the 
prisoners who were to be tried, and called 
ibr Loizerolles, the son. The ^ounff man 
was asleep, but tiie father, vnth a heroic 
wish to sacrifice his life for the pres- 
ervation of his son, allowed himself to be 
taken to the Conciejqgerie, and appeared 
before the judj^ The clerk, perceiving 
the error in point of age, substituted the 
name of Francis for John, the word &ther 
for son, and tlie age of 61 for 22, and thus 
the fiither wis led to the scaffold, though 
no charse or crime was alleged against 
him ! if. Loizerolles, junior, has since 
celebrated this act of paternal affection in 
a poem, in three cantos, with historical 
notes (ISmo., 1813). 

LoK. (See Mirlhtm Mjfiidiogy,) 

LoKBCAN is a name that figtures in the 
proverbs and traditions of the Arabians. 
The period at which he lived is very dif- 
ferendy stated, so that it is even doubtful 
if there were not two of the same name at 
different perioda. According to tradition, 
Lokman was a scion from the stock of Ad, 
and was once sent, with a earavan, from 
iCthiopia to Mecca, to pr^ for rain in a 
time orgreat drought But Qod's anger d^ 
stroyed the whole family of Ad, except 
Loiunan, the only righteous one ; where^ 
upon the Creator ox the worid gave him 
his chdce, to live as bng as the dung of 
•ereo pzeUeii ^b>^ lay io w in MCo w i ' 

UeholeinamouiilaiD, ahould last, or for 
a period equal to the lives of seven suc- 
oeasive vtdturss. T<oirman chose the last, 
and lived for an almost incalculable length 
of time. There is also in the Koran an 
account of a Lokman, sumamed ikt 
wise; sometimes, also, called Mu-Anam^ 
or the father of the Anams. This one, 
whether identical vrith the fbnner or not, 
is not for us to determine, lived in Davids 
time, and is represented as similar in many 
respects to the Phiygian iEsop ; and the 
Arabians have a great variety of Abies by 
him, which, however, are formed upon 
the model of those of ilBsop, and of which 
the whole style and appearance are such, 
that they cannot be referred to so eariy 
a date as the first centuir of the Heginu 
This person had, also, a life of remaricable 
duration (according to some 300^ accord- 
ing to othera 1000 yeara),wiiich coinci- 
dence in the accounts of them affords cood 
grounds for the conjecture, that the Lok- 
man of the Koran, and the one whom tn* 
dition ascribes to the race of Ad, are one 
and the same peison, whose history, in 
the course of aces, has been thus fiuicifiil- 
\j adorned. The fiibles of Lokman were, 
ror the first time, made known to Europe 
through the press, by Erpenius, in 1615« 
They were first published in Arabic, with 
a Latin translation, were afterwards ap« 
'nended to an Arabic grammar, published 
by Erpenius, at Leyden, and have aince 
gone through many editions, none of 
which, however, are firee firom erron* 
Among the Oriental nations, these &bles, 
owing to their kiconic brevity and tasteless 
dress, are held in litde respect, and, on 
the whole, are not worthy of the reputa-^ 
tion which they have, fov a long time, suft« 
tained with u& In 1799, during the occu^ 
pation of Egypt bjr the French, Marcel 
superintended an emtion of Fableg de Lok- 
man, at Cairo, which was republished in 
Paris in 1803 ; but the best is that prepare 
ed by Caussin, in 1818, for the use or the 
pupils at the coUige royale. The editor 
of Galland's translation of the Homa^ 
youn-Manehj or Fables of Biilpai, is mis^ 
taken in ascribing these Indian fables to 
Lokman as well as Bidpai. The most 
eomj^te manuscript of the fiibles of Lok"> 
man is in the libraiy of the Vatican, in Per^ 

LoLXJkRDs. (See £<yiiM6f, iVotcrmtief, 
and OUeasOe.) 

LoLLf, Antonio^ a celebrated violinist 
bora 17!i^ or, according to some, 1740» at 
Bemmo, in the Venetian teiritoiy. la 
176S— 73; he was in the service of tlm 
duke of W&rieiDbeK(^_ Bo afkerwanta 

Digitized by VjOOQIC- 



irent to Runia, and hto performance pfeas- 
ed the emprees Catharine II so much, that 
she presented him with a bow, on which 
she had heiaelf written the words, ''This 
lx»w, made by Catharine, with her own 
hands, is intended for the unequalled LoUL" 
In 1775, he travelled in England, France 
and Spain. In Madrid, besides other per- 
quintes, he received SOOO reals from the 
director of the theatre for each concert 
In 1789, be retunied to Italy, and died at 
Naples, in 1794. LoUi endeavored to 
unite the excellenoes of the schools of 
Nardini and Ferrari. He had acquired 
an astonislung focili^ on his instrument. 
He WBS called the nvuaical rope-dancer. 
None of his pnedecessors had attained 
such perfection on the finger-board ; but, 
at the same time, he lost himself in wild 
and inegular phantasies, in which he often 
neglect^ all tune,' so that the most prac- 
tise player could not accompany him. 
LoLHE, Db. (See De Lobne,) 
Lombard-House, Lombard (mons 
pietatisj mont de pUu)\ a public institu- 
tion, at which every person, but especially 
the poor, may obtain money for a short 
time, at a modente rate of interest, on de- 
positing sufficient pledges (pawnsl and 
are thus saved from the necessity or hav- 
ing recouTM to usurers. The chief dif- 
ference between Lombards and pawn- 
houses is, that the former are established 
by public authority, for the relief of the 
poor, while the latter are established by 
private individuals, for their own profit 
After a given time, the pawns, if not re- 
deemed, are sold bv public auction, and 
the surplus, aAer deducting interest and 
costs, is given to the former owner ; or, if 
he cannot be found, retained for him one 
vear. If he does not then appear, the sum 
IS given to charitable institutions. The 
Lombard gives a certificate, skating the time 
of deposit, the sum reoeived, the name of 
the pawner, the article pawned, the page of 
the book in which it is entered. The bearer 
of this certificate may redeem the articles 
within the time fixed, unless the owner has 
apprized the Lombard that it was lost, &c. 
The origin of these establish meiits has 
been, with much probability, referred, by 
Dorotheus Asciomus (L e. Ji|atthew Zim- 
inennann, who died in 1639, and who was 
superintendent in Meissen*), to the time 
of pope Pius II or Paul II (1464—1471). 
Barnabas Interamnensis, however, a Mi- 
norite fiiar, established the first Lombard- 
house in Perugia, in the States of the 
Churcli, before 1464, or in that year, 
* A sopenntendeot, m the north oT GermaiFy, 
is aaqperiorBBDtefttant niinter. 

though it did not receive pope Paul IPs 
cou^mation before 1467. A lawyer in 
Perugia, Fortunatus de Copolis, rendered 
much assistance in the execution of the 
plan. Another Lombard was soon after 
erected in Orvieto. In 1472, Sixtus IV 
confirmed one, established at Viterix), in 
1469, by a Minorite, Franciscus de Viter- 
bo, and, in 1479, another at Savona, his 
native place. Lombards were thus grad- 
ually established in almost all Italian cities 
during the« fifieenth and sixteenth centu- 
ries. (See Beckmann's Hisiory of hvoen- 
Horn, voL iii, 3d part) The first Lombard 
in Germany was established in Nuiem- 
beiv, in 1498, with an imperial privilege. 
In me Netherlands, France and England, 
whither the rich Lombard merchants em- 
igrated, on account of the struggles of the 
Guelphs and Gibelines, they lent their 
money for interest; whence such estab- 
lishments were, and still are, called Lom- 
bards. In some large cities of Europe, 
the Lombards are veiy extensive, but do 
not always attain the object for which 
they were originally intended, as the fol- 
lowing statement will prove. The follow- 
ing statistical tables, relative to the mani de 
pUU in Paris, framed by the prefect of the 
Seine, are interesting, as they show that 
there is a numerous class of persons who 
can with difiiculty find the means of ex- 
istence ; and that half of the inhabitants 
of the capital are obliged to have recourse 
to the pawn-broker, at some time of the 
year, though they are forced topay usu- 
rious interest In the year 1826, there 
were 1,200,104 pledges of difiTerent arti- 
cles, upon which the sum of 24,521,157 
francs was lent The number of pledges 
redeemed in the same year •amounted to 
only 1,124,221, and tiie sum to 21,569,437 
firancs; so that 75,883 remained at the 
mofU ck piiU ; and there was in its hands 
the sum of 2,^51,720 francs. As it is the 
principle of the numi de pieli not to lend 
more than about a quarter of the value 
upon articles pledged, — ^though the law tor 
its formation, dated in 1777, directs that 
the borrower shall receive two-thirds of 
the value of his pledge, — we may estimate 
the value of the 75,883 unredeemed 
pledges, updn wliich nearly 3,000,000 of 
francs were lent, at 12,(Au,000. Suppos- 
ing the sale of these articles to be efifected, 
and all the reductions of excise, registry, 
&>c^ made, there would be returned to the 
proprietors of them the half of these 
12,000,000. It would result, tiiat 6,000,000, 
at least, are thus annually levied upon the 
least affluent class of society— that which 
i^proachesthepeaiest to the deacripticm 

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<if pcnoDB for whom the iqMi for UMUk- 
^axy were created. Independently of 
cfaese 6,000,000, inevitably lost to the un- 
fixtunAte boRowen, we must add the 
intoest of 12 per cent per annum, taken 
upon the 24y531,137 francs lent' by the 
mmd dt pUU; that is to say, 2,9^,536 
francs, adding nearly 3,000,000, which, 
with tlie 6,000,000 akeady spoken o^ 
consdtute a total of 9,000,000. 9,000,000, 
divided among 437,500 inhabitants, half 
oi the 875,000 composing the entire popu- 
lation of the capital, give 20 francs, 20 
eemimes^ or, omitting dw fraction, 20 francs 
for each inhabitant. In a fiiinily com- 
posed of four peraons, the average will 
then be nearlv 80 francs— an immense 
sum for a &miiy which can with difficulty 
procure daily necessaries ! 

LoMBAHD School. ^See RalUmAHj in 
the article Jih%, and Pointing, Higtory qf.) 

Lombard ^reet, a welE-known spot 
in the ^pgantic metropolis of the British 
empire, m situated in the city, and received 
ilB name from haying been the residence 
of the Lombards, the money-fenders of 
ibnner times, whose usurious transacdons 
caused their expulsion from the kingdom 
in ifae reign of Elizabeth. It is now 
chiefly occupied by bankers, and is a 
place of much importance in the London 
commercial world. 


BARDt Sonae derive the name from the 
long hanU or spears, by which this nation 
is said to have been distinguished from 
the other northern tribes ; others from the 
long strips of land {bcarde) which they in- 
hamted, on both sides or the Elbe, from 
LiAieburg to Magdeburg. They are gen- 
erally considered a German tribe (but Pau- 
lus Djaconus calls them Scandinavians), 
of tht' tribe of the Hermiones or Suevi, 
which dwelt below the Isteevones. Their 
most ancient seats were on the east side 
of tho Elbe, in the eastern parts of the 
principalis of Luneburg, and in the Alt- 
inariE, or meSardengau, so called, which, 
most probably, takes its name from them. 
Here Tiberius found them, on his expedi- 
tk>n tr. the Elbe, and fought a battle with 
them. Strabo narrates that Tiberius 
strove them .hpyond the Elbe; but Vel- 
leius Patercuros, who himself accompa- 
nied ;he expedition, makes no mention of 
it The Lombards afterwards appear in 
the Marconumnic league, under filarobod- 
uu8^ with whose despotism being dissat- 
isfied, they concluded a league with the 
ClieruscL They appear, at this time, to 
have left their settlements on the Elbe, 
9ad to have sppioacfaed nearer the Che- 

ruscL The latter tribe, htving been 
weakened by a series of misfortunes, the 
Lombards improved the opportunity to 
spread themselves fruther, and humiliate 
tne Cherusci, took possession of all their 
settlements north or the Hartz mountains, 
and became the most powerful of the na- 
tions there. According to the accounts 
of Ptolemy, they now spread between the 
Weser and the Rhine, in the territories of 
the former Angrivarii, Tubantes, Marsi 
and Cherusci. They maintained them- 
selves in these territories till the new 
Fnukish confederacy, formed of the an- 
cient Cheruscan league, enforced against 
them the ancient rights of the Cherusci, 
and, in all probability, drove the Lom- 
bards back to their ancient seats on the 
Elbe. For 200 years, we hear nothing 
more of them, till, at the close of the fifth 
centurv, they appeared again on the north 
side of the Danube, and, after havinff ob- 
tained a part of Pannonia fit>m the Greek 
emperor Justinian II, aided by the A van, 
put an end, under their king Alboin, in 
566, to the empire of the GepidaB, in 
Transylvania. Meeting with little resist- 
ance, they conquered, two years after, 
under the same king, in connexion with 
20,000 emigrant Saxons, all Upper Italy 
(which vras now called the kingdom of ike 
LombardSj subsequently Lombard^ (see 
]jombcardy\ together with a gpeat part of 
Middle lud^. Their king, Lmtprand, an 
able sovereign, fiY>m 713 to 726, extended 
the Lombard dominion in Middle Italy. 
But, having become too formidabfe'to 
the popes, the latter solicited the aid of 
the Frankish kings, and Charlemagne 
took. the Lombard kinj^ Desiderius pris- 
oner, in 774, after a six months' 'siege, 
in Pavia, and destroyed the Lombard kio^- 
dom. — (See Henry Leo's History of Mahf^ 
vol. 1 (from A. D. 5^ to 1125), m the Ge#- 
ckUhte dor EuropaUchen Staaten, by Hee- 
ren and Uckert (Hamburg, 1829).-r-A polit- 
ical history of Italy, and of the social con- 
dition of the people under the dominion 
of the Lombards, by C. Troya, of Naples, 
has been announced. 

LoMBARDT, in the sixth century, when 
the Lombards had conquered a ereat nart 
of Italy, comprehended the wJhoTe of Up- 
per Italy. At a later period, the Austrian 
provinces in Italy (the duchies of Milan 
and Mantua) have been called AvLstritm 
Lombardy. These, vrith other countries, 
were formed by Bonaparte into the Cisal- 
pine, then into the Italian republic, and^ 
lastiy, in 1805, into the kingdom of Italy» 
and the name of Lombardy ceased to be 
used. By the peace of Parisi in 181^ 

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Austria, came inlx> ponearion of much 
of that jMut of Upper Italy Which had 
coDitituted the kiii|;dom of Italy, and, 
in 1815, it formed of its Italian provinces 
a Lombardo- Venetian kingdom. In this 
are comprehended the territories of the 
former republic of Venice (with the excep-, 
tion of Istrla, and the canton of Civida, 
which are united to the new kinsdom of 
lllyria), the Austrian portion of the duchy 
of Milan, Mantua, a small part of Parma, 
Placentia, and the papal territories, and 
those formerly belon^^ng to Switzerland, 
viz. the Valteline, Bormio and Chiaven- 
na. It is bounded by Switzerland, Ger- 
many, the Adriatic sea, the Papal States, 
Modena, Parma and Sardinia, it contains 
17,600 square miles, and 4,176,000 mhab- 
itants, among whom are 66,500 Germans, 
5600 Jews, and some Greeks. It is 
watered by the Tagliamento, the Piave, 
the Brenta, the Adige, the Po, Ticino, 
Mincio and Adda. The principal lakes 
are those of Como, the Lago Maggiore, 
and the lakes of Iseo and Garda. Its ca- 
nals are also numerous. The country is, 
for the most part, level, but towards the 
north) it is broken by spurs of the Alps, 
and to the west of Padua, lie the Eugane- 
an mountains, mosdy of volcanic origin, 
and from 1700 to 1800 feet in height 
This province is, in most parts, well culti- 
vated, and resembles a garden. The cli- 
mate is cool in the northern districts, near 
the Alps ; but is, in the remaining parts, 
warm, mild and healthy, although not free 
from fi'osts in winter; and, on this ac- 
count, it sometimes happens that the olive, 
orange, citrons, and other tender plants, as 
well as the vineyards, are injured by the 
cold, and the rivers frozen. Even the 
lagoons at Venice are sometimes frozen so 
hfurd, that you may walk a considerable 
distance, or even drive carriages, upon 
them. The animals of the country are 
neat catde, tolerable horses, sheep with 
coarse wool, numerous birds and fish. 
The silk-worm is also raised. Agriculture 
is the chief dependence of the inhabitants. 
The soil is fertile, and very productive in 
maize, and other species of grain, legu- 
minous plants, gaitien fruits, fiax, &c. 
Lands that are swampy are devoted to 
the cultivation of rice, of which part is 
consumed in the countiy, aiMl park ex- 
ported to Germany. The production of 
oil and wine is also much attended to. 
Besides the fniitB above-named, chesmuts, 
almonds, figs, and many other finits, 
^w here. A considerable trade is car- 
ried on in figs, oranges and citrons. The 
mineral ki ng da m jj^oducee iron, copper, 

mBib]e,BB]t There are some mmeralwB* 
ten. Manufactures no longer sustain the 
rank which they once held : the principal 
are those of glass, silk and iron. The pro- 
duction and manufiusture of silk are at" 
tended to throughout the country. All 
kinds of silk stufiBs, ribbons, hose and 
sewing-^ilk are exported. The manufiio- 
ture of glass at Venice and Murano was 
once important, and their mirrors much 
celebrated ; and, even now, artificial 
pearls, and glass work of all kinds, are ex- 
ecuted in great perfection. The manufiu^ 
tories of steel and iron are chiefly to be 
found at Brescia, where many fire-arma, 
sabres, knives, &C., are made. The man* 
u&cmre of woollens has much declined. 
The gold and silver works at Venice and 
Milan are celebrated; porcelain, pottery, 
carpets, paper, many articles of luxury, as 
masks, artificial flowers, pomatum, con* 
fectionary, jperfumes, sausages^ candied 
fruits, vernucelli, and Parmesan cheese^ 
are also produced. Cremona is noted for 
her violins, flutes, lutes, &c. The exports 
exceed the imports in value. This coun- 
try is dependent upon the Austrian gOT- 
emment, but, in April, 1815, the emperor 
gave it a coitstitution. (See article Cm- 
stittdwn, vol. iii, p. 468.) It is governed 
by a viceroy, who resides at Milan, and is 
divided into the governments of Lom- 
bardy and Venice. The administration 
of each b intrusted to a governor and a 
council, dependent upon the highest au- 
thorities at Vienna. The government of 
Lombardy contains nearly 2,200,000 in- 
habitants, on 8270 square miles of territo- 
ry, and its capital is Milan. Venice is the 
capital of the government of the same 
name, which contains 2,000,000 inhabit- 
ants, upon 9330 square miles. The sub- 
divisions are called delegations. With the 
authorities are connected permanent col- 
leges, composed of individuals fi:x>m vari- 
ous classes. 

LoMENiE nE Bkieitne, Stephen Chariest 
cardinal, archbishop and minister of state 
in France, born at Paris, in 1727, embrac- 
ed the clerical profi3SBion, in which hia 
active spirit, and the powerful influence 
of his coimexionfi^ enabled him to rise 
repidly, although his oonnqpon with the 
free-thinkerB of the age (IKAlembert, Mo- 
rellet, &c.) could not have been very 
agreeable to the court and the cleivy. In 
1754, he published^ with Tur^t, Le Om- 
ciliateuryou Lettres dSmEed^nasUque d tm 
Metgisbratf which was intended to quiet 
the difficulties tiien existing between the 
parliament and clergy, and which was 
afterwards fievend times republidied bj 

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Dt de Nemoom, and olh- 
en. In lt58, lie ifas at Rome, in the car 
pachy of conckvist of cardinal de Luynea, 
in the conclaTe idiich laiaed Clement 
Xni to the papal throne. In 176Q, he 
waa ^>poinled bishop of Condom, and, 
three years after, received the archbish- 
opric of Toulouse, in which situation he 
obcained the praise of those who were 
oppoeed to the old hierarehical and monk- 
ish establisbmentB. While he attempted 
to reduce the power and wealth or |he 
monasteries, he was liberal in assisting 
all who were in need; he caused the Gar 
ronne to be united with the canal of Car- 
aman, by a lateral canal, which still bears 
his name; he established institutions for 
education, also hoqiitals, and several 
scholarBhipB at the militafy school at Tou- 
louse. In 1770, he was made a member 
uf the academy, and, when Beaumont, 
the archbishop of Paris, died, he' would 
have obtained that elevated situation, but 
for his attempts at a general reform of the 
monasteries, which the bigots at court 
could not forgive. At the first breaking 
out of the diwMmtents in France, Brienne 
was among the most active. He was the* 
first to raise his voice against the admin- 
istration of Calonne; and, after the dis- 
mission of that minister, the partisans of 
Biienne induced Louis XVI to place him, 
as his successor, at the head of the 
finances. His brother, the coimt de Bri- 
enne, was, at the same time (1787], ap- 
pointed minister of war. The new nnan- 
cier certainly fell short of the most mode- 
rate expectations ; and, if some excuse is 
£>uiid for him in the almost inextricable 
conftjsion which reigned in the aftairs 
of France at this period, still his warmest 
defenders must allow that, for once, at 
least they were deceived in him. The 
conuiRon increased daily, and the minis- 
ter, whose ambition had raised him to the 
rank of prime minister, at this storm v pe- 
riod, showed himself destitute of ability 
and resources. Complaints were soon 
raised agamst him on all sides, and, in 
August, 1788, the king found himself 
compelled to dismiss him, and to appoint 
Necker in his place ; who, however, as is 
well known, ^is himself unable to quell 
the storm. Brienne had'previoualv been 
nominated archbishop of Sens^ in place of 
the cardinal De Luyne8,and, to console him 
fi>r the loss of his pl^use as minister, Louis 
gave him some abbeys, and obtained for 
him, firam fius VI, a cardinal's hat 
Bri^me also took a journey to Italy, but 
without visiting Rome, and returned, in 
1790, to France, to make anangementB 

ibr the settlement of his debt^ whicli, not* 
withstandinff his immense income, were 
•o considerwle as to compel him to dis- 
pose of a portkxi of his valuable librar}*. 
The cardtnol dk Lomime^ as he was now 
called, took the oath prescribed to thie 
c^gy by the constitution, and, in Marrh, 
1791, he asked his dismisaion fix>m the 
college of cardinals— « fitvor which Pius 
willingly granted. Brienne had hoped, 
by this step, to save himself fitim the Jier- 
secutions of the revolutionary party; but 
he was arrested at Sens, in November, 
1793, was releaeed, and, subsequent!}, 
acain arrested, and, upon the morning of 
Feb. 16, 1794, was fi>und dead in his pris- 
on. The ill treatment and abuse which 
he had suffered fix>m his brutal guards, 
together with an indifreetion, had lnt>ught 
on an apoplexy, of which he died, in the 
67th year of his ase. — His brother, the 
minister of war, Athanasius Louis Marie 
de Lom^nie, count de Brienne, — ^whose 
successor in the ministry vras De la Tour 
du Pin, — ^fell, the same year, beneath the 
axe of the executioner. There is an Ortd- 
sonJwUbre du Daupkm (Paris, 1766), by 
the cardinal de Brienne. 

LoMOROsoFF, Michael Wasilowitz ; the 
creator of the modem poetical language 
of his country, and the fiither of Russian 
literature ; bom in 171 1, near Cholmogory, 
in the government of Archangel, in the 
village of Denissowritaia, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory, in 1625, 
through the infiuence of NeophytHB, 
bishop of Archanflel. His father was a 
fisherman, whom ne assisted in his labors 
for the support of the famtly. In winter 
a dcigyman taught him to read. A poet- 
ical spirit and a love of knowledge were 
awakened in the boy by the sinking of the 
psalms at church, and the readmg of the 
Bible. Without having received any in- 
stmction, he conceived the plan of cele- 
brating die wonders of creation and the 
great deeds of Peter I, in songs similar to 
Uiose of David. But, hearing that there 
was a school at Moscow, in which schol- 
ars were instmcted in Greek, Latin, Ger- 
man and French, he secretly left his 
father's bouse, and went to the capital to 
seek that mstmction which his inquisitive 
spirit demanded. He was then sent to 
Aaev, and, in 1734, to the newly estab- 
lished academy of literature at St Peters- 
burg, where he studied natural science 
and mathematics. Two years later, he 
went to Germany, studied mathematics 
under Christian Wolf, in Maihurg, read 
the German poets, and studied the art of 
mining, at Freybeig. On his jouinqr to 

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Brunswick, be was sdzed by Prunan 
recniitineofficenyaDd obliged to enter tbe 
service ; but, having made his escape, he 
returned, by the way of Holland, to St. 
Petersburj^ (^741), where lie received a 
situoUon m the academy, and was made 
director of the mineraloffical cabinet. 
Soon after, he published his nrst celebrated 
ode (on tbe Turkish war and the victorv 
of Pultawa). The empress Elizabeth 
made him professor of chemistry (1745), 
and, in 1752, he received the phvilese of 
establishing a manufactory fijt colored 

C* 8 beads, &c. As he had been the 
to encourage an attempt at mosaic 
work in Rusaa, the government confided 
to him the direction of two large pictures 
in mosaic, intended to commemorate the 
deeds of Peter I. In 1760, the gymnasiums 
and the university were put under his 
inspection; and, in 1764, he was made 
counsellor of state. He died April 4, 
1765. Catharine II caused his remains to 
be deposited with great pomp in the mo- 
nastic church of saint Alexander NewskL 
Besides odes and other lyric pieces, he 
wrote Petreide^ a heroic poem on Peter I, 
In two cantos, which is the best work of^ 
the kind that Russia has yet produced. 
Lomonosoff also wrote a Russian grammar, 
and several works on mineralogy, metal- 
lurgy and chemistiy. His Grammar, and 
his Sketch of Russian History, have been 
translated intd German and French. The 
Russian academy published his works in 
6 vols., 4to. (2d edit, 1604, 3 vols.). Ad- 
miral Tschitschagoffhas written a Life of 
Lomonosoff (See Bowring's i^tunon j^ti- 

LoMus, in Indian mythology ; the first 
beinff created by Brama, which, to give 
itself up entirely to the contemplation of 
divine things, buried itself in the earth, 
and whose ufe will last longer even than 
that of Brama. In order to indicate the 
enormous duration of the life of Lomus, 
the Indians say, that Lomus has a body 
more than 90 miles long, covered with 
hair. Each time that a Brama dies, who 
lives 960 days, each day being equal to 
4320 human years, Lomus pulls out a 
single hair fiom hi^ body ; and when, at 
last, all the hairs are gone, and even Vish- 
nu and Mahadeva have ceased to live, then 
the whole universe is dissolved, and all 
returns to chaos, so that nothing remains 
but the eternal, original being ; because 
with the last hair Lomus also <&es. 

Loir, or hvs ; a Gothic word, sijniifying 
loood liontUm has been derived from it. 

LoHDOir, the metropolis of the British 
empiie, ataiidain laL 5Pdr N., and k>n. 

5f 2fff' W. fiom the obsenratoiy at Green- 
wich. It is situated about 00 miles west 
fiom the sea, on the banks of the Thames, 
the mean width of which, at London, is 
about a quarter of a mile, and its average 
depth about 12 feet The northern bank 
slopes gendy upward, and its soil is chief- 
ly eravel and clay, with a mixture of loam 
and sand. On the southern side, the sur- 
face is almost uniformly flat. The build- 
ings on the northero, or Middlesex shore, 
follow the natural bend of the river, and 
rise somewhat amphitheatricaUy, from east 
to west, stretching northward, on an aver- 
age length, to three miles fix>m the river ; 
and those on the southern or Surrey side, 
forming the chord of the semicircle, pene- 
trate southward to an extent varying from 
one to three miles. The length of this 
vast aggregate, firom east to west, i. e. 
from Hyde Park Comer to Mile Eiid or 
Poplar, may be taken at seven miles and a 
half. Its circumference may be estimated 
at 30 miles ; and its area, extending over 
11,520 square acres, of which the river 
occupies 1120, is about 20 miles. Fashion 
and convenience have united to furnish 
various modes of designating the sevenii 
parts of this colossal mass. Thus the 
ideal line, which is progressively mov- 
iDg more and more westerly, sepa- 
rates the world of fashion, or the West 
End, from the world of business. The 
city, so called, includes the most ancient 
and central divimon of the metropolis. 
It is rapidly being depopulated; as the 
chief traders and merchants occupy mere- 
ly counting-houses and warehouses in the 
city, and, m proportion as wealth accu- 
mulates, flow towards tbe western regions 
of fashion. In the East End are ^und 
the docks and warehouses connected with 
ship-building and commerce, and every 
collateral branch of naval traffic South- 
wark, or the Borough, on the southern 
bank of the Thames, the trans TS>enm of 
London, abounds with huge manu&cto- 
ries, breweries, iron-founderies, class- 
houses, &c. It is the abode chiefly of 
workmen, laborers, and the lower classes 
of society, but interspersed with some 
considerable buildings, hospitals, prisons, 
and charitable foundations The city of 
Westminster, including the houses of lords 
and commons, the law courts, royal pal- 
aces, and many government ofllces, may 
be defflffnated as the Court End of Lon- 
don. The remaining; portion can haidlT 
be clasBified, or specifically denominated. 
It is a nondescript accumulation of 
streets, crescentt, polygons, terraces and 
squares^ occupying the nortbem poitioQa 

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of the nMtropoBi^ akng the fine of the 
new road. On llie nearest computation, 
at the jpraent day (1830), London con- 
nana 80 aquaree and about 9000 8treett^ 
lanea|,iowB,aOey8,courti,&c.; the bouaea 
in which are said to amount to 170,000. 
The pariiamenta^ oennia of 1821, the 
bteat authentic document to which we 
can refer, foixuahee the following particu- 
1am of ita poputation : 

London within the walk, 56,174 

London without the walk, . . . 69^ 
Weatminster and its fibertiefl^ . 182,065 

Soutbwaik, 85,905 

Finabuiy Division, exclusive of 
Friam, Bamet, Finchley, 
Honieey and Stoke-New- 

ington, 110,137 

Holbom Division, 276,630 

Parish of Bermondsey, 25^235 

Parish of Lambeth, 57,638 

Parish of Nevrincton Butts, . . 33,047 

Pteish of Rotbertiitbe, 12,523 

Tower Division, 291,650 

Total, 1,200,274 

An the streets of London are paved with 
great reffularity. The carriage-road is 
either laid with cubes of granite, accurate- 
ly jointed and embedded in clay, or else 
Maea^tmaed. Macadamizing is greatly 
in vogue in the squares and wider outlets 
of the West End, but it seems to have 
fidled in the narrower and more cart- 
trodden streets of the city. The number, 
variety and magnificence of the squares 
in London deserve a cursory notice. The 
largest square in London is Lincoln's Inn 
Fields^ its area being computed equal to 
770 feet square ; but, the tide of fashion 
having long set westward, this sauare is 
chiefly occupied by members of the legal 
profenon. The college of surgeons 
ferms a prominent object on the southern 
side, and the eastern is adorned (with the 
intervention of a garden) by the range 
called atone bmldingSj part of Lincok's 
Inn. Russell square is nearly equilateral, 
eadi side being about 670 feet long. The 
houses are spacious. It communicates 
with Bloomsbury square by a street, at the 
northern extremity of which is a colossal 
bnmze statue of the late duke of Bedford, 
by Westmacott, opposite to which, at the 
aouthem end, is a similar statue of Charles 
James Fox, by the same artist Belgrave 
square, begun on the estate of earl Orosve- 
nor, at Pimlico, in 1825, is one of the 
most splendid in architectural decoration. 
The squares chiefly distinguished by rea- 
denoesof the nobihty are Beridey, Caven- 

diab, Chtwvenor, Hanover, St. Jamais 
Manchester and Portman squares. With* 
in the fast seven yeaifl^ the use of coal gas^ 
inatead of oil, in Kghtinff tiie streets and 
public edificea of London, has become 
almost universaL The consumption of 
coak^ by three of the gas companies, 
amounts to 32,700 chaldrons per annum, 
and their len^ of main pipe extenda 
nearly 200 nules, communicatinjif with 
more than 40,000 lamps. There is not a 
street, lane or alley, in thk vast metropo- 
lilE^ which is not perforated, so to speiaJc, 
virith arched excavations. Every house 
communicates, by one or more draina, 
with the main sewers, which again emptv 
themselves into laroer tunnels, and uJU- 
mately into the Thames, London is 
plentifullT, though not very purely, sup- 
pled with water. The New River com- 
.fUny was incorporated under James I,, in 
1619. Mr. Hugh Middleton, a goldsmith 
and citizen of I^ndon, after many obsoruo- 
tions, succeeded in conveving a stream 
from a spring at Chadwell, near Ware, 
20 miles from London, by a devious 
coune of 40 miles in kngth, terminating 
in two capacious basins, which cover five 
acres, and average 10 feet in depth. These 
reservoirs are 85 feet above low-water 
mark ; but, by means of siphons and steam- 
engines, water can be raised 60 feet above 
that level It k chiefly conveyed by 
main and branch pipes of cast metaJ, 
which communicate 'With the houses by 
leaden pipes of an inch diameter. The to- 
tal supply to 177,100 houses, k 28,774,000 
SJlons per day. M. Dupin observes, that 
e water distributed by one of these com- 
panies (the New River company) costs 
Uie consumer about 2d, for eveiy 6300 
pints ; and that the system of pipes, for 
water and gas lighting joindy, stretches 
out in a line exceeding 400 leagues in 
extent, beneath the pavement of London. 
Fuel k sufiicientiy anundant, but extrava- 
gantly dear, in London. Coals can be 
brought to the mouth of the river Thames 
for comparatively moderate cost But by 
certain local reipilations, there are enor- 
mous duties levied on all coals coining to 
the port of London ; and duties, amount- 
ing i^ost to contraband, on coak con- 
veyed by inland navigation or otherwise 
The average price of coak in London, 
veinterand stftnmer, is, to the consumer, 
about 409. per chaldron of 281 cwt. 
About 2,000,000 chaldrons per annum are 
consumed in Middlesex and Surrey, and, 
considering the vast supplies required for 
the steam-engines and manufiicturee of 
Lond<»i, perhape neariy two think of that 

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qoanti^ are denied to the metropolb 
alone. The code brought to the Loodon 
maiket are chiefly fiom Newcaatle, in 
Noithumberiand,'in coasting veaeele, to 
the number of 4500. The average con- 
sumption of the principal articles of food, 
in London, baa been calculated as below : 

Oxen, . . . 160,000 -\ a««„.iw««w 
Shee^ . . 1,500000 (^rft"*^Sida 
CakS, . . . 21 000 ( ^^^f^^^^ 
HogT. .. 20;000) "M^ketonly. 
Milk, . . 8,000,000 gallons. 
Butter,. . . . 11,000 tons. 
Cheese, . . . 13,000 " 
Wheat, . 1,000,000 quarters, of 
which four fifths, made into bread, 
form . 15,000,000 quartern loaves. 

By a return from the com exchange, it 
appears that the quantity of British and 
foreign com and flour in bond, on the Is^ 
June, 1630, was as follows: 

Wheat, 295,107 quarters. 

Oats, 430,332 « 

Flour, 173,059 cwts. 

Foreign ditto: 

Wheat, 21,129 quarters. 

Oats, 13,343 « 

The value of poultry, annually consumed^ 
amounts to neaiiy £80,000, exclusive of 
^ime, the supply of which is variable. 
The principal market for live catde is 
at Smithfield, held every Monday and 
Thursday. The markets for country- 
killed cattle, pigs and poultry, are Lead- 
enhall (where skins and leather, also, are 
exclusively sold) ; Newgate, on Mondays, 
Wednesdays and Fridays ; and Fleet 
(now Farringdon) market, rebuilt on a 
large scale, and opened in 1829. The 
supply of fruit ana ve^tables is equally 
abundant The chief^ mart is Covent 
carden, where ranges of handsome shops 
have lately been erected on the estate of 
the duke of Bedford. There are at least 
2000 acres, in the immediate vicinitv of 
London, continually under spade-culdva- 
tion as kitchen-gardens ; which, by judi- 
cious management, yield an interminable 
succession of valuable esculents. It has 
been calculated, that the cost of fruit and 
vegetables consumed annually in London, 
exceeds £1,000,000 steriing. The^it- 
gardens, exclusive of thoee belonging to 
private yesidences, are compBted to occu- 
py about 3000 acres, chiefly on the banks 
of the Thames in Sumy and Middlesex. 
Few cities are more abundantly supplied 
with fish of every description and ouality. 
Turbot ahd brill of the flnest ouahly are 
procured from the coast of Holland; sal- 

moa in profusion from the great riven of 
Scotland and Ireland, and, occasionally, 
from the Thaines ; mackerel, ' codfish, 
lobsters and oystecES from the river mouth. 
A calculation makes the supply of fish at 
Billingsgate, in the year 1828, as follows : 

Fresh salmon, .... 45,446 

Plaice, skate, &c., . 50,754 bushels. 

Turbot, 87,958 

Cod (fresh), 447,130 

Herrings, 3,336,407 

Haddocks, 483,493 

Mackerel, .... 3,076,700 
Lobsters, 1,954,600 

And the number of fishing-vessels en- 
gaged in furnishing this supply, was 
registered, in the same year, at 3827. 
The consumption of ale and porter may 
be estimated from the foltowing facts: 
^It appears by the annual statement of the 
London brewers, for die year ending July 
5, 1830, tliat the quantity of porter brewed 
by the ten principal houses, amounted, 
to 1,077,285 barrels. The ale annually 
brewed, by the six princii)al ale-brewers, 
amounts to about 80,000 barrels. Still 
the consumption of malt liquor has de- 
creased within the last three years ; for, in 
1827, the quantity returned, by the ten 
principal brewers, was 1,129,7^2 barrels. 
The decrease is owin^, perhaps, partly to 
the deteriorated quali^''; for it appears, 
that, while the quantity actually brewed 
throughout England amounted, during the 
last ten years, to 6,170,000 barrels, tiie 
actual quantity of malt used decreased 
annually in a remarkable degree. But, 
besides this, the comparative cheapness, 
and more rapid excitation produced by 
ardent spirits, especially that deleterious 
compound callea English gin, have in- 
duced the most destructive habits of in- 
temperance among the lower classes. It 
is stated that there are about 11,000 public 
houses, i. e. houses for the sale of beer 
and 8()irituous liquors, in London alone, 
averaging a profit of 20 to 30 per cent 
upon the property vested in them. The 
total consumption of gin, in London, has 
risen, during the last two yeai-s, front 
12,000,000 to 24,000,000 gallons! The 
temperature of the atmosphere in London 
is considerablv above that of the mean 
temperature of Middlesex, or the adjoining 
counties. It is geDerally humid, liable to 
sudden variations, and, occasionally, to 
fo^ of extraordinary density during the 
winter months. The mean tempemture 
is 51^ 9^ Fahrenheit The extreme range 
of the thennometer may be taken in Jan- 
uaiy, 1795, when it rank to 38° bek)w 

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zero, and in July, 1808, when it rose to 
94^ in the shade. The barometer aver- 
figes 29^ inches. A considerable part of 
the metropolis, viz. the city of Westmin- 
ster and the borough of Southwarfc, is 
below the level of the highest water-marfc. 
The soil, in general sound and dry, the 
sewers and draios, which convey awav all 
impurities, the broad tide-current of the 
Thames, the wholesome and abundant 
supply of provisions, and the precautions 
for cleanliness, combine to render London, 
perhaps, the healthiest metropolis in the 
world. The average duration of human 
life has increased with the improvements 
in domestic economy, insomuch that the 
fates of premiums on iife-iusurances have 
universally been lowered. The diseases 
of London are in nowise peculiar to it as 
a city. Those of a cutaneous nature are 
comparativelv nire. Many result from 
die nature oi the employment, in manu- 
&ctures of various kmds ; others are the 
of&pring of intemperance. The annual 
mortality in London, which, in the year 
1700, was as 1 in 25, may now be taken 
at 1 in 40 persons. The number of 
registered births amounted, in the year 
endhig Dec. 15, 1839, to, males 13,764 ; 
females, ]dy354 ; total, 27,1 18. The num- 
ber of registered burials, in the same year, 
was, males, 12,015; females, 11,509; to- 
tal, 23,524. The table of baptisms does 
not include the children of Dissenters 
from the establishment It was stated, in 
a meeting lately held for the purpose of 
forming a grand national cemetry, in Lon- 
don, tlmt the annual interments amounted 
to about 40^000. — Ciml gwemment. The 
chief civic officer of London is the lord 
mayor, annually elected from among the 
aldermen on the 2^h September. The 
powers and privileges of this officer are 
very extensive. The court of aldermen 
consists of 26 members. They are chosen 
for life by the householders of the 26 
wards into which the city is divided, each 
being the representiciveof a several ward. 
They are properly tli-} subordinate gov- 
ernors of their respective wards, under the 
jurisdiction of the lord mayor, and preside 
in the courts of Wardmote for the redress 
of minor grievances, removing nuisances, 
&C., assisted by one or more deputies, 
nominated by them from the coAimon 
council of the respective wards. Such as 
have filled the office of lord mayor, be- 
come justices of the quorum, and all 
ocfaeiB are justices of die peace within the 
city. The sheriffi, two in number, are 
annually chosen by the livery, or general 
aasembly of the fieemen of I^ndon. 
YQim vin. 6 

When once elected, they are eompeOed 
to serve, under a penahy of £400. The 
common council is a court consistiiig of 
240 representatives, returned by 25 of the 
wards, in proportion to their relative ex- 
tent; tiie 26th, or Bridgt Ward mthaut^ 
being represented by an alderman. The 
flenml business of this court is to legis- 
late for the internal government of the 
city, its police, revenues, &c. It is Con- 
vened only on sununons from the^ord 
mayor, who is an integral member of the 
court, as are the aldermen also. The 
decisions are, as in other assemblies, de- 
pendent on a majority of voices. The 
recorder is ^nerally a barrister of emi- 
nence, appomted, for life, by the lonl 
mayor and aldermen, as principal assist- 
ant and adviser to the civic magistracy, 
and one of the iustices of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, for which services he is remune- 
rated with a salaiy of £2000 per annum 
from the city revenues. The subordinate 
officers are the chamberiain, town clerk, 
common sergeant, city remembrancer, 
swonl bearer, &c. The livery of London 
is the aggregate of the members of tho 
several city companies, of which there are 
91, embracing the various trades of the 
metropolis. They constitute the elective 
body, in whom resides the election, not 
only of all the civil officers, but also of the 
four members who represent the city in 
parliament The local jurisdiction of 
Westminster is partiy vested in civil, partly 
in ecclesia^cal officers. The high stew- 
ard has an under-steward, who officiates 
for him. Next in dignity and office are 
the high bailiff and the deputy bailifi^ 
whose autborit^r resembles that of a sheriff^ 
in summoning juries and acting as return- 
ing officers at tlie election of members of 
parliament, of whom the city of West- 
minster returns two. These officere are 
chosen by the dean and chapter of West- 
minster, and appointed for life. The 
borough of Southwark is one of the city 
wards, and denominated Bridge Ward 
Without. It is subject to the jurisdiction 
of the lord mayor. It returns two mem- 
bera to parliament The military force 
supplied by London comprises two regi- 
ments of militia, amounting to 2200 men, 
whom the city is authorized to raise by 
ballot; the officere being appointed by the 
commissionere of the king's lieutenancy 
for the city of London, according to a 
parliamentary act in 1794. The year 
1829 wimessed the almost entire remoidel- 
ing of the ancient system of police and 
nightiy watch. These latter guardians 
of the public were heretofore appointed 

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by the wvcral vnadB in the city diicriety 
and by the puoehid authorities in other 
parts of the metropolis. But a recent act 
of DariiamentestalMiBhed a body of metro- 
politan poiicey diviaioned and d]8cii>lined 
somewhat like the gens fParmarie of 
France, and subjectea to the control of a 
board, consisting of three commisBioneis, 
who superintend and are responsible for 
all acts of their inferiors. The metropolis 
beinf subdivide into sections, each has a 
station or watch-house, and a company 
<^ poUce, consisting of 1 superintendent, 
4 inspectc»B, 16 sergeants, and 144 police 
constables. They are dressed in a blue 
semi-military unifi>rm, and are on duty at 
all hours, night and day. This new police 
commenced its duties, in several of the 
parishes of Westminster, on Sept 29, 1829, 
and is becoming gradually extended to 
the other districts. The present number 
employed is estimated at 5000 men. But 
the city retains its special establishments, 
under the control of its own magistracy. 
It comprises morshalmen, day and night 
patrols, constables, watchmen and street- 
keepers, altogether amounting to 800 or 
900 men, appointed by the several wards. 
The principal city police offices are at the 
Mansion house and Guildhall, where 
aldermen preside in rotation. In the dis- 
tricts not virithin the ci^ jurisdiction, there 
are eight different omces, presided over 
by. 27 magistrates, usually selected from 
among the banisters. There are also 100 
foot-patrols, and, in winter, 54 horse- 
patrols, the fi>rmer continually, the latter 
onl^ by niffht, protecting the streets and 
environs of the metropoOs. Independent 
of these is the Thames pohce, established 
in 1796, for the protection of persons and 
property connected with the shipping, 
from Vauxhall bridge to Woolwich. The 
chief office is at Wapping, and the impor- 
tance of such an estabhshment may be 
estimated, ly considering that there are 
upwards of 13,000 vessels of various ozes 
engi^§;ed on this river, annually dischanr- 
ing and receiving more than SfiOOflSO 
packaffes of goods of every description* 
The chief prison for criminals is' Newgate 
in the Old Bailey. It is the common gaol 
for London and Middlesex. The number 
of its inmates varies from 900 to 350. The 
Coinpter is situated in Giltspur street, close 
to Newgate, and destined for the recep- 
tion of vagrants and persons committed 
previous to examination, or as a house of 
correction for the confinement of persons 
sentenced to hard labor or imprisoimient 
Clerkenwell prison, in Spafields^ receives 
prisQDem of every description, fi>r the 

county of Middlesesc* Its trerupe num- 
ber of inmates is about 200. 'Ae Fleet 
prison, in what was lately Fleet market, is ' 
a receptacle for debton and persons guilty 
of what is technically called contend of 
the court of chancery. It is intended to 
remove this nuisance, and to build a sub- 
stitute in St George's fields, in the Bor- 
ough. The prison usuaUy contains 250 
indwellers, and keeps ward of about GO 
out-patients, i. e. prisonera privileged to 
live vnthin the rules. The King's Bench 
prison is a spacious gaol for debtors and 
minor criminals. It has about 200 sepa- 
rate apartments. The other prisons of 
note are in South wark, viz. Horsemonger 
lane or the Surrey county gaol, appro- 
priated to felons and debton; the Bor- 
ough Compter, for various classes of 
ofiendera ; the New Bridewell, erected in 
1829, near Bethlehem hospital, as a house 
of correction. In which the prisonera are 
chiefiy employed at the tread-mill; and 
the Marahalsea prison, in Blackraan street, 
for persons committed by the Marahalsea 
court. The principal houses of correc- 
tion are the Bridewell hospital. Cold Bath 
fields, and the penitentiary at Milbank. 
The ecclesiastical division of London 
comprises 97 parishes within the v^ls, 
17 without, 10 in Westminster, besides 
29 out-parishes in Middlesex and Surrey. 
It contains one cathedral (St. Paul's], one 
collegiate church (Westminster abbey]^ 
130 parish * churches, and 70 Episcopal 
chapels; nearW 200 places of worship 
beloneing to Protestant Dissentera ; 18 
churches or chapels of foreign Protestants, 
viz. 1 Armenian,' 1 Danish, 2 Dutch, 5 
French, 7 German, 1 Swiss, and 1 Swe- 
dish ; 6 meeting-bouses of the Friends (or 
Quakere) ; 10 British Roman Catholic 
chapels ; 5 ditto for foraignera of that per- 
suasion, viz. 1 Bavarian, 1 French, 1 
German, 1 Sardinian, 1 Spanish ; and 6 
Jewish synagogues, one of which is for 
Portuguese, and another for German Jews. 
(Westminster abbey and St Paul's cathe- 
dral are described in separate articles.) 
London owes not merely its magnificent 
cathedral, but 53 other churches, to sir 
Christopher Wren. The multiplication 
of churches has nearly kept pace vrith the 
rapid extension of the metropolis. The 
commissioners, appointed for the purpose* 
are gradually removinff the stigma upon 
an opulent church establishment, that re- 
ligious accommodation was unprovided 
for the poor* Many of the churches pos- 
sess much architectural beauty. There 
are, in London, 45 fi^ee schools, endowed 
in perpetuity, for educating and maintain- 

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i«ff BMrijr 4000 ehOdno, 17 ftr pauper er 
donned cbildrBti, and about 940 pariah 
aehooJai in which dothiDc and education 
are audited to about 12,000 children. 
The chief public endowmeutSy of the fint 
deaeription, are, St. Paul's school, Christ's 
boepitel, Weatminster school, Merchant 
Tauon* school, and the Cbaiter house, 
Sc Paul's school, founded in 1509, be- 
fllDWB a dassical education upon 153 pu- 
pils. Chriat'& hoepittd, founded by Ed- 
ward VI, in 1547, can accommodate about 
1100 children, of both sexes, who are 
docfaed, boarded and educated for seven 
yean. Some of the boys are prepared 
fiNT the univereity, most of them for 
commerce. Westminster school, founded 
IB 1560 bv queen Elizabeth, receives a 
large numoer of pupils of high rank and 
reapectahility. Merchant Tailors' school, 
founded by the companv of merchant 
tailors in 1561, educates about 300 pupils 
at a very low rate of payment. The com- 
pany nominate to 46 fellowships in St. 
John% college, Oxford. The Charter 
houae, endowed in 1611, suppoits and 
educatea scholars for the university (where 
they receive a liberal annuiw), or for com- 
merce, besides i^istructin^ about 150 other 
pupils. Many other charitable insdtutions 
for education are supported by volunta^ 
contribution, as are, also, the parochial 
schools, which usually provide clothing 
and elementary instruction for the poor 
children of the respective parishes. The 
children of these schools are annually 
asKmbled in the vest area of St Paul's, 
on the first Thursday in June. The cen- 
nal national school, with its 40 subsidiary 
schools in London, educates there about 
20,000 children. The British and for- 
eign school society, at its central and sub- 
sidiary schools, of which there are, in 
London, 43, educates about 12,000 chil- 
dren. The Sunday schools, taught by 
about 5000 ffrotuitous teachers, instruct 
between 60,000 and 70,000 children. The 
foundling hospital is capable of receiving 
about 2w children. There are also or- 
phan asylums, an asylum for the deaf and 
dumb, one for the indigent blind, and 
many others. Akns-houses are numer- 
oua There is a small debt relief society, 
a mendicity societv,a philanthropic socie- 
ty for giving employment to the industri- 
ous poor, a prison discipline society, &^ 
There are alao various hospitals; St. 
HioinasX with 490 beds; St. Bartholo- 
mewX capable of accommodating be- 
tween 400 and 500 patients ; Guy's hospi- 
tal, with 400 beds; St. George's, with 350; 
MiddWapy hoiiMiia,able to contain 300 pft- 

i; tfia Lo&doD boniid; ■naU'PQaiboa* 
phal ; various lying-in tjoaprtah, &c The 
Bethkfaem hospital and St. Luke^ hoaphal 
receive inaane patientai The humane 
society baa 18 receiving-houses in difier- 
ent perls of London^ vrith apparatua for 
restoring suspended animation. Dispen^ 
series relieve more than 50,000 pauents 
annually. There are at least 30 of them, 
besides 12 for the sole purpose of vaccina- 
tion. The college of physicians and the 
college of surgeons exanune candidatea for 
the professions of physic and surgery, in 
the metropolis and the suburbs. ' The 
museum of the latter body contains the 
collections of the celebrated John Hunter, 
amounting to 20,000 specimens and ana- 
tomical prepantions. The apothecariea' 
company grant certificatea, vritnout which 
no one can practiBe as an apothecary in 
England or Wales. The number of 
boc^sellers and publiaheiv is more than 
300. The number of newspapers is 55. 
(See AVtMpoper^.) The Britisn museum 
(q. V.) is a spacious brick structure, in the 
French style of architecture. It waa, 
originally, the palace of the first duke of 
Montague, built in 1677; its dimensions, 
216ft length by 70ft. depth,and57 ft heiffht 
The ground floor is appropriated solely 
to the reception of the ubraiy of printed 
books. The principal or unper floor con- 
tains the miscellaneous articles of curiosity 
for public inspection ; such as collections 
of minerals, lavas, volcanic productions^ 
shells, fossils and zoological s])ecimens, 
British and foreian, and uao various arti- 
cles from the south sea Islands, and 
North and Western America, &c. The 
ground floor is connected with a more 
modem building, called the gaUety of an- 
timdtiesy divided into 15 apartments, in 
wnich are distributed nearly 1000 pieces 
of sculpture, Greek and Roman, a fine 
collection of terra cottas, Roman sepul- 
chral urns, e^ffpiy iorcophagij &c. In a 
temporary room are deposited the Elgin 
marbles, purchased by government for 
£35,000. The upper floor of this saUery 
contains the collections of Herculanean 
and Pompeian antiquities made by sir 
William Hamilton, cabinets of coins and 
medals, and also a rare collection of prints 
and engravings by the most eminent 
artists. The present building is destined 
to be razed to the ground as soon as a 
splendid edifice, now constructing, is com- 
pleted. There are various other public 
libraries. King's college (q. v.J waa 
founded in 1828. The London univer8itq^^ 
founded in 1825, is not a chartered insOr 
tutioQ. It» couiae of mstnictioa compn- 

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hends languages^ mathematicB, phyncs, 
ethics, law, hi^xy, political economy and 
medical sdenoe, communicated in public 
lectuxes, examinations by the proiesson, 
&c. The building is yet incomplete, the 
r^ntral part alone being finished, which 
extends 400 feet in length, and 200 in 
depth. The fix>nt, to Gower street, is a 
handsome fa^bde, adorned with the no- 
blest poFdco in London, of 12 Corintliian 
columns, ascended by a flight of steps, 
surmounted by a dome and lanteru. On 
the principal floor is a spacious examina- 
tion nail, a museum of natural history, a 
museum of anatomy, professors'* apiut- 
ments, a grand library, 120 feet by 50, and 
a smaller library, 41 feet by 22; and at 
each end is a semicircular theatre for lec- 
tures, 65 feet by 50. The ground floor is 
portioned into lecture-rooms, cloisters, 
two theatres, chemical laboratory, muse- 
um, offices and counoil-room. The num- 
bcnr of students, in this university, in the 
year 1829, was 680. The royal society 
of literature was instituted in 1823 ; the 
royal society for improving natural knowl- 
edge, in 1663 ; the society of antiquaries, 
in 1572; the royal institution, in 1800, 
for difllising mechanical knowledge, and 
the application of science to the various 
purposes of life ; the society of arts, in 
1574, to award premiums and bounties to 
useful inventions and discoveries; the 
royal academy, in 1768, for the promo- 
tion of the fine. arts. It provides students 
with busts, stames, pictures and living 
models, and has professors of painting, 
architecture, anatomy, perspective and 
sculpture. Their annual exhibition of 
new paintings, drawings, sketches, sculp- 
tures, &C., the admission to which is one 
shilling per head, averages £6000 per an- 
num, and supports all the expenses of the 
establishment There are several other 
societies for the promotion of the fine arts, 
and the private collections of works of art 
are numerous and splendid. The number 
of theatres and amphitheatres is 12, of 
which the principal are, the Kuig's theatre 
or Italian opera-house, Drury lane and 
Oovent garden theatres. Vauxhall gar- 
dens are a fiivorite place of summer resort 
for the lovers of music, singing and fire- 
woricB. The nrincipd promenades are 
St James's paA, Green pai^ Hvde park 
(q. v.), (whicn comprises nearly wO acres) 
Kensinffton gardens, and the Regent's 
paik, which is laid out in shrubberies and 
rich plantations, adorned bv a fine piece 
of water, studded with villas and inter- 
sected by rides and promenades. The 
Zoiilogical gardenn^ in this porii, oootain 

many dMTerent soitB of animals, in pod-- 
doclm, dens or aviaries. The commerce 
of London was so extended, even in the 
fourth century, that 800 vessels were em- 
ployed in its port, for the exportation of 
com only. In the seventh century, it is 
characterized by Bede as the emporium 
of traffic to many nations; and, in the 
twelfth century, it appears that the prod- 
ucts of Arabia and the East were mrge\y 
imported. In the thirteenth century, the 
com[)any of merchant adventurers was 
incorporated by Edward I ; in the six- 
teenth, the Russia company received its 
charter from Mary, which was confirmed 
by her successor, Elizabeth; and the Le- 
vant or Turkey company was established. 
The increase of commerce in this century 
led, also, to the erection of the royal ex- 
change, by sir Thomas Gresham. The 
beginning of the seventeenth century wit- 
nessed the first patent granted to the East 
India company, the incorporation of the 
company of Spanish merchants, and the 
establishment of assurance and insurance 
companies. (See Companies, and Com- 
merce of the WoridL) The number of ves- 
sels belonging to the port of London, in 
1701, was §S0 ships, containing 84,882 tons ; 
in 1829, 2663 ships, containing 572,835 
tons. The value of the imports and ex- 
ports of London, in 1806, was £36,527,000 ; 
in 1829, £107,772,805. The customs of 
London amounted, in 1710, to £1,268,095 ; 
in the year ending July 5, 1829, to 
£15,597,482; ditto, 1830, to £16,385,049. 
The number of vessels employed in the 
coasting trade, was, hi 179fe, 11,176; in 
1827, 17,677. The number of vessels 
employed in the foreign trade, in 1827, 
was, British, 4012; foreign, 1534; total, 
5546 ; in which it is calculated, that one 
fflxth of the tonnage and one fourth of the 
men were employed in the East India 
trade, and one sixth of the tonnage and 
one third of the men in the West India 
trade. The vessels employed in the river 
navigation, in 1827, were 3000 barges, 
350 puntB, and 3000 wherries, the total 
tonnage of which was 110,000 tons, em- 
ploying 8000 men. There are 50 steam- 
vessels, of different descripdons, belonging 
to tlie port of London, and the year l^D 
is remarkable for the successful voyage of 
the first steam-packet fit>m liidia. The 
custom-house, in Lower Thames street, is 
a spacious building. The principal fiont 
to tne river presents a facade of 480 fbet 
in length ; tne depth is 100 feet ; and the 
prindpil or Long room is 180 feet by d(K 
The building affords aceommodatioa to 
650 cleika and officers, besMleB 1000 land- 

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jfag nuten and ierfintB; The dodcB of nicatioii, as in KnaiwMi Hie gCMnl 

London are on a scale of giandeur com* post-ofBce, in Lon£>n, ia a magnificent 

menaurate with the extent of its com- building. The intsreaae of leyenue, from 

merce. (See Dodts,) St Catharine'^ this department, will be apparent from the 

docira were commenced in 1827, with a following comparatiTe statement: 

^SS^X^l^'^X'^ InJgJU«no»nted.o£ggOper^«uu 

conunmilcate with the river by a canal f™' iiflnm « 

190 feet long and 45 broad, and cover a f i°J ^nnn u 

sorfaee of §4 acres, originally occupied ^^^^ lf»7,UW 

by 1250 houses, situate between London It is stated, that the average number of 

docks and Tower hill, including St letters which pass through me poat-offiee 

Catharine^ church and hos{ntaL They exceeds half a million weekly : 90,000 

are cakulated to accommodate 1400 mer- letters were put into the post-office on 

f^bant vessels, annually, in the wet docks the 26th of June, 1880, the day of kinr 

and baan, the former coyering 11 acres. Georae VPb death. The chief offices of 

The cost of completing these great works the East India company are comprised 

was £2,000,000 sterling. In noticing the within the prednds of the East India 

manufoctures and tnule of London, we bouse, in Leadenball street— « spadoua 

riiall merely observe, that as early as the edifice, ornamented by an Ionic portico 

fomteenth century, it was celebrated for of six columns, and presentinff a stale^ 

its excellent cloths and furs, the skinners ly front of 200 feet length. InsuranesB 

and cloth'Workers forming a numerous on ships are chiefly emcted by under* 

and wealthy class of citizens. In the writers, whose principal place of resort 

sbneenthcentui^, themanufoctureof fine is Lloyd's cofilee-house, on the north 

glass, silk stockings, knives, pins, needles, side of the royal exchange. Insurancea 

podcet-watches and coaches, was exten- on lives, and against loss of propeity 

sively established. In the seventeenth, it by fire, are efi»cted by 37 insurance 

was noted for the manufacture of salt- companies. (For the bridges^ see Bridge). 

petre; and the silk manufactures, on an The Thames tunnel was commenced 

extensive scale, commenced under the in- in 1825, and was intended to form a 

dusbious French refiigees, great numberB communication, under the bed of the 

of whom settled in Spitalnelds, after the river, between Rothertiithe and Wap* 

revocation of the edict of Nantes. The pinff. It was to consist of two parallet 

printing of calicoes was also commenced, archways, each 1300 foet Ions and 14 foet 

and weaving-looms were introduced from wide, having the partition yml pierced by 

Holland. From that time to the present, the a series of arehea nassages, to allow ac^ 

productions of London have increased ^vith cess fix>m one road to 3ie other. The 

extFaordinary rapidity, and include every crown of the tunnel is 15 feet below the 

artiele of elegance and utility. No city can bed of the river, and the approaches are 

boast more splendid shops, or inereater formed by spiral descents of easy declivity^ 

nun^ber, tlian London ; these, with the vast The progress of the work is suspended at 

warehouses in the city, where the whole- present; but the portion of it complete 

sale trade is chiefly carried on, excite the extends above 600 feet in length, and '» 

astonishment of foreigners. Previously to accessible to visitors. If ever it be finish- 

the year 1694, the pecuniaiy transactions ed, it virill form one of the most extraordi- 

of London were chiefly carried on by the nary substructions of ancient or modem 

aid of the wealthy goldsmiths, who were times. The projector was Mr. Brunei, a 

the jnincipal bankers during the disturb- skilful and enterprising en^een The 

ances of the civil wars. In 1694, the Monument, on Fish street hill, is a lofly 

bankof£nglaridv<ras incorporated, under column of the Doric order, erected to> 

the tide of the gtmemor and cmnpanv of (he comroemorste the dreadful ^le of London,, 

Uoik of En^Umdy in consideration of a loan in 1666. Sir Christopher Wren fomished 

of £1^200^00 advanced to government, the design. The altitude is 202 foet fix>m 

at the rate of £8 per cent The amount the pavement, the diameter of the shafk 

of bank-stock capital, in the year 1750, 15 feet, the pedestal 40 feet hiffh, and its 

was £10,780,000 ; it is now £14,553,000. pHnUi 28 feet square. The mscripliOB> 

The average price, during the year 1829,^ ascribing the Are to the Catholics, baa 

waa £3ia (See BanL) In no part of been lately efihced. Besides the publie 

the worid is the poat-ofilGe system con- edifices already noticed, axe the new pol-^ 

ducted on a seale of such magnitude^ aoe of Buckinf^am house, Wealminsler 

vmikoce^weearitjfViAepeedofcouaaxir lo^titd eouncil office^ tiM baaqoaiioc 

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hovse at Whitehall, and privale reoi- 
dencesy Melbome house (Whitehall), and 
fiurlingtoD house (Piccadilly). Sl James's 
palace, Pall mall, is an irresular brick 
building, originally built as an nospital for 
lepeirB, Though totally destitute of exter- 
nal b^EiUty, its internal arrangements are 
well calculated for state purposes, and it 
contains many spacious and superb apart- 
ments, where the royal court levees and 
drawing-rooms are held. The archiepis- 
copal palace of Lambeth is a pile of great 
antiquity, forming the town residence of 
the archbishops of Cantert>uiy, and at 
present being siknost entirely rebuilt. The 
grounds are extensive and beautifully laid 
out It contains, among other apartments, 
a chapel, gallery, Ubrary, containmg 25,000 
volumes, and the Lollards' tower, used in 
popish times as a prison for the reformers 
of that designation. The Admiralty is 
fronted by a lofty and most ill-propor- 
tioned Ionic portico, and separated u-om 
Whitehall by a light screen. It contains 
the offices and residences of the commis- 
sioners of the admiralty, and is near the 
Horse-guards, a hideous edifice, wherein 
the commander-in-chief holds his levees, 
and transacts military affairs. An arched 
gate-way communicates with St. James's 
park. The house of lords, in Old Pal- 
ace yard, is not remarkable for architec- 
tural beauty. The peers assemble in a 
room, the walls of which are hung with 
tapestiy representing the defeat of the 
Spanish armada. The house of com- 
mons holds its meetings in an ancient 
chapel, called St, l^enhen^ adjoining 
Westminster hall, plainly fitted up, and 
affording but stinted accommodation for 
the 650 members of whom that body is 
composed. It was originally founded by 
king Stephen, and rebuilt by Edward III, 
in 1347. It communicates with the 
speaker's house, a commodious and hand- 
some residence. The Tower of Loudon 
is an extensive pile, situated on the north- 
em bank of the Thames, below London 
bridge, separated from the river bv a plat- 
form, and environed by a ditch of consid- 
erable depth and width. Its walls enclose 
an area of 12 acres, having the principal 
entrance on the west. (See Tower,) The 
general destination of the Tower was 
altered on the accession of queen Eliza- 
beth, for it had been a royal palace during 
500 years previous to that event Anoth- 
er class of edifices, partaking gomewhat 
of a public character, are the club-houses, 
situated, chiefly, within the precincts of St 
James's street. Pall mall, and Regent street 
Crockford's^ in Qt James's street, is unri- 

valled in die splendor of its intemal deco- 
rations, and presents an external elevation 
of chaste architectural elegance ; but its 
object is avowedly gambhng, and its fas- 
cinations h^ve been the ruin of many. 
The athenaeum is a very beautiful struc- 
ture, erected by Mr. Burton on part of 
the site of Carlton palace, and oppo- 
site to the senior united service club. 
The university, the union, the oriental, 
Brookes', and the junior united service 
club houses, are also handsome and com- 
modious. — Ancient London, The origin 
of London is involved in deep obscurity ; 
but it certainly was a strobg-nold of tne 
Britons before the Roman invasion. The 
etymology of its name is variously traced ; 
the most probable supposition deriving it 
from two British wonls, Uvn and (/in, sig- 
nifying the town on the lake. Its Romaa 
designation, ./^i^^ltuto, marks it as the capi- 
tal of a province ; and Tacitus speaks of 
Londiniujn, or CdontaAugwftOy as a com- 
mercial mart of considenmie celebrity in 
the yeai' 61. It was subsequently noted 
as a large and wealthy city, in the time of 
the emperor Severus, and regarded as the 
metropolis of Great Britain. A few ves- 
tiges of die original walls are still discov- 
erable in London wall, in the courts be- 
tween Ludgate hill and the Broadway, 
Blackfriars, and in Cripplegate church- 
yard. It had four principal gates, open- 
ing to the four great military roads, and 
others were subsequently formed, but 
their names alone commemorate their ex- 
istence. Ailer the Roman forces had 
been withdrawn fi'om Britain, in the fifth 
centur}', London fell successively under 
the dominion of the Britons, Saxons, and 
Danes. It was nominated a bisliop's see, 
on the conveision of the Saxons to Chris- 
tianity, in 604, and a cathedral church 
was erected in 610, where St Paul's now 
stands. Its importance in the year 833, 
appears fix>ra a ffiUena^mot havinff been 
held here ; and under the reign of Alfi^d, 
w!*.o gained possession of it in 884, its 
municipal government was planned^ which 
has since been gradually moulded into the 
form described m a preceding part of this 
notice. Its wealth seems to have rapidly 
increased during the reign of Edward the 
Confessor ; and, on the conquest by Wil- 
ham I, in 1066, it assumed that station 
which it has ever since retained, as the 
metropolis of the kingdom, having re- 
ceived from that monarch a charter, still 
preserved in the city archives, and beauti- 
fully written in Sucon characters. The 
privileges of the city were further extend- 
ed by a chaiter of Henry I, 'm 1100 ; aod» 

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eariy in the Mgn of Richard I, the title ot 
meyor was suMituted for that of baUiff'y 
-which had preyiously designated the chief 
magistrate of London« In the reign of 
Edward III (1348), it was ravaged bv a 
pestilence, during which 50,000 bodies 
were interred in the sround now fbrming 
the precincts of the Charter house. The 
▼ear 1380 was maiked by the insurrection 
beaded by Wat Tyler, and suppressed by 
the courage of sir William Walworth, 
mayor of London. A similar, but equally 
unsuccessful attempt, threatened the safe- 
ty of the metropolis in the year 1450, when 
it was assailed Dy Jack Cade and a power- 
ful body of malecontents. During tlie 
rei^ of Edward IV, we hare the earliest 
notice of bricks being employed in the 
building of houses in London. Cisterns 
and conduits for water were constructed, 
and the city was generally lighted at nieht 
by lanterns. A dreadful visitation, ccdled 
the mpeating'sickness, desolated the city in 
1485, soon after the accession of Henry 
VU, during whose reign the river Fleet 
was made navigable to Holbom bridge, 
and the splendid chapel, called afler that 
monarch, was appended to Westminster 
abbey. Many valuable improvements in 
the municipal regulations of the city, its 
police, streets, markets, &c., were effected 
durinff the reign of his successor, Hen- 
ly VfiL The reim of Edvrard VI wit- 
nessed the establiuiment of Christ's hos- 
piml. Bridewell, and St Thomas's hos- 
pital ; and, under the sway of Elizabeth, 
the metropolis increased, witla surprising 
rapidity, in commercial enterprise and 
general prosperity. The plague renewed 
Its ravages soon after the accession of 
James I, in 1603, when upwards of 30,000 
persons feU victims to it Sir Hugh Mid- 
dleton, about that time also, commeifced 
his great work of supplymg the inhab- 
itants with water from the New river; 
and the pavements were improved for the * 
comfort of pedestrians. The reign of 
Charles I vras marked by a recurrence of 
the plague, which carried off 35,000 of 
the inhabitants. It returned in the year 
1665, with unparalleled fuiy. This aw- 
ful viatation swept away 100,000 of the 
inhabitants within 13 months. It was 
shortly after followed by the great lire, 
vrfaich broke out on the 2d September, 
1666; and raged with irresistible fury, until 
it coDsamed 89 churches,'13,200 dwelling- 
houses^ and 400 streets, the city gates, 
Guildhall, numerous public structures, 
hoapitate, schools, libraries and stately 
edinces, leaving a ruined apace of 496 
fiom the Tower to the Temple 

church, and from the noith-east pte, 
along die city wall, to Holbom tnndge. 
and destroying property to the estimated 
amount of £10,000,000. Within less than 
five years after this terrible calamity, the 
city was almost wholly rebuilt, in a style 
of far greater regularity, security, com- 
modiousness and salubrity. Alter the 
revolution of 1688, the metrop<^ rapidly 
expanded, and, in 1711, the population 
was found to have so gready increased, 
that an act of parliament passed for the 
building of 50 new churches. The win- 
ter of 1739 — 40 is memorable for the 
occurrence of the most intense frost re- 
corded in the annals of England ; it con- 
tinued for eight weeks, and the Thames, 
above London bridge, became a solid 
mass, on which thousands of the citizens 
assembled daily as to a fair. The reign 
of George III wimessed a great extension 
of the splendor, comforts and elegances 
of social life in London. The north of 
the metropolis became covered with spa- 
cious streets, squares, churches and pub- 
lic edifices. The thoroughfares were ren- 
dered safe and clean ; the enormous signs 
and protruding incumbrances of the shops 
were removed. Blackfriars, Southwark 
and Waterloo bridges, Someraet house, 
Manchester, and other squares, at the 
West End, were erected, and the vast 
parish of Marylebone almost covered with 
Duildings. In 1780, an insurrection, com- 
posed of the lowest rabble, threatened 
very alarming consequences to the peace 
of the city. The prisons of Newgate, the 
King's Bench and the Fleet were burned, 
and militaiy interference was necessaiy to 
ouell the disturbances. In 1794, a dread- 
ful fire broke out in Ratclifie highway, 
and consumed 700 houses. The jubilee 
of Greorge Ill's accession was commemo- 
rated on the 25th October, 1809, and the 
mnd civic festival to the emperor of 
Russia, king of Prussia, and other distin- 
guished foreigners, was given, by the cor- 
poration of London, in Guildhall, at an 
expense of £20,000, in die year 1814, the 
winter of which was memorable fi>r a 
frost of six weeks' contmuance and ex- 
treme intensity. During the regency and 
reign of George IV, the grand avenue 
of Regent street, the unfinished palace 
of Buckingham house, the splendid ter- 
races on the site of Carlton gardens, the 
widenings of Charing cross, Pall mall, 
and the Strand, vnx>ught a great change 
in the West End of the metropolis. Much 
curious information upon the histoiy, an- 
tiquities and progressive improveinents ot 
London will be found in the woiks <^ 

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LONDON— ix>N€k:;hamp. 

Stowe and Maidaad, in Pennent^s ** Some 
Account of London," and in the work of 
Brayley, Brewater and Ni|^ttnflale, en- 
titled <* London, Weatminatei' and Middle- 
sex described," in 5 vols. 8yo. 

LoRDoifDSRRT, Robeit Stewart, mar- 
quis o( the second son of the first roar- 
3UUI, was bom in the north of Ireland, 
une 18, 1769, and was educated at Ar- 
ma^ afler which he became a commoner 
of St. John's college, Cambridge. On 
leaving the uniTersity, he made the tour 
of Europe, and, on his return, was chosen 
a member of the Irish parliament He 
joined the opposition, in the first place, 
and declared himself an advocate for par- 
liamentary reform; but, on obtaining a 
seat in the British parliament, he took his 
station on the nunisterial benches. In 
1797, having then become lord Casde- 
reagh, he returned to the Irish parliament, 
an{ the same year, became keeper of the 
privy seal for that kingdom, and was 
soon after appointed one of the lords of 
the treasury. The next year, he was nom- 
inated secretary to the lord-lieutenant, and, 
by his strenuous exertions, and abilities in 
the art of removing opposition, the union 
with Ireland was greatly fecilitated. In 
the united parliament, he sat as member 
for the county of Do vm, and, in 1802, was 
made president of the board of control. 
In 1805, he was appointed secretary of 
war and the colonies ; but, on the death 
of Mr. Pitt, he retired, until the dissolution 
of the brief administration of 1806 restored 
him to the same situation in 1807; and 
he held his office until the ill-fated expe- 
dition to Walcheren, and his duel with 
his colleague, Mr. Canning, produced his 
resignation. In 1812, he succeeded the 
marauis of Wellesley as foreign secretary, 
and tne foilowingyear proceeded to the con- 
tinent, to assist the coalesced powers Id ne- 
gotiating a general peace. His services after 
me capture of Napoleon, and in the gene- 
ral pacification and arrangements which 
have been usually designated by the phrase 
the set&ement of Europe, form a part of 
history. It is sufficient to notice here, 
that he received the public thanks of par- 
liament, and was honored with the order 
of the iiarter. On the death of his father, 
in Apnl, 1821, he succeeded him in the 
Irish manjuisate of Londonderry, but still 
retained his seat in the Briti^ house of 
commcms, where he acted as leader. Af- 
ter the arduous session of 1822, in which 
bis labor was unremitting, his mind yns 
observed to be much shattered ; but, un- 
hippily, although his physician vras ap- 
pmed of it, he was lunered to leave Lon- 

don fi>r hla seat at Noitfa Gray, in Kest^ 
where, in August, 1829, he terminated hai 
life by infficting a wound in his neck, with 
a penknife, of which he died almost in- 
stantiy. This statesman has been censured 
for a severe, rigid, and persecuting domestic 
government, and for an undue countenance 
of despotic encroachment and arrangement 
OS regards the social progress of Europe. 
His party and supporters, in answer to 
these strictures, for the most part, plead po- 
litical necessity and expediency, while no 
small portion of them defend his views on 
the ground of principle. He was an active 
man of business, and a ready, although not 
an elegant orator. His remains were in- 
terred, in Westminster abbey, with ^p^ 
ceremony, but not without an exhibiticm 
of popular ill-wilL (See Man, qf ike laU 
MarquU qf Londondtny, London, 1829.) 
He was succeeded in his tide bv his hall^ 
brother, lieutenant-colonel lord Stewart, 
who was, for some time, ambassador to 
Prussia, and afterwards to Vienna. His 
lordship is author of a Narrative of the 
Peninsular War (second edition, London, 
1828),and a Narrative of the War in Ger- 
many and France, in 1813 and 1814, and 
is a member of the British house of peer% 
as earl Vane. 

LoNGCHABiP ; a promenade of the Pa- 
risian fashionables, on the right bank of 
the Seine, about four miles below the capfr- 
taL It 'wasoDce a convent, founded by Isa- 
bella, sister of St. Louis, where she spent 
her last years, and^terminated her life, Feb. 
22,1269. The convent was then called the 
Abbaye de VkumUtU de JSTotre Dam/ty and the 
credulity of the times ascribed to the bones 
of Isabella, who was buried there, such 
miraculous powers, that Leo X canonized 
her in 1521. 116 years after, the bonea 
of Isabella, with the permisaon of Uihan 
VIII, were collected in the presence of 
the archbishop of Paris, and, like oth«r 
relics, set in ffold and silver. Two other 
princesses pf France also died there- 
Blanche, daughter of Philip the Long^ 
who likewise ended his life at this place, 
Jan. 3, 1321, and Jeanne of Navaira. 
Previous to the revolution, Lmigchamp 
was a place of resort of the Parisian hum 
monde and of the English. It is stiU r^ 
lated, that on those days when it was a part 
of Ion ton to repair thither (Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday of Passion week), 
some of the English carried their luzuiy 
80 far, as to make the shoes of their hones 
and the tires of their coach wheels of sil- 
ver, on these promenades. In the benii- 
ning of the revoltition, when the wief 
of f^tfignhamp, like tibe 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


ef Fiaiioe in genenl, was abofiflhed, and 
the buildings partially demolished, the 
0plendor of this place was destroyed ; bat 
under the consulate, when wealth again 
dared to display ibself openly, Longchamp 
recovered its ancient brilliancy, and again 
offered the Parisian ladies an opportunity 
of exhibiting their charms. Tailien and 
Recamier were then the stars in this fii^ 
mament of &shion and beauty. Under 
the imperial government, the splendor of 
Longchamp was somewhat cuminished, 
owing partly to Napoleon's contempt for 
fiivolous exhibitioDS, partly to the con- 
tinued wars, which withdrew great num- 
bers of rich young men from the capital. 
After the restoiatioD, the promenade of 
Longchamp was almost wholly neglected. 
But more recently, it has again recovered 
some of its former splendor. 

LoffOEviTT. The extreme limit of hu- 
man life, and the means of attaining it, have 
been a subject of general interest, both in 
aocient and modem times, and the physi- 
ologist and political economist are alike 
itliacted by the inquiry. It is for the stu- 
dent of biblical antiquities to decide in 
what sense we are to understand the word 
fear in the scriptural accounts of the an- 
tediluvians ; whether it signifies a revolu- 
tion of tlie sun or of the moon, or wheth- 
er their extreme longevity is only the cre- 
ation of tradition. £i the sense which we 
now ffive to the word year, the accounts 
would make the constitution of men at. 
the period referred to, very different from 
what it is at present, or has been, at 
any period fiom which observations on 
the duration of hunum life have been 
trBosmitted to us. The results of all these 
oljservations, in regard to the length of 
fife in ^iven circumstances, do not essen- 
tialty differ. Pliny affords some valuable 
Htat i s d cal information, if accurate, regard- 
ing the period at which he lived, obtmned 
from an official, and, apparently, authentic 
source, — the census, directed b^ the em- 
peror Vespasian, in the year 76 of^e Chris- 
tian era. From this we learn that, at the 
time of the computation, there were, in the 
part of Italy comprised between the Ap- 
ennines and the Po, 124 individuals aged 
100 years and upwards, viz. 54 of 100 
years, 57 of 110, 2 of 125, 4 of 130, 4 of 
135 to 137, and 3 of 140. At Parma, a 
man was living aged 120, and 2 aged }30; 
at Faenza, a female aged 132; and at a 
naall town near Placentia, called Velleia-^ 
ehmijhved 6 persons aged 110 years each, 
and 4 of 120. These estimates, however, 
do not accord vnth thoeo of Ulpian, who 
ioems to have taken especial care to be- 

come acquainted with die fects of dke 
case. His researches prove that the ex- 
pectati<M] of life in Rome, at that time, was 
much less than it now is in London, or in 
any of our cities. Hufeland, indeed, in his 
Jklacrofrioficc, asserts that the tablesofUlpian 
agree perfectly with those afforded by the 
great cities of Europe, and that they exhibit 
tiie probabilities of life in ancient Rome 
to have been the same as those of modem 
London. But doctor F. Bisset Hawkins, 
in his Elements of Medical Statistics (Lon- 
don, 1829), says that the tables, kept by 
the censors fer 1000 ^ears, and constituting 
registers of populauon, sex, age, disease, 
&C., according to Ulpian (who was a law- 
yer, and a minister of Alexander Seve- 
rus), refer only to free citizens, and that, to 
drew a just comparison between Rome 
and London, it would be necessary to 
take, amone the inhabitants of the latter 
city, only Uiose who were similarly cir- 
cumstanced, viz. those whose condition is 
easy ; in which case, the balance would 
be gready in fevor of modem times. Mr. 
Fiiuayson has ascertained, from very ex- 
tensive observation on the decrement of 
life prevailing amoUje the nominees of the 
Tontines, and other life annuities, granted 
by tile authority of porhnment, during the 
last 40 years, that the expectation of life is 
above SOyears for persons thus situated, 
which affords the easy classes of England 
a superiority of 20 years above even the 
easy classes among the Romans. The 
mean term of life among the easy classes 
of Paris is, at present, 42 years, which 
gives tiiem an advantage of 12 years above 
tiie Romans. In the third centuir of the 
Christian era, the expectation of life in 
Rome was as follows: From birth to 20, 
tiiere was a probability of 30 years ; from 
20 to 25, of 28 years; from 25 to 30, 25 
years ; from 30 to 35, 22 years ; from 35 
to 40, 20 years; from 40 to 45, 18 years; 
from 45 to 50, 13 years ; from 50 to 55, 9 
years ; from 55 to 60, 7 years ; from 60 to 
65, 5 years. Farther tiian this the com- 
putation did not extend. The census 
taken from time to time in England 
affords us information of an unquestion- 
able character. The first actual enumer- 
ation of the inhabitants was made in 1801, 
and gave an annual mortahty of 1 in 448. 
The third and last census was made in 
1821, and showed a mortality of 1 to 58. 
(See Abstract qf (he Answers and Rduma 
made jnarsuanl to an Ad passed in the Year 
<lf Qeorge IF, &c., by Rickman.) The 
mortaliw then had decreased considerably 
within 20 years. In France, the aimttu 
deaths were, in 1781, 1 in 29; in 1808,1 

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in aO; in 1833^1 in 4a In the Pays de 

Vjaud,the mortality is 1 to 49; in Sweden 
and Holland, 1 to 48; in Russia, 1 to 41; 
in Austria, 1 to 38. Wherever records 
have been kept, we find that mortali^has 
decreased with civilization. Periiaps a 
few more persons reach extreme old age 
amoDff nations in a state of litde cultiva- 
tion ; hut it is certain that more children 
die, and the chance of life, in general, is 
much less. In Geneva, records of mortal- 
ity have been kept since 1590, which show 
that a child bora there has, at present, five 
times greater expectation of life than one 
born three centuries ago. A like improve- 
ment has taken place in the salubrity of 
large towns. The annual mortality of 
London, in 1700, was 1 in 25 ; in 1751, 1 
in 21 ; in 1801, and the 4 years preceding, 
1 in 35; in 1811, 1 in 38; and in 1821, 1 
in 40 ; the value of hfe having thus 
doubled, in London, within the last 80 
veaEi. In Paris, about the middle of the 
last century, the mortality was 1 in 25 ; at 
present, it is about 1 in 32; and it has 

been calculated tbat» in the feoiteentb 
oentunr, it was one in 16 or 17. The 
annual mortali^ in Beilin has decreased 
during the last 50 or 60 years, from 1 in 
28 to 1 in 34. The mortaliw in Manches- 
ter was, about the middle of the last cen- 
tury, 1 in 25; in 1770, 1 in 28 : 40 yean 
afkerwards, in 1811, the annual deaths 
were diminished to 1 in 44 ; and, in 1821, 
they seem to have been sdll fewer. In 
the middle of the last cenmry, the mortal- 
ity of Vienna was 1 in 20 ; it has not, 
however, improved in the same propor- 
tion as some of the other European cities. 
According to recent calculation, it is, even 
now, 1 in 224, or about twice the propor- 
tion of Philadelphia, Manchester or Glas- 
ffow. Many vears ago, Mr. Finlayson 
drew up the following table, to exhibit the 
difference in the viuue of life, at two 
periods of the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries. Had it been calculaied 
for 1830, the results would have been still 
more remarkable. 


So Uwt die IneraMo of Vi- 
tality it iu tho inverM 






































The following is*the annual mortality of 
some of the chief cities of Europe and 
this country r 

Philadelphia, 1 in 45.68 

Glasgow, ...., Iin44 

Manchester, 1 in 44 

Geneva, 1 in 43 

Boston,. . 1 in 41^ 

London, J in 40 

New York, 1 in 37.83 

St Petersburg, 1 in 37 

Charleston, 1 in 36^ 

Baltimore, 1 in 35.44 

Leghorn, 1 in 35 

Berhn, Iin34 

Paris, Lyons, Barcelona and 

Strasburg, 1 in 32 

?nce and Palermo^ 1 in 31 

Madrid, 1 in 29 

Naples, Im2d 

Brussels,. •..Iin26 

Rome, Iin25 

Amsterdam, 1 in 24 

Vienna, 1 in 22i 

From Dec 12, 1828, to Dec. 15, 1829, in 
London, die whole number of deaths was 
23,525. The proportion of deaths, m dif. 
ferent ages, was as follows : 

Under two years of age, 6710 

Between two and five, 2347 

Five and ten, 1019 

Ten and twenty, 949 

Twenty and thirty, 1563 

Thirty and forty, 1902 

Forty and fifty, 2093 

Fitly and sixty, 2094 

Sixty and seventy, 2153 

Seventy and eigfa^, 1843 

Eighty and ninety, 749 

Ninety and one hundred, 96 

One hundred and one, 1 

One hundred and eight, 2 

On the average of eight yean, fi:om 1807 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

LONGEVmr* 71 

to 1814 indium^ diero died anntully pear to be more iojurioiu to long life than 

'Within the citjr of Philadelphia and the many othen. Many of the tint literati, 

Libertiea, the n>llowiog proportion of per- most distinguished for applicadon through- 

■oii8,of different ages, compared with the out life, have attained old age, both in 

total number of deaths: modem and ancient times. In the an- 

.. - %P^ c^c°^ authors, numerous instances of this 

Under one year, ^07 i^^ ^le recorded, many of which may 

From OTO to two yean, 10.71 be found collected in the work of Hufe* 

Two to five, 5.^ Ij^nd, ah«idy alluded to.— We vnU add a 

^ive to ten, AW f^^ instances of extiaordinary longevity. 

rentotwenty, 3.^ j^^ EngUshman Pair, whovnis bom m 

Twenty to ^rty, 8.^ 1483, married when at the age of 120, re- 

Thirty to forty, 10.^ ^ined his vigor till 140, and died at the 

v^t^ ' l^ a«e of 152, from plethora. Harvey, the 

intty to BOrty, a^ distinguished discoverer of the ciroulation 

Sixty to seventy, 4.^ ^f^^ blood, who dissected him, found no 

^venty to eighty, 3.^ decav of any organ. (Philosophical Trans- 

Eighty to mnety, 1.89 ^jctwM, vol. iii, 1698.) Henry Jenkins, 

Nmety to one hundred, . . . . 0.50 ^ho died in Yorkshire, in 1670, is, per- 

One hundred to one hundred ten, 0.0009 baps, the greatest authentic instance of 

Another question of interest is the inquiiy longevity. He lived 169 years. Marga- 

in what degree the various trades and ret Forster, a native of Cumberland, Eng- 

profesBions are favorable to human life, or land, died in 1771, aged 136 ; and James 

the contrary. Several statements have Lawrence, a Scotchman, lived 140 years, 

lately been publi^ed respecting this sub- A Dane, named Drakenberg, died in 1772^ 

ject, but tardier and more copious obser- in his 147tli year; and John Effingham, 

vadons are required, to afibrd satisfactory or Essingham, died in Comwall, in 1757, 

results.* Utcwy occupations do not ap- aged 144. In 1792, a soldier, named 

*T1ie Literary Gazette ^ves, in a tabular fonn, bomiet-makera are unhealthy and ghort-lived. 

the resulu of a work on this subject, from the pen Spinners, clolh-drftssers, weavers, &c., are more 

of Mr. Thackrah, an eminent surgeon; of Leeds.-- or less healthy, according as they have more or 

(hi-of-doar occupations. Butctors are subject to less exercise and air. Those exposed to inhale 

few aihnents, and these the result of plethora, imperceptible particles of dressings, &c., such as 

Though more free from diseases than other trades, frizcrs. sufier nrom disease, and are soonest cut 

thej, DoweTcr, do not enjoy greater lon^vity: off*. Shoemakers are placed in a bad posture. 

on the contrary, Mr. Thackrah thinks their lives Digestion and circulation are so much impaired, 

shorter than those of other men who spend much that the countenance marks a shoemaker almost 

time in the open air. Cattle and norse-deal- as well as a tailor. We suppose that, from the 

crs are generally healthy, except when thehr reduction of perspiration, and other evacuations, 

habits are intemperate. Fish-mongers, though in this and similar employments, the blood is im* 

much exposed to the weather, are nanly, tem- pure, and, consequent! v, the complexion darken- 

perate, bealthv and long-lived ) cart-drivers, if ed. The secretion of Bile is generally unhealthy, 

sofficientlv fed, and temperate, the same. La- and bowel complaints are friM]uent In the few 

borars m DosbandrVj ^., suffer frxwi a deficiency shoemakers who live to old sige, there is oAcm a 

of Dourisfament Bnckmakers, with fiill muscular remarkable hollow at the base of the breast-bone, 

exercise in the open air, though exposed to vicis- occasioned by the pressure of the last. Curners 

nnides of cold and wet, avoid liieumatism and and leather-dressers are Terr healthy, and live to 

inflanmiatofy diseases, and attain good old age. old age. Saddlers lean mucn forwara^and sufier, 

Paviers are subject to complamta in the loins, m- accordingly, from headachQ and mdigestjon. 

cnesing with age, bat they live long. Chmse- Printers (our worthy coOperators) are kept in a 

drivertf jxwtilions, coachmen, guards, &c., from confined atmosphere, and generally want exercise, 

the position of the two former on the saddle, irreg- Pressmen, however, have good and varied labor, 

alar Unni^, ice, and from the Want of muscular The constant application of the eyes to minute 

exereise, m the two latter, are subject to gastric objects gradually enfeebles these organs. The 

disorders, and, finally, to apoplexy and palsy, standing posture, long maintained here, as well as 

which sborteq tbor fives. Carpenters, coopers, in other occupations, tends to injure the digestive 

/wheelwrights, &c., are healthy and lotig-hved. organs. Some printers complam of disoi^er of 

Smiths are oAen intemperate, and die compara- the stomach and head, and few appear to enjoy 

tively young. Rope-makers and sardeners suffer fiili health. Consumption is finequent. We can 

finom their stoopingpostures.—-.£»-aoorocciipa<iofu. scarcely finder hear of any compositor above the 

Tukrs, notwithstanding their confined atmos- age of ISO, In many towns, prmters are intern- 

plwre and bad posture, are not liable to acute werate. Bookbinders,— a healthy employment, 

diseases, but give way to stomach complaints Carvers and gilders look pale and weakly, but 

sod consumption. The pr^odicial influence of theur lives are not abbreviated in a marked de- 

their employment is more insidious than umnt : me. Clock-makers are generally healthy and 

it mderaiines rather than destroys life. Stay- loog-lived j watch-makers, the reverse. Howe 

mfcen have their health hnpaired, but live to a servants, in larse, smoky towns, are unhealthy, 

good age. MiUiners, dress-makers and straw- CoUiin and weu-iinkeny-^« class by themselvesi 

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Mittebtedt, died in Pruflsia, at the age of 
112. Joseph Somngton, a Norwegian, 
died at Bergen, in 1797, aged IGO yean. 
The St Petenburg papers announced, in 
1830, the death of a man 150 yean old, at 
Moscow ; and, in 1831, the death of a man 
in Ruasia, 165 years old, was reported. 
On May 7, 1830, died a man named John 
Ripkey, at the age of 106, in London. 
His sight remained good till the last In 
1830, a poor man, near lake Thrasimene, 
died 123 years old. He preserved his 
faculties to the last In 18S25, pope Leo 
XII gave him a pension. The late return 
of the population of the city of New York, 
according to the census of 1830, makes the 
number of those who live beyond the 
allotted three-score and ten, in the propor- 
tion of about If per cent of the whole 
number. Although the number of white 
males exceeds that of females 1861, yet, of 
those who are upwards of 70, 8009, the 
excess is in favor of the females, there 
being 4175 of the latter, and but 3834 of 
the tormer. Of the 17 white persons above 
a hundred, 15, on the contrary, are males ; 
and of the 45 blapk persons, a hundred 
and upwards, only 11 are males. The 
proportion of centenarians among the 

—seldom reach the age of BO.—Employmmts 
producing duHy odor, or gtueoiu ejaiamtions. 
These are not uijurious. if they arise from animal 
substances, or from the vapor of wine or spirits. 
Tobacco manufacturers do not appear to suffer 
finom the floating poison in their atmosphere. 
Snuff makinr is more pernicious. Men in oil-mills 
are generally healthy. Brush-makers live to a 
great age. Grooms emd hostlers inspire ammoni- 
acal gas, and are robust, healthy, and long-lived. 
Glue and size boilers, exposed to the most nox- 
ious stench, are fresn-looking and robust. Tal- 
low-chandlers, also exposed to offensive animal 
odor, attain considerable age. Tanners are re- 
markably strong, and exempt from consumption. 
Corn-millers, breathinr an atmosphere loaded with 
flour, are pate and sickly, and very rarely attain 
old age. Malsters cannot live long, and must 
leave the trade in middle life. Tea-men suffer 
from the dust, especially of green teas ; but this 
injury is not permanent. Coffee-roasters become 
asthmatic, and. subject to headache and indiges- 
tion. Paper-makers, when aged, cannot endure 
the effect of the dust from cutting the rags. The 
author suggests the use of machinery in this pro- 
cess. In the wet and wear and tear of the mills, 
they are not seriously affected, but live long. 
Masons are short-lived, dying generally before 
40. They inhale particles of sand and dust, lifl 
heavy weights, and are too often hitemperate. 
Miners die prematurely. Machine-makers seem 
to suffer only from the dust they inhale, and the con- 
sequent bronchial irritation. The (iron) filers are 
almost all unhealthy men, and remarkably short- 
lived. Founders (m brass) suffer from the inha- 
lation of the volatilized metal. In the founding of 
yellow brass, in particular, the evolution of oxide 
of zinc is very g^eat. They seldom reach 40 
jean. Copper-smiths ara considerably affected 

Macks* 18 much krfer than among the 
whites, making all pNPoper allowances for 
their exaggeration and ignorance^ — ^Bel*' 
sham's Chronology informs ns that 21 
peraons, who had attained the age of 130 
jmd upwards, died between the years 
1760 and 1829: of these, one was aged 
lG6u In the same period, 39 had attained 
the age of 120, and not 130. The num- 
ber who attaloed the age of 110, and not 
120, was 36 in the same fflMice. And thooe 
who died after the age of 100, and before 
110, were 54 within the period. Of the 
whole number recorded, 94 were natives 
of England, 23 of Ireland, and 12 of Rus- 
sia. Doubdess many more have died 
after the age of 100, without having had 
their names recorded. The northern cli- 
mates aflbrd more instances of longevity 
than the southern ; and, although far the 
greater part of those who have attained 
extreme old age have been distinguished 
for sobriety, yet some of them do not 
appear to have been in the habit of 
restraining their appetites. In China, 
where old age is much respected, 
people receive presents from govern- 
ment, when they have attained a great 

by the fine scales which rise from the imperfectly 
volatilized metal; and by tlie fumes of the spelter. 
or solder of brass. The men are generally un- 
healthy, suffering from disorders similar to those 
of the brass-founders. Tic-plate- workers are 
subjected to fumes from muriate of ammonia, and 
sulphureous exhalations from the coke which they 
burn. These exhalations, however, appear to be 
aimoying, rather than injurious, as the men are 
tolerably healthy, and live to a considerable a^. 
Tinners, also, are subject only to temporary in- 
convenience from the fumes of the soldering. 
Plumbers are exposed to the volatilized oxide of 
lead, which rises during the process of casting. 
They are sickly in appearance, and short-lived. 
House-painters are unnealthy^ and do not ^i>- 
cn-ally attain full age. Chemists and druggists, 
in la^ratories, are sickly and consumptive. Pot- 
ters, affected through the pores of the skin, be- 
come paralytic, and are remarkal)ly subject to 
constipation. Hatters, grocers, bakers and chim- 
ney sweepers (a droll association) also suffer 
through the skin; but, although the. irritation oc- 
casions diseases, they are not, except in the last 
class, fatal. Dyers are healthy and long-lived. 
Brewers are, as a body, far from healthy. Under 
a robust and often ^rid appearance, they con- 
ceal chronic diseases of the abdomen, particularly 
a congested state of the venous system. When 
these men are accidentally hurt or wounded, they 
are more liable than other individuals to severe 
and dangerous effects. Cooks and confectioner! 
are subjected to considerable heat. Our common 
cooks are more unhealthy than house-maids. 
Their digestive organs are frequently disordered : 
they are subject to headache, and their tempers 
rendered irritable. Glass-workers are beallhy. 
Glass-blowers oileo die suddenly. 

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Lownn, Jofleph, engmver, boni 1768; in 
die SlatfiB of the Church, went, duriog die 
polbkal djatmhaooes in Italy (1797)^ to Mi* 
Ian, wliere he diatinguishea nimaelf, and 
aurpaaaedyin diawii^;, thefiunouaMoighen. 
No hving engraver ia able to repreaent 
fleah with aoch truth. He ia maater of 
every speciea of ensmving, but aubjecta 
technical acience to the true object of the 
art. Id the style which combinea etching 
with the application of the burin, he but- 
paaaes the moat distinguiahed of his pre- 
deceasors. In thia department, are hia 
Philoaopher, from Rembrandt, and Dando- 
lo, from MettrinL His Magdalen, after 
Coiremo, represents, with an almost inde- 
Bcribebke exactness, the softnesa and trans- 
parency of tint admired in the original. 
His Galatea floating in a shell, from a 
painting by Albano, is equally excellent 
kaphaers Vision of Ezekiel he has also 
engraved in a masterly manner. His 
original pieces, as, for instance. Pan pur- 
suing Syrinx, from the first book of Ovid's 
Bletamorphoses (finished in 1814) have 
also been much admired. His Raphael's 
Marriage of the Holy Virgin is worthy of 
the original, and is one of the finest en- 
gravings of our times. Some fraffments, 
which have been published, of his History 
of the Art of Engraving, have also given 
him a reputation as a writer on this sub- 
ject. Eugene Beauhamais, when vice- 
roy of Italy, appointed Longfai professor at 
the academy of art in Milan, where he 
has formed several excellent schelars; he 
alao received from that prince the order 
of the iron crown. 

LoxeiMZTRT; the measuring of lengths 
or distances, both accessible and inacces- 
sible. Accessible distancea are measured 
by the api>hcation of some measure a cer- 
tain numoer of times, aa a foot, chain, 
&c. And inaccessible distances are meas- 
ured by taking angles, &c., by means of 
proper instruments, as the cvrcutii/erenf or, 
quadrant^ theodolite, &c. This embracea 
a great number of cases, according to the 
aituation of the object and observer. 

LoHoiirua, Cassius ; a Platonic philoso- 
pher and celebrated riietorician of the 
middle of the third centuiy, A. D* Ac- 
cording to some accounts, he was bom at 
Emesa, in Syria; according to Ruhnken, 
Athena was his birth-place. Greek litera- 
ture waa the principal subject of his 
studies. At Alexandria, Athens, etc, he 
attended the lectures of the most dis- 
tinguished scholars. He studied the Stoic 
and Peripatetic systems of philosophy, 
. but aubsequentiy became an ardent ad- 
herent of the Platonic and annually cde- 

vou viiK 7 

bnled the bifth-dqr ofitt fbontevbya 
banquet Hia principal attention waa di- 
rected, however, to the study of j^rammar, 
criticiam, eloquence and aoti^uitieai At 
the invitation of queen Zenobia, he went 
to Palmyra to instruct her in Greek learn- 
ing and to educate her children. He waa 
likewise employed by her in the adminia- 
tration of the atate, by which iHeana he 
was involved in the &te of this queen. 
For when Zenobia waa taken prisoner by 
the emperor Aurelian, and could save her 
life only by betraying her counsellors, 
Longinus, aa the chief of them, was seized 
and behraded, A. D. 275. He suffered 
death with all the firmneas of a philoso- 
pher. Of his works, among which were' 
some philosophical onea, none ia extant, 
except the treatise On the Sublime, which 
goes under his name, and this is in a state 
of mutilation. It illustrates, with great 
acuteneas and taste, the nature of the 
sublime in thought and s^le, by rules and 
examples. The best editions are those of 
Pearce (1724), of Toup and Ruhnken 
(Oxford, 1778). Benj. Weiske's edition 
appeared at Leipaic, 1809. There is an 
English tnmsluuon of it by Wm. Smith. 
Looffinus is usually called Dionymuu but 
this has arisen fiom the negligence of^ edi- 
tors. The manuscript copy of the trea- 
tise On the Sublime, in Paris, and one in 
the Vatican, bear the inscription in Greek, 
Bv DionysUu or Lotmrns, which appear- 
edfin the first printed copies as Dwnysius 
LongmuB. The Florence manuscript 
beara the inacription AnonymouB, Some 
critics have ascribed the woric to Diony- 
sius of Halicamaasus, others to another 
Lon^nus, while others confess that the 
autiior is uncertain. 

Long Island, or Nassau Island ; an 
island belonging to the state of New York, 
extending iSO miles in lenftfa, and vaiv- 
ing from 10 to 20 milea in breadth. On 
the weat, it is divided from Stateu Island 
by the Narrows, and from Manhattan 
Island by East river. On the north. 
East river and Lon^ Island sound sepa- 
rate it from the main land. Its eastern 
extremity is Montauk point On the 
south, it is washed by tiie ocean. Lon. 
7P 47' to 73° 57' W. ; lat 40° 34^ to 4P 
lO' N. Like other insular positions, its 
climate is more mild than that of the ad- 
jacent continent The iaiand is divided 
mto three counties — King's, Queen^ and 
Suffolk. Sag Harbor is the principal 
port The south side of the island is flat 
mnd, of a hght, sandy soil, bordered, on 
the sea coast, with large tracts of salt 
meadow. The soil however, is well 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



odoolnted fbr laking gnin, especiaUy Ih- 
dian com.' The north aide or the island 
is hiUv, and of a strong soil, adapted to 
the culture of grain, hay, and fitiits ; and 
the eastern part is remaiicably adiqited to 
the growth of wood, and supplies, in great 
part, the city of New York with this arti- 
cle. This ridge, forms Brooklyn and 
other heights, known in the revolutionary 
war. The principal towns and villages 
on the island are Brooklyn, Jamaica, Sag 
Harbor, Flatbush, Flushing, Satauket and 
Huntington. • 

LoffG Island Sound ; a bay, from 3 to 
35 mies broad, and about 120 long, ex- 
tencBn^the whole length of Long Island, 
and dividmg it from Connecticut It 
communicates with the ocean at both 
ends, and may be considered as extending 
from New York on the west to Fisher's 
Island on the east. On its northern shore 
are the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, 
Fairfield, Bridgeport, Milford, New Haven, 
Saybrook, New Loudon, Stonington, &c 
It receives the Connecticut, Housatonic, 
Thames and other rivers.* 

Longitude, Oeooraphicai. ; the dis- 
tance measured, according to degrees, 
minutes, seconds, &c., xm me equator, or 
a parallel circle, from one meridian to 
another, which is called die first, or prime 
meridian. Longitude is divided into 
eastern and western. It is alt(^ther in- 
dififerent through what point we draw the 
first meridian, but it must be setded what 
point we adopt In Germany, the Island 
of Ferro (q. v.) is generally adopted ; in 
France, the observatory at Paris ; in Eng- 
land, that of Greenwich ; in Berlin, that 
of Berlin ; in the U. States, the meridian 
of Washington is sometimes taken as a 
first meridian. Some geographers reckon 
from the first meridian 180 degrees west, 
and the same number east ; others, on the 
contrary, reckon the longitude from the 
west to die east, the whole length of the 
eauator, to 360 degrees. The longitude 
of any place, together with the ladtude 
(q. v.), is requisite for the determination of 
the true situation of the place upon the 
earth. From the form of our earui, it fol- 
lows that the degrees of longitude must 
always decrease towards the poles. The 
depnees of latitude, on the contrary, are 
all taken as equal to each other, and each 
amounts to GO geographical miles. The 
measure of a degree of longitude upon 
anv parallel of latitude is found by mul- 
tiplymg the length of a degree on the 

* The most recent chart of Long Island Sounc^ 
is that Dublished by the Messrs Blunts ^New 
V<uk.f 1830.) 

equator by the oo-sliie (taking raditiiradtf 
to 1) of the latitude of the paralleL Tha 
longitude shows the difference of time 
between any place and the first meridian. 
The sun performing his apparent revolu- 
tion mm hotuB,a place which lies 15. 
decrees fiuther to the west than another^ 
wm have noon one hour later. Places 
whose difierence of longitude amounts to 
180° have opposite seasons of the day, 
since in the one place it is mid-day, and 
in the other, at the distance of 180P, it is 
midnight at the same moment The 
difference in longitude of any two places 
may be also determined by observations 
of the time of certain celestial phenome- 
na, taken at both places, such as eclipses 
of the moon, occultations of fixed staiB, 
and, in particular, the eclipses of Jupiter's 
satellites ; and, vice ver$CL, we can, fi^m the 
difference of longitude of two places, accu- 
rately ascertain the difference of their time. 
15° upon die parallel circle correspond- 
ing to one hour, P ^ves i! of time, W 
rive 1' of time, 15" give 1" of time, &c. 
The difference of longitude between Bos- 
ton and London may serve as an example. 
This difference is 71°, 4', 9^' ; consecjuent- 
ly, noon at London is 4 hours 44 mmutes 
and 6 seconds earlier than at Boston. 
The determination of longitude at sea, or 
of the situation of a ship at any moment, 
is hijfhly difficult and important. The 
English parliament, in 1714, ofi[ered a re- 
ward of £20,000 for an accurate method 
of finding the longitude at sea, within 
one half of a degree ; but this act was re- 
pealed July 15, 1828. A watch which 
should preserve a uniform motion, was the 
most suitable means that could be afford- 
ed to the navigator, who might, fit}m the 
difference of me time of noon on board 
the ship, and the time by the watch, imme- 
diately determine the difference between 
the longitude of the place for which the 
watch was regulated, and that wherein the 
ship then was. Harrison (q. v.) was the 
first who invented a chronometer of the 
requisite accuracy. Upon the first voyage, 
it deviated only two minutes in four 
months. Other artists folk>wed, namely, 
Kendall, Mudge, Berthoud, Le Roy, &c. ; 
and Arnold and Emery have lately pre- 
pared such accurate chronometers, that 
they have been used for the determination 
of longitude upon land, as well as at sea, 
with great success. Nevertheless, astro- 
nomi(»d observations furnish the most ex- 
act methods Qf determining longitude. 
As eclipses and occultations are compara- 
tively rare, and are somewhat difficult of 
calculation, the distances of the moon 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ftom the sun or aome of the fixed itus 
have been adopted for the calculation of 
longitude, because these can be measured 
aloKMit every night, and an accurate 
knowledge of the moon's orbit is the only 
thing requisite thereto. — LongUtuU in the 
heavens, as that of a star, &.c^ is an arc 
of the ecliptic comprehended between the 
first of Aries, and a circle perpendicular 
to the ecliptic^possing through the place 
of the star. The computation is made 
according to the signs of the ecliptic 
The longitude of a star is found by means 
of its ri^t ascension and declination. It 
changes on account of the precession of 
the equinoxes. (See EqumoXj and Pre- 

LoNGus, author of a Greek pastoral ro- 
mance, the subject of which is the loves 
of Daphnis and Chloe, probably lived in 
the time of Theodosius the Great. Noth- 
iiu^isknovni of the circumstances of his 
hte, nor is he mentioned by any of the 
ancients. His work is interesting by its 
poetical spirit, ^phic description and 
style. The earlier editions, of which Vil- 
kuson's is the best, do not contain the 
work in so complete a state as that of 
Courier (Paris, 1810). He supplied, fix)m 
a Florentine manuscript, an important 
chasm, but, having taken a copy of it, was 
careless or mean enough to render the 
page of the manuscript which contained 
that narration, illegible bv an enormous 
ink-spot. This spot, the Dbrerian, Del Fu- 
ria, Justly indignant, has laid l)efore the 
eyes of the public in an engraving, with 
an account of the whole affair. 
LorrowooD. (See SI. Helena.) 
Loo-Choo, or LiEou-KiEou, or Lew- 
Chew ; a group of islands in the Pacific 
ocean to the south of Japan and east of 
China, to which tliey are (inbutary. Lat 
ae° to2r 4(y N. ; ion. 127° W to 129° E. 
But little was known to us of these islands 
until they were visited by Maxwell and 
Hall, on their return from the embassy to 
China. (See Hall's Voyagt to Corta and 
Loo-Choo.) They are represented as 
havinff a mild climate and an excellent 
soil, wounding in fruits and vegetables. 
The voyagers who have touched have 
been allowed to land only under the most 
jealous precautioiis, and have never been 
permitted to enter the country. In other 
respects, they have been kindly treated and 
BU|^lied with provisions^ for jvhich the 
islanders have uniformly refused to receive 
pi^. Capt Hall paints the islands as a new 
Arcadia, in whicn the use of araus money 
and punishinents is unknown. It is man- 
ffal that little leUanca is to heidqpedoo 

the accounts of tnveDers, who were igno- 
rant of the language of the Loo-Chooans^ 
and whose intercourse with them was ev- 
idently subject to all the lestssints of a most 
vigilant and despotic police. In fiict, the 
statements of captain Hall on several 
points have been contradicted by the last 
voyager who has visited these islands 
(Beechey, Voyagt m the Pacific^ London, 
1831), who asserts that the Loo-Chooans 
have arms and money, and inflict the 
most severe and cruel punishments. As for 
the supplies, they appear to have been fur- 
nished by authority, and not by individu 
als, and the refusal to receive compensa- 
tion is easily accounted for, on the ground 
that the government which shows such an 
aversion to strangers, is unwilling to sufiler 
any trafiSc between them and its subjects. 
They were for some « time subject to 
Japan, but, in 1372, were conquered by 

Look-out ; a cape on the coast of North 
Carolina, in lat 34° 34' N. : N. £. of cape 
Fear, and S. W. of cape Hatteras. 

Loon [colymhus); large aquatic birds^ 
common to both Europe and America. 
They seldom visit Britain, but are met 
with in the north of Europe and Asia. 
In America, they are most numerous 
about Hudson's bay, but are also found 
fiurther south. In Pennsylvania, they are 
migratory, making their ap|)earance in the 
autumn. They are commonly seen in 

Eairs, and procure their food, which is fish, 
y diving and continuing under water for 
a length of time. They are very waiy, 
and are seldom killed, eluding their pur- 
suers by their great dexterity m plunging 
beneath the water. They are very rest- 
less before a storm, always uttering loud 
cries on the approach pf a tempest. They 
are not eaten, the flesh being rank and 
fishy. Some of the tribes in the Russian 
empire tan the skin which covers the 
breast of this fowl, and form dresses, &c. 
of it, which are very warm, and imbibe 
no moisture. The Greenlandera also 
make the same use of them. The loon 
measures two feet ten inches from the tip of 
the bill to the end of the tail, and four feet 
six inches in breadth : the bill is strong, of a 
glossy black, and four inches and three 
quarters long, to the corner of the mouth. 
The head and half of the length of the 
neck are of a deep black, with a green 
gloss, and purple reflections; this is suc- 
ceeded by a hand consisting of interrupted 
white and black lateral stnpes, which en- 
compasses the neck, and tapers to a point 
on its fore part, without joining ; bek»w 
this II a broad hwd of dvk gkMiy grs^ 

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and violet, whieh Is blended behind with 
the plumfl^ of the back ; the whole of 
the upper parts are of a deep black, slight- 
ly dossed w^ green, and tnickly spotted 
wiu white, in regular transverse or semi- 
circular rows, two spots on the end of 
each feather; the lower parts are pure 
white, with a slight dusky line across the 
vent The outside of the legs and feet is 
black, the inside lead color. The le^ m 
ibur inches in length ; both legs andreet 
are marked with five-mded polygons ; 
weight about eight to ten pounds. The 
female is somewhat smaller than the male, 
and differs in her colors. The young do 
not attain their perfect plumage until the 
second or third year. It should be men- 
tioned, however, that Temminck and the 
prince of Muagnano state that the two sex- 
es are alike in plumage : our sportsmen who 
reside on the coast where these birds are 
plenty, insist, on* the contrary, that the 
adults of both sexes may always be dis- 
tinguished by their plumage. The female 
lays two large brownish eggs, and general- 
ly builds at the edge of small islands or 
the margins of lakes and ponds. In swim- 
ming and diving, the legs only are used, 
and not the wings, as in the guillemot and 
auk tribes ; and, from their ^ing situated 
6r behind, and their slight deviation from 
the line of the body, the bird is enabled to 
propel itself through the water with great 

Loos, Daniel Frederic, a distin^ished 
die-mnker, was bom at Altenburg, m Sax- 
ony, in 1735. Stieler, the royal die-cutter, 
took him as an apprentice, but kept him 
back from jealousy. Loos, however, final- 
ly went to Dresden, where he worked at 
tne mint, but his merits were here also 
kept secret by his employer. After many 
vicissitudes, Loos was employed in the 
Pruaaian service at Magdeburg, but was 
unable to maintain his family, and lived 
for some time in poverty, in Berlin. His 
merit was at lost acKnowledged. In 
1787, he became member of the academy 
of !fine arts, and produced a great number 
of medals. Purity of style and drawing 
were not so much required in medals as 
at present in Germany, but his successors 
have hardly BurfAssed him in technical 
skilL Loos died in 1818. His son is one 
of the chief officers of the Berlin mint 

Lope de Veoa (Don Lope Iklix de Vtga 
€Uprfiut ; IVry, as he is often called, signi&s 
THor), a celebrated dramatic poet, was 
bom at Madrid, Sept 9£s 1568. While a 
* child, be displayed a lively taste for poo- 
try, made versea before he knew how to 
wiita^ and, aa he himaelf aven^ had ocnn- 

poaed aevend theatrical pieces, when 
scarce^ 12 years of age. About this time, 
he ran away from school with a com- 
rade, for the purpose of seeing the world, 
but was stopped in Astorga,and sent back, 
by the authorities of the place, to Madrid. 
Lope early lost his parents, but was ena- 
bled, by the assistance of Avila, bishop of 
Alcala, to complete his studies. He afler- 
vrards found a patron in the duke of Alva, 
at Madrid. Encouraged by this Meece- 
nas, whose secretary he became, he com- 
posed his Jhradia, a heroic pastoral in 
prose and verse, of which Montenm'or 
had given an exami>le in his Diana. The 
Arcadia is an idyl, in five acts, in which 
the shepherds, with their DukvneaSf speak 
the language of Amadis, and discuas 
questioAs of theology, grammar, rhetoric, 
arithmeuc, geometry, music and poetry. 
Inscriptions are also introduced upon the 
pedestals of the statues of distinguished 
men in a saloon, in which a part of the 
action takes place. This work proved the 
various acquisitions of the author. Con- 
ceits and quibbles are frequent in this, as 
in Lope's other writings. In general, he 
is one of those writers who set a danger- 
ous example of that fiilse wit, a taste for 
which extended almost all over £u* 
rope. Marino particularly introduced it 
into Italy, and acknowledged, with lively 
expi'essions of admiration, that Lope had 
been his pattern. Ailer the publication of 
his Arcadia^ Lope married. He appeared 
however, to have cultivated the poetic art 
with increasing zeal. A nobleman of 
rank having made himself meriy at Lope's 
expense, the poet revenged himself upon 
this critic, and exposed him to the laughter 
of the whole city. His opponent challenged 
him, and was dangerously wounded in 
the encounter,^ and Lope was obliged to 
flee to Valencia. Aflerhis return to Madrid, 
the loss of his wife rendered a readencein 
that place insupportable to him. In J588, 
therefore, he served in the invincible ar- 
mada, the fete of which is well known. 
During this expedidon he wrote La Her- 
mosiura de Angelica (the Beauty of Angeli- 
ca), a poem in 20 cantos, which continues 
the history of this princess from the time 
in which Ariosto left it By this work he 
hoped to do honor to his country, in 
which, as he learned in Turpin, the suc- 
ceeding adventures of the heroine occur- 
red. In addition to the peril of rivaliy 
with Ariosto, the difficulty of success was 
hiereased by the appearance of a poem 
upon die same subject, by Luis Bor- 
hono de 8olo^ under the tide Laa Lagry- 
matd^wd^gedaiyWhKhpaaBed foronaoif 

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Ifaebeit poems in theSpanuh iangnage^ 
mad was honorably meDtioned in Don 
Quixote. In 1590, Lope returned to 
Madrid, and again entered the married 
stot^ In 1596, he obtained one of the 
poetical prizes^ ofiered on the oocaaion of 
the canonization of Sl Isidore. This 
prize poem he published with many other 
poems, under the name of T<yirU dt Bur- 
gwUos. About this time, he also com^ 
posed a great number of pieces for the 
theatre. His literary fame increased, and 
his domestic situation made this the hap- 
piest period of his life. But he lost his 
SOD, and soon after his wife, and had only 
a daughter left. He now sought consola-* 
tion from religion, and became a priest 
and secretaiy of the inquisition. His de- 
T(»don, however, did not interfere with his 
poetical studies, and he sdll endeavored to 
maintain the distinguished rank which he 
had taken upon the Spanish Parnassus, 
and to repel the attacks of bis foes and his 
rivafa^ aiuonff whom Luis de Gongora y 
Argote was the most distinguished. Lope, 
who had been attacked in his satires, and 
who was indignant at the corruption of 
taste produced by him, allowed himself to 
ridicule his obscure and affected style, and 
that of his pupils, although, m his poem 
laaxrd de ApoUo^ he acknowledges the 
talents of Gongora. But Gongora's cor- 
rupt taste infected even his opponents, 
and it must be confessed that Lope's last 
works are not entirely exempt ftom it 
Another yet more distinguished assailant 
was Ceivantes, who publicly advised him, 
in a sonnet, to leave the epic poem, upon 
which he was then engaged— -/entfo^em 
amqidstada — unfinished. Lope parodied 
this sonnet, and published his poem, the 
weakest of his performances. He accom- 
panied it with many remarks, which are 
all found in the last edition of 1777. Cer- 
vantes acknowledged his merits, howev- 
er, in the following verses : 

" Poeta intigntf a cuyo verso o prosa 
Nhtguno U aoantaje m aun lehega." 

(A distinguished poet, whom no one, in 
verse or prose, surpasses or equals.) Cer- 
vantes died soon after (1616), in poverty, 
in the very city in which his rival lived 
in splendor and luxuiy, and in the posr 
session of the public adtniratiofi. How 
diflferently has posterity judged of these 
two poets ! For 200 years, the fame of 
Cerrantes has been increasing, while 
Lope is neglected in his own country. 
About the time of Cervantes' death, the 
enthusiasm of the Spaniards for Lope i^ 
proeched to idolatiy, and he himself was 

Hotwiaeenoii^tDieleetit Thennnibar 
of hispoetical productions is extraofdina- 
r^. Scarcely a year passed in which he 
^ did not print a poem, and, in general^ 
acarcelv a month, nay, scarcely a week, ki 
which he did not produce a piece for the 
theatre. A pastoral, in prose and veree, 
in which he celebrates the birth of Christ, 
established his supremacy in this branch ; 
and many verses and hymns on sacred sub- 
jects bore testimony to his zeal for the new 
calling to which he had devoted hunself. 
Philip IV, who greatly favored the Spanish 
theatre, when he ascended the throne, in 
1621, found Lope in possession of the 
stage, and of an unlimited authori^ over 
poets, actors, and the public. He imroe^ 
diately loaded him with new merits of 
honor and favor. At this time Lope pub- 
lished LosIHumpkos delaFi; has Fkn^ 
tunas de Diana, novels in prose, imitations 
of those of Cervantes; drctf an epic 
poem, and Philomelaj an aUegory, in 
which, under the character of the night* 
ingale, he seeks to revenge himself upon 
certain critics, whom he represents under 
that of the thrush. His celebrity in- 
creased so much that, suspicious with 
respect to the enthusiasm which had 
been shown for him, he printed the work 
SolHoquios a DioSy under the assumed 
name, N. P. Gabriel de Padecopeo (an an* 
affram of Lope de Vega de Carpio),which 
likewise obtained great applause. He 
afl^wards published a poem on the sub- 
ject of Mary Stuart, viz. Omma iragica 
(the Traffic Crown), and dedicated it to 
pope Urban VIII, who had also com- 
memorated the death of this queen, llie 
pope wrote an answer to the poet with 
his own hand, and conferred on him the 
tide of doctor of theology ; he also sent 
him the cross of the order of Malta — ^marka 
of honor which, at the same time, reward* 
ed his zeal for strict Catholicism, on which 
account he was also made a familiar of 
the inquisition. All this contributed to. 
support the enthusiasm of the Spaniards 
for this "wonder of literature." The 
people for whom he wrote, without regard 
to criticism (for he says in his stranee 
poem, Arte de hazer ComediaSy that the 
people pay for the comedies, and, con* 
sequently, he who serves them should 
eonsult their pleasure), ran afler him 
whenever he made his appearance in the 
street, to gaze upon this prodigy of nature 
(num^nto de fuduraieza), as Cervantes call* 
ed him. The directors of the theatre paid 
him so liberally, that at one time he is said 
to have possessed property to the amount 
of more than lOQ/KM imm ; but he vcb 

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himBeif 00 genenNU and choritaMe, that 
he left but mtle. The spiritual coUe^ in 
Madrid, mto which he had been admitted, 
chose him president {etqfdian mayory In 
common converaatioD, any thing pierfect 
in its kind, was called Lopean. Until 
16^ he continued without interruption 
to produce poems and plays. At this pe- 
riod, however, he occupied himself with 
religious thou^ts, and devoted himself 
stricdy to monastic practices, and died 
August 36 of the same year. The prince- 

§r splendor of his funeral, of which the 
uke of Susa, the most distinguished of 
his patrons, and the executor of his wiU, 
had the direction, the great number as 
well as the tone of the panegyric^ which 
were composed for this occaaon, the 
emulation of foreign and native poets to 
bewail his death, and to celebrate his 
feme, presented an example altogether 
unique in the history of literature. The 

Splendid exequies continued for three 
ays, and ceremonies in honor of the 
Spanish Phoenix were performed upon 
the Spanish stages with great solemnity. 
The number of Lope's compoadons is 
astcmishing. It is said that he printed 
more than 21,300,000 lines, and that 800 
of his pieces have appeared upon the 
stage. In one of his last works, he af- 
firmed that the printed portion of them 
was less than those which were ready for 
the press. The Castilian language is, in- 
deea, veiy rich, the Spanish verses are 
often very short, and the laws of metre 
and rhythm are not rigid. We may, how- 
ever, doubt the pretended number of 
Lope's works, or we must admit, that, if he 
began to compose when 13 years of age, he 
must have written about 900 verses daily, 
which, if we consider his employments, 
and the interruptions to which, as a soldier, 
a secretary, the father of a family, and a 
priest, he must have been subject, appears 
inconceivable. What we possess of his 
works amounts to only about a fourth of 
this quantity. This, however, is sufficient 
to excite astonishment at his fertility. He 
himself informs us that be had more than 
a hundred times composed a piece and 
brought it on the stage within 24 hours. 
Perez de Montalvan asserts that Lope 
composed as rapidly in poetry as in prose, 
and that he made verses faster than his 
amanuenns could write them. He es- 
timates Lope's plays at 1800, and liis sa- 
cramental pieces (Autos Bocrcmienialos) at 
400. Of his vmtings, his dramatic works 
are the most celebrated. The plots of 
thoae that approach nearest to the charac- 
ter of trageay, are usually so extensive, 

that odier poets would have made, at teasC, 
four pieces of them. Such, for instance, is 
the exuberance found in La ISierza laiHr 
mosoy wiiich obtained die distinction of be- 
ing represented in the seraglio at Constanti- 
nople. In fertility of dramftic invention, 
and j&cility of language, both in prose and 
verse. Lope stands alone. The execution 
and the connexion of his pieces are often 
slight and loose. He is also accused of 
making too frequent and uniform a use 
of dueb and disguises (which fault, howev- 
er, his successors committed still more fie- 
quendy),and of freedom in his delineations 
of manners. Some (lord Holland, for in- 
stance) have attributed to him also the in- 
troduction of the character termed gnictbfo, 
upon the Spanish stage. In those irregu- 
lar pieces, which Lope composed for the 
popular 'taste, we find such bombast of 
language and thought, that we are often 
tempted to conclude that he intended to 
make sport of his subject and his hearers. 
The merit of the elaborate parts of his 
tragedies consists particuliorly in the rich 
exuberance* of his figures, and, according 
to the Spanish criucs, the puritv of his 
language. In judging of his boldness in 
treating religious affiiira, we must take into 
consideration the character of the nation, 
and the nature of the Spcuush stage. 
Many foreign dramatic writers, we may 
add, have imitated Lope, and are indebted 
to him for their best pieces and touches. 
Scfalegel, in his lectures on the drama 
( Vorietungen fiber dramoHache Kunst)^ says 
of Lope — "Without doubt, this writer, 
sometimes too much extolled, sometunes 
too much undervalued, appears in the moat 
favorable light in his plays; the tl^a- 
tre was the best school for the correction 
of his three capital faults, viz. defective 
connexion, prolixity, and a useless display 
of learning.'' In some of his pieces, es- 
pecially the historical, which were found- 
ed upon old romances and traditions, a 
certain rudeness of manner predominates, 
which is by no means destitute of charac- 
ter, and seems manifesdy to have been 
chosen for the subjects. Others, which 
delineate the manners of the time, display 
a cultivated tone. They all contain much 
humor and interesting situations, and prob- 
ably there are few which, with some alter- 
ations, would not be well received, even 
at the present day. Their general faults 
are the same— carelessness of plot and 
negligent execution. They are also de- 
ficient in depth, and in those fine qualities 
which constimte the mysteries of the art. 
A CoUeecion de ku Obras swUas assi en 
Prosa como en Veno de D. Lope^ &a, iqi- 

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oeared at Madrid, 1776, seq. (31 yo]&,4to.). 
This does not contain Ins phyB, however, 
which were pubJiahed at an earlier date, 
in 25 Yols^ 4to. Concerning his life (of 
which his poem DoroHua gives, per- 
haps, the moit valuable information) and 
writings, consult the woiit of lord Hol- 
land— -Some Account of the Life and 
Writings of Lope Felix de Vega Caipio 
(London, 1817, 2 vols^ 3d edition). 

Lord ; of Uhcertain etymology ; a title 
of honor or dignity, used in different 
senses. In the feudal tiroes, lord (seigneur) 
was the grantor or proprietor of the land, 
who retained the dominion or ultimate 
p^perty of the feud or fee, the use only 
being granted to the tenant A person 
who has the fee of a manor, and conse- 
quently the homage of his tenants, is called 
the lord of the manor. In these cases, the 
l<Hd8bip or barony was connected with 
the seigneurial rights of jurisdiction. The 
superior lord is styled lord paramount, and 
if his tenants again grant a portion of land 
to other persons, they being tenants in 
reference to the lord paramount, and lords 
in reference to then* own tenants, are 
called mesne or meanj L e. middle lords. 
Lord is also a mere title of dignity, at- 
tached to certain official stations, which 
' are sometimes hereditary, but sometimes 
only official or personal All who are 
noUe bv birth or creation, that is, the peers 
of England, are called lords; the five or- 
ders of nobility constimte the lords tem- 
poral, in contradistinction from the prelates 
of the church, or lords spiritual, both of 
whom sit together in the house of lords. 
(See Peers,) It is sometimes only an 
official tide, as lord advocate^ lord mayor, 
&C. It is also applied, but only by cour- 
teey, to the sons of dukes and marquises, 
and to the eldest sons of earls. — In Scrip- 
tore, the word Loan, when printed m 
capitals, in the Old Testament, is a trans- 
lation of the Hebrew Monai, which the 
lews were accustomed to substitute in 
reading, and even in writing, for the in- 
ef&ble name Jehomk (q. v.). In the New 
Testament, it is applied to Jesus Christ, 
the term, in the original Greek, being Kvptos 
(owner, master.) 

Lords, House or. (See Parliament, 
in the article Great Britmn.) 

Lord's Supper; a ceremony among 
Christians, by which they commemorate 
the death of the founder of their religion, 
and make, at the same time, a profession 
of their &ith. Jesus Christ instituted the 
rite when he took his last meal with his 
disciples. The bread, which he broke 
after the Oriental manner, was a fitting 

symbol of his bo€^, which was soon to be 
broken ; and the red wine (for, probably, 
Christ used this kind of wine, which is 
the most common in Palestine) was a sig- 
nificant symbol of his blood. In all the 
churches founded by the aposdes^ this 
usage was introduced. In the first and 
second century, this rite was celebrated in 
connexion with the <V£^ (q. v.) or love- 
feast* After the thira century, when the 
congregations became more numerous, the 
agapes ceased, and the Lord's supper was 
from thence celebrated on the occaraon of 
every divine service in the churches, in 
such a way that all present could partake, 
with the exception of catechumens (i. e. 
Christians not yet baptized), and of unbe- 
lievers. These were obliged to withdrew 
when the celebration of the Lord's supper 
conmienced, because conununion was 
considered as a mysterious act, which was 
to be withheld fi^om profime eyes. Chris- 
tians soon becan to ascribe supernatural 
power to the nte, and to take the conse- 
crated bread and wine fof* more than 
bread and wine, and to maintain that the 
body and the blood of our Savior were 
united with them. From this originated 
the doctrine of transubstantiation, which 
was started by Parrhasius Radbertus, in 
the ninth century. Thoi^h this doctrine 
was at first opposed (see JBerengarius), yet 
it was soon generally received, and, in 
1215, solenmly confirmed by pope Inno- 
cent III, in the fourth Lateran council. 
From the new doctrine sprang the adora- 
tion of the host (in which God was pres- 
ent, according to the new belief), as well 
as the custom of refusing the cup in the 
communion to the laity, because it was 
supposed, that, where the body of Christ 
was, his blood must be too {Concomitance), 
whence the use of the wine was not 
necessary for the reception of the com- 
munion. This refusal was, also, pardy 
owing to a desire of avoiding every 
occasion whereby the blood or Christ 
might be incautiously spilled, and become 
profaned ; and partly to the effi^rts of the 
clergy to establish a distinction in their 
own favor. Even before the origin of 
the doctrine of transubstantiation, the 
Lord's supper had begun to be represent- 
ed as a sacrifice. From this sprang the 
private moss. (See Mass.) After the 
notion of purgatory had become prevalent, 
this doctrine was connected with the 
above-mentioned conception of the com- 
munion as a sacrifice, and now masses were 
said chiefly for the purpose of delivering 
the souls of the deceased fit)m purgatory. 
As early as the eeventh century, private 

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inaMeB ware oelebnted in TariouB ploces ; 
after the ninth century, they were in use 
every where. Thus the Lord's supper had 
become, in the couise of time, something 
ouite different from the design of its 
rounder. This had been contended pre^ 
vious to the reformation, by some parties 
dissatisfied with the ruling church, espe- 
cially by the Hussites (seeHuasHeSy in article 
Hu$s\ in the fifteenth century, to whom, 
indeed, the council of ^le was obliged 
to allow the use of the cup in the com- 
munion. The reformers renewed the^ 
complaint, that the church had deviated, 
in the celebration of the Lord's supper, 
from the purpose of Ohrist, and the ex- 
aihple of the apostolic age, and both the 
German and Swiss reformers agreed in 
rejecting the doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion and the mass, and maintaining, that 
the Lord's supper ought to be celebrated 
before the whole consregation, and with 
the administration of lx)th bread and 
wine. In explaining the words by which 
the supper was instituted, Luther and 
Zuinglius differed, and their different opin- 
ions on this subject formed the principal 
subject of the unhappy dissension between 
the Lutheran and Calvinistic churches. 
Luther took the words, " This is my body," 
&C., m their literal sense, and thought 
that the body and blood of Jesus Christ 
were united, in a mysterious way, with 
the bread and the wine, so that the com- 
municant receives, with and under (cum 
tt 9ub) the bread and wine, the real 
body and real blood of the Redeemer. 
Zuinglius, on the other side, understood 
the words in a figurative sense, and sup- 
posed that Jesus Christ meant to say, ** The 
bread and the wine represent my body 
and my blood," aiid maintained, therefore, 
that the bread and wine were mere si^ns 
of the body and the blood of Chnst. 
From this difference of opinion arose a 
violent dispute between Luther and Zuin- 
glius, which, in later times, has been 
continued between the Lutheran and Cal- 
vinistic divines. The opinion advanced 
by Calvin, bv which a spiritual pres- 
ence of the body and blood of Christ 
is supposed in the communion, though it 
came nearer to the Lutheran doctrine 
than that of Zuinglius did, vet was essen- 
tially different, and, thererore, also met 
with a stronff oppontion from the strict 
adherents of^Lutner. Melanchthon in- 
clined to the Calvinistic notion, and so 
did manv other Lutheran divines, who 
were called by the opposite party PhSiip- 
tfto and C^ry^Cahnrntis. The formula 
to/neardUtf or artiolai o£ feligious peac^ 

suppressed the Crypto-Calvinistt in die 
greatest part of the Lutheran church, and 
established the idea of Luther. In recent 
times, many Lutheran divines have ia- 
clined to the Calvinistic doctrine. The 
Greek church has not ado^fted the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation in its whole 
extent ; yet her doctrine comes nearer to 
this dogma than to that of the reformed 
church. The Oriental Christians differ 
also from the Western, in Using leavened 
bread in the Lord's supper, and in admin- 
istering it to children. (See Greek Churdu) 
[The doctrine of the Lord's supper has 
given rise to such long and bitter conten- 
tion between Catholics and Protestantt^ 
that the following remarks, written by a 
Catholic, and giving the Catholic views 
on this subject, may not be uninteresting 
to our readers.] The Catholic doctrine 
of oommunion (says the writer) cannot be 
understood witiiout a clear inaiffht into 
the fundamental vievre of the Catholic 
church on all sacred things. He, to 
whom Christianity is not an external reve- 
lation of the Deity, to whom Jesus is aot 
the incarnate God, and his doctrine not 
divine truth higher than all human con- 
ceptions, who regards not the church as a 
divine institution, and her traditions as in- 
disputably true, cannot enter into the 
Catholic views on the communion. It 
must be particularly considered, that Cath- 
olic Christianity is of a truly mystic nature. 
By mysticism we mean not the capricious 
imaginations of each individual, nut the 
universal mystical belief of the church. 
Of these mysteries the sacrament of com- 
munion is the highest, and is the cendnl 
point of all the institutions of the Catholic 
church. In all religions, we find the idea 
of a sacrifice, which man offers to the I>e- 
ity, by which he acknowledges a relatioB 
between himself and the Deity, and en- 
deavors to represent the devout spirit of re- 
li gion by an act of external worship. The 
purer is this idea of a sacrifice, the purer 
is the religion. It was reserved for Chris- 
tianity to ^ve it its highest reality and 
greatest purity. In the prophecies relat- 
ing to the Messiah, it is said, that he shall 
be a priest afier the order of Melchisedek 
{Psdbn ex. 4) ; but this Melchisedek was 
a priest of the Most High, who offered 
bread and wine. ( Gen, ziv-) How then 
was this prophecy fulfilled ? Malachi pre- 
dicted that the sacrifices of the ancient 
law 'Would be abolished, and supplied by 
a pure meat-offering. (Malaehi i, 11.) The 
incarnate God walked in the flesh among 
mortals, teaching and working minwlea 
After having peifivmed the mimde of 

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nmhiplyiiig the loaves, he delnrered a part 
of his mysteries (John vi, 48-^56 ; 1 Co- 
rmUL xiXy 16; Luke zxiL 19, 20 ; Mark xiv, 
22— 39; Jlfal^xxvL2&r-28.) ItiseasUy 
perceived that this rite must have been 
coeval with ftie foundation of his religion, 
and that the apostles every where intro- 
duced it and made known its si^ification. 
But what the apostles have mtroduced 
and preached we learn only by tradition. 
This tradition, however, tells us that the 
CHndinance of Christ was meant Hterally. 
The Lord (proceeds the writer) remained 
in his church : in the congregations of the 
Christians, the body and the blood of the 
Savior were ofi^red and tasted in the shape 
of bread and wine. This was the belief 
of the church from the beginniDg; and it 
cannot be shown that it commenced at 
any particular time, or supplanted another 
doctrine. The clearest proof of this is, 
that a amilar doctrine, even if it be not 
the same doctrine of transubstantiation, 
IS to be found in all the churches, which 
long since separated from the Catho- 
lic This rite i9 in remembrance of the 
death and the resurrection of Jesua But 
how (says the writer] can we sin against tlie 
body and the blood of Jesus ? How can 
we take it at all unworthily, if the whole 
ceremony is a mere act of commemora- 
tion ? To what purpose would be the ad- 
monition, ''This do in remembrance of 
me," if there was no meaning attached to it 
but that of a participation in the fruits of 
Jesus' death by an act of commemora- 
tion ? The memory of Jesus is essentially 
connected with all the benefits of his reh- 
gion. Further, as soon as we admit of a 
real presence of Jesus in the eucharist, 
we must be ready to concede, also, that 
the bread and wine cease to exist in reali- 
ty, though they remain still in appearance. 
That which really exists, is the sacra- 
mentally (not visibly) present body and 
blood of Christ. By a miracle of the 
Omnipotent, a change is effected, and this 
we call tr€msiJ)staniiatum. It has been 
proved already, by Leibnitz, that there is 
no philosophical contradiction in this, and 
we find it the principle of a whole philo- 
sopl^cal school, the sceptics, to dispute 
the real existence of appearances. £ven 
the oldest Christian fathers, not only in 
sermonsy but in passages explanatory of 
their doctrines, and destined for the in- 
stnictioD of the catechumens, expressed 
thetDsehres in such a way as to show 
us that the first ChristiaDS were not 
only convinced of Christ's being pres- 
eot dvoagh our bdie^ but also that 
the fanad or wine no kHiger existed. 

Jusdn Martyr, endeavoring to give the 
emperor a nodon of the religion of the 
Christians, after describing the ceremo- 
ny of consecration, says, "We eat this 
not as conmion bread, and drink this 
not as common wine ; but as Jesus Christ, 
afler havLoff been made man by the word 
of God, had flesh and blood, so we beheve 
also, that the food consecrated by his 
words, has become the flesh and blood of 
the man Jesus." (Acta 1.) We know al- 
so, that the Christians were accused, by 
the pagans, of eatins, m their secret as- 
semblies, the flesh oi an infant—a notion 
which certainly took its rise from their 
doctrine of the Lord's supper, of which 
the former might have heard some ob- 
scure accounL The Christians, in gene^ 
ral (continues the writer), kept this doc- 
trine very secret (disciplina arcani). If 
they believed that they received Christ 
only through fiiith, it is not easv to see 
why they made such a mystery or it But 
this they did, and instructed theur catechu- 
mens in tiiis doctrine but a short time be- 
fore their baptism. The dogma of tran- 
substantiation is as old as the communion 
itselfj and was by no means first set up by 
Parrhasius.Radbertus, in the ninth centu- 
ry, as is commonly asserted by the Prot- 
estants. There is no reason why that 
real presence should be limited to the 
time when the Christian receives the eu- 
charist ; for Christ distinctiy says, "This is 
my body," and tenders it, on that account, 
to his disciples. And how could it be de- 
cided at what moment this presence com- 
mences, and when it ceases? The first 
Christians knew nothing about this limi- 
tation. They regarded the consecrated 
host with feelings of adoration ; they 
partook of it with the utmost awe, and 
carried it with them in times of persecution, 
to encourage Uiemselves by the enjoyment 
of it. Origcn, a writer of the third centu- 
ry, says, " You, who are allowed to par- 
take in the holy mysteries, you know how 
to keep the body of the Lord you receive, 
with all caution and reverence (the Chris- 
tians received it fonnerly with their hands), 
lest any part of the hallowed gift fall to 
the ground ; you believe justly that you 
brmg guilt upon yourselves when, by neg- 
ligence, you drop any part of it" Equally 
tturong terms are to be found in Cyril's in- 
structions to the new converts, as well as 
in the Utiu^ of all the Oriental and West- 
em churches, the testimony of which is 
of the greater importance, as it is not the 
testimony of a few single Bcholars, but the 
public profession of entire churches. Am 
ttom the fint times^ the presbyter of the 

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congregation performed the consecmtiony 
the peculiar view of the Catholic church, 
which considers the spiritual ^ide of a 
congregation aa a sacrilScing priest, is ex- 
plained. The mass is nocTii ng but this 
sacrifice, and, so far, as old in its essential 
character as the Lord's supper, though it 
first received its external additions and 
form under Gregory tlie Great. The Lord's 
supper is a sacrament, which, by an ex- 
ternal symbol, sanctifies the internal man. 
The Catholic view of communion per- 
vades the whole Catholic religious and ec- 
clesiastical system. This creed of the 
whole Christian church, the Greek not 
excepted,as it is represented here, remained 
uncontroverted until the eleventh cen- 
tury, when the controversy between the 
Greek and the Latin churches broke out, 
respecting the bread to be used in the 
communion — whether it ought to be leav- • 
ened or unleavened. Respecting the doc- 
trine of the supper, there arose no dis- 
pute, till the beginning of the thirteenth 
century, when the priest Berengarius of 
Tours denied the doctrine- of transub- 
stantiation, but not that of the sub- 
stantial presence of Christ. The whole 
church was surprised at tiiis innovation. 
This ^ave occasion, in the fourth Lateran 
council, to a solemn proclamation of the 
old creed of the church on transiibsian- 
tiation. This creed continued in full au- 
thority, and even Hussdid not impeach it; 
nay, Uuss and his adherents were filled 
with reverence towards the sacrament, 
and claimed even the cup. It had become 
customary in latter times, from fear of spill- 
ing some part of the blood, to give only the 
body to the laity, since in the body the 
blood was contained (doctrine of concom- 
itance )w Tlie Hussites, however, believed 
that the cup was a constituent part of the 
sacrament, without which the sacrament 
would not be complete. The church con- 
demned this opinion as a heresy, in the 
council of Constance, in 1415. By the 
reformation of the sixteenth century, the 
whole Catholic system was attacke<l, as 
the reformers, rejecting the traditions of 
the church, took the Bible alone for their 

Slide in matters of belief, and departed, at 
e same time, from the Catholic theory 
of communion. If they had lefl tlie 
Catholic doctrine on communion, the 
priesthood and mass would necessarily 
nave remained too. By what means 
could the priests of the new sect obtain 
theu* consecration ? It wos therefore neces- 
aary to establish a new theory of com- 
munion ; or, rather, it was the natural con- 
iequenee, since the new ohurch, founded 

on reason, by which the scripture was to 
be searched, must needs lose a sense of 
the Catholic mysteries, hi the council of 
Trent, session 13, are pronounced the 
following canons, which jsepresent tlie 
creed of the church : — 1. Ir any one de- 
nies tliat there is contained in the most 
holy sacrament of the altar, truly, reallv 
and substantially, the body and the blood, 
together with the soul and divinity of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and, consequendy, the 
entire Christ, — if such a one say, that he 
is contained therein only as in a symbol, 
vdjiguroy vd virhde, anathema sit (let him 
be cursed). 2. If any one says, that there 
remains in the most holy sacrament of the 
altar, the substance of the bread and wine, 
together with the life and the blood of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and if he denies 
that wonderful and miraculous transform- 
ation of the whole substance of the bread 
into the body, and the whole substance of 
the wine into the blood, whilst there re- 
mains only the shape {species) of the 
bread and the wine, which transformation 
is termed, by the Catholic church, tran* 
sttbstantialion — dnaiheina sit, 3. If there 
be any one who denies that there is con- 
tained in the venerable sacrament of tho 
altar, under both sorts, and afler division 
has been performed under the single parts 
of both sorts, the whole Christ — anathema . 
sit. 4. If any one says, that, afler conse- 
cration has been performed, the body and 
the blood of Christ is not in the mmicu- 
lous sacrament of the altar, but that this 
is only during the tasting, neither before 
nor aJlenoardSf and that there is not in 
the consecrated host or the particles, pre- ^ 
served or remaining afler tiie celebration 
of the Lord's supper, die true body of 
the Lord — anathema sit, 5, If any ono 
says, either that remission of sins is the 
prhicipal effect of the sacrament of the 
altar, or that no other results spring from 
it— anathema sit, 6. If any one says, that 
the only-begotten Son of God is not to be 
adored by external worship, in the holy 
sacrament of the altar, and to be revered 
with particular solenmity, nor to be sol- 
emnly carried about in processions, after 
the praiseworthy and universal usage of 
the church, nor to be presented publicly 
to the people, and that those who adore 
him are idolaters— «»krf/*emai sit, 7. If 
any one says, it is not permitted to keep 
the holy eucharist hi the pix, but that it 
must be distributed immediately afler the 
consecration to the by-standera, or that k 
is not permitted to bear it reverentiaUy to 
the sick— onottemowt. 8. If any one says, 
that the Christ offerod in the euofaatist im 

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Msled only 8piritna]]y, and ndt aacrament- 
aify and leallV— ^moAema siL 9. If any one 
d^aieathatau Cbriadan believers of either 
aeZyas soon aa they are arrived at years of 
djBCietlon, are boudid, after the command 
of the holy Oltholic church, to conunwii- 
eate, at least, at Blaster every year— emaf^ 
ma siL 10. If any one says, that it is not per- 
mitted to the omciatmg priest to admmis- 
ter the sacrament to hiraself^-onafft^mant 
11. If any one says, that fiiith alone is a 
sufficient preparation for the enjoyment 
of the holy sacrament — anaihema stt. The 
Catholics have still rheproieru fitimat, as 
a pledge that the Lord remains with their 
church. (See Corpus ChrittL) 
Lorenzo ds Medici. (See MedicL) 
LoRETTo ; a smaQ town in the States 
of the Church, about three miles from the 
sea, in the Marc of Ancona, with a bishop, 
who is also bishop of Recanati, and 5000 
inhabitants, who are principally supported 
by the resort of pilgrims. Pilgrimages are 
made to the ctua tonto— the holy house in 
the cathedra] of Loretto, which is supposed 
to have been the house of the vir^n Mary, 
and which was carried by the angels (1291 ) 
from Galilee to Dalmatia, and thence, in 
1294, to Italy, near Recanati, and, finally 
(]^295), to the spot where it now remains. 
This holy house, which is in the centre 
of the church, is covered, externally, with 
marble, and is built of ebony and brick. 
It is 30 feet long, 15 wide, and 18 feet 
hi^ and richly ornamented. It has also 
been imitated at other places (for instance, 
at Prague). Loretto formerly contained 
great treasures, collected from the pil- 
grims. The income of this house once 
amounted txy. 30,000 scudij besides the 
presents received annually. The pilgrims 
were estimated at 100,000 yearly. Amongst 
other curiosities, a window is shown in 
the holv house, through which the angel 
Gabriel appeared to Mary, when he an- 
nounced the birth of the Savior. Ra- 
phael's painting of the virgin throwing a 
veil over the infant is beautiful. The 
treasures were, in part, expended in pay- 
ing the contributions imposed by the 
French (1796) ; the rest was taken posses- 
sion of by them. They carried the image 
of the virgin to Paris, but it was restored 
withgreat pomp, December 9, 1802. 

L'uRiENT ; a fortified and regularly buOt 
seaport of France, department of the 
* Moffoihan, on the bav of Port Louis, at 
the influx of the small river Scorf. The 
harbor is large and secure, and of easy 
aooeas. It h^ still some trade^ particular- 
ly with the French colonies, and is a 
niafe of importance, oa account ci its 

magazines fbr the use of the royal navr* 
The principal manufiu;ture is of san. 
Population, 17,115 ; 340 miles W. by 8. 
Paris; lat 4r>4y N. ; lon.6°Sy W. 
LoRME, Marion de. (See Dehrmt,) 
Lorraine, Claude. (See CZoude Lor^ 

Lorraine {LoOuningia ; in German, 
Lothinren), so called from Lothaire II, to 
whom ttiis part of the country fell in the 
division of the empire between him and 
his brothers, Louis II and Charles (854), 
had previously belonged to the kingdom 
of Austrasia. It was divided into Ix>wer 
and Upper^ Lorraine ; the former in- 
cluding all the country between the Rhine, 
the Meuse and die Scheldt, to the sea ; 
the latter the countries between the Rhine 
and the Moselle, to the Meuse. Lorraine, 
at a later period, was bounded by Alsace, 
Franche-Comt^, Champa^e, Luxemburg, 
the present Prussian province of the Low- 
er Rhine, and the Bavarian circle of the 
Rhine, containing 10,150 square miles, 
and at present forming the French depart- 
menCB of the Meuse, the Vosges, the Mo- 
selle and the Meurthe, with a population 
of 1,500,000 inhabitants. Its forests and 
mountains, among which the principal ia 
the Vosges, are adapted for the raising of 
cattle, and contain much game ; they also 
3rie1d copper, salt, iron, tin, and some sil- 
ver. SaJt springs and lakes, abounding 
with fish, are alro to be found. The son 
is, for the most part, poor, and not adapt- 
ed for tillage. The vine is cultivated to 
a considerable extent The French and 
German languages are spoken. The peo- 
ple are of Carman origin. Lorraine was 
for centuries a subject of dispute between 
France and Germany. It was, for a long 
time, a fief of the German empire. On 
the death of Charles the Bold, duke of 
Lorraine, in 1431, without male heira, 
the country was inherited by his daughter 
Isabella. The two grandsons of her son- 
in-law Frederic — Antony and Claude- 
founded, in 1508, the principal and col- 
lateral Lorraine lines, tne latter of which 
Spread in France (the dukes De Guise, 
'Aumale, D'Elboeu^ D'Hareourt, belong- 
ed to it). From that time forward (1540), 
France took a decided part in all diisputes 
reladnff to Lorraine. Charles of Lorraine 
was driven out, during the 30 years' war, 
on accoimt of his connexion with Austria. 
He was restored in 1659, under severe 
conditions, and, in 166S, he consented 
diat Lorraine should ffo to France on 
his death, the house of Lorraine being 
recognised as princes of the blood. He 
was, however, again deposed^ and died 

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in the AoBtiuui eervice. His brother's 
mndson Leopold was recogiused as 
duke of LoRBiae by the peace of Rye* 
wick (1697). France finally succeeded in 
her intentions, when StanisiauSy &ther-in- 
Isw of Louis XV, and the dethroned king 
of Poland, by the peace of Vienna (No- 
vember 8, 1738), received the duchies of 
Lorraine and Bar (with the exception of 
the county of Falkonstein), which, after 
his death (1766), were united with- Vrance. 
By the second peace of Paris (1815), a 
small part, with the fortress Saarlouis, was 
ceded to Gennany, and now belongs to 
the Prussian province of the I^wer 
Rhine. Besides the principal town, Nan- 
cy (q. v.), Lun^ville (q. v.) has been di»- 
tinguished by the peace of 1801. Charles 
Eugene, duke of Lorraine-EIboeuf^ bom 
September 25, 1751, at the c6mmence- 
ment of the French revolution, command- 
ed the regiment roved MUmand^ under the 
tide of prince Lamoesc,and afterwards en- 
tered tne Austrian service, and died at 
Vienna, November 21, 1825. He was the 
last of the younger line. The elder line 
now rules in Austria, Tuscany and Mode- 
na. (See Etienne's ResunU de VHtstoire de 
Lorraine (Paris, 1825). See also Hapsburg.) 

LoRT. This name has been given to 
some of the parrot tribe, from tlieir fre- 
quendy repeating t^e word. They have, 
nowever, no distinct characters of sufii- 
cient importance to separate them from 
the great eeuus psittaeus. They are very 
active and gay, even in captivity. They 
are found, for tlie most part, in the Mo- 
luccas, and are held in great estimation in 
some parts of the East. The most priz- 
ed is tne scarlet loiy, which was for a long 
time unknown in Europe, as the Dutch 
were at first wholly unsuccessful in trans- 
porting it thither ; the binls generally died 
on the voyage. They are now, however, 
brought across the ocean without much 
difiiculty, and are marked by their tender 
ness and attachment to their masters. 
The Javanese appear to have a great pre- 
dilection for them, and raise them in 
great numbers. But the most valuable of 
3iese birds is the yellow-coUared, which is 
of a deep red color, with a circle of yel- 
low around its neck. It is principally 
found in New Guinea. It is very docile 
and fiimiliar, and has great aptness in 
lefurning to speak ; this, added to its beau- 
and its extreme delicacy, as well as 

le difiicidty of rearing it, renden it very 
uigfaly esteemed. A nngle bird has been 
sold in London as high as 20 guineas. 

Lot ; a river of France, which rises in 
the department of Loz^ and joins the 


Ganmne, near Aiguilkm; length, 150 
miles. It gives name to a department. 

(&ee D^parSnenL) 

Lot ; accordinff to the Hebrew histoij^ 
a nephew of ADraham, who, to avoid 
dissensions between his j^llowers and 
those of Abraham, went east into the 
plain of Jordan, towards Sodom, while his 
uncle dwelt in Canaan. Having been 
taken captive by some marauding chiefs, 
Lot was delivered by Abraham fit>m 
their hands. Having received two angela 
into his house in Sodom, an attack was 
made upon it by night, by the inhabitants, 
who were struck blind, and the impend- 
ing destruction of the city was announced 
to Lot. He escaped from the devoted 
spot, with his family ; but his wife, looking 
back at the scene of devastation, " became 
a pillar of salt," which Josephus, and Ben- 
jamin of Tudela, declare existed in their 
times, and, according to some late travel- 
lers, was to be seen not long ago. The 
text is, by some, understood merely to sig- 
nify, that she was rendered a statue, that 
is, motionless, by being incrusted with 
salt Lot afterwards became the father of 
Moah and Ammon, by his two daughters. 

Lot. Man often finds it extremely 
difficult to choose between two measures, 
things, persons, &c. In such cases, he 
often allows himself to be determined by 
some outward impulse. This is, in part, 
the reason why men appeal to lot. The 
predominant motive, however, in very 
mtiny cases, is a superstitious belief of the 
direct interference of the Divinity in de- 
termining the result Hence we find the 
lot most frequendy resorted to in ages and 
nations littie advanced in civilization, and 
less guided by reason tiian by belief in 
supernatural influences; and hence, too, 
the religious ceremonies with which the 
appeal to lot is often accompanied in such 
a state of society. (See iHtnnaHon,) It 
would be endless to enumerate the difler- 
ent modes of determination by lot, and the 
vtirious cases in which men have resorted 
to this mode of resolving doubts. The 
Hebrews used to draw lots before under • 
taking any important enterprise ; also in 
criminal trials, to determine the question 
of guilt or innocence ; and at the elec- 
tion of officers. Thus the apostle Mat- 
thew was chosen by lot For this pur- 
pose, dice or small staves were generally 
taken. The holy lot wua the Urim and 
Thummim, The Greeks made use of dice, 
with signs^ lettera or words inscribed. 
These were drawn out of a vessel, and in- 
terpreted by priests, or the dice weie 
thrown as in games. Such dice were found 

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m nuaiy tenplefi, and one at Pimieite WM 
fiunous <m that account. The noithem 
natniia — ^&ii8aiain,GeniMiiis^wede8y&c«— 
aO had thw ways of piyinff into the fu- 
ture by lot. The Moravian Brethren have 
le-inirodnced ike appeal to lot ; they use 
it in the caae of marriageB and appoint- 
mentB, in their community, though it must 
be observed that they ^re not determined 
aoleiy by it 

Lot has received, in America, the pe- 
culiar meaning of a portion of land, as a 
Junue-UiL In the first settlement of the 
country, a certain portion or share of land 
was aUoUed to each inhabitant of a town ; 
this was called his lot. Hence, in a more 
general sense, the same word was applied 
to any piece of land. (See Jhneritcansm.) 

Lot-and-Garonue ; a department of 
France. {See,DeparimenL) 

Loth; a German weight, the half of an 
ounce, or the 3l2d part of a pound avoii^ 
dupois. The lead used by navigators and 
mechanics is also called LoUi in German. 

LoTiCHius, Peter (called Seamdus^ to 
diatingnish him finom his uncle), bom at 
^aalniiinster, in Hanau, 1528, studied phi- 
losophy, the ancient languages, rhetoric 
' and poetry under Melismis, Camenuius 
and Melanchthon ; served in the fi>rce8 of 
The Smalcaldic league ; travelled in France 
and Italy, as the tutor to some rich young 
men ; during this time, studied medicine 
at the most j&mous universities of both 
roimtries, and afterwards received a doc- 
torate at Padua* He died very young, 
while professor of medicine at Heid^ 
beig, I06O, as it is said, in consequence of 
a love potion, which was given him in 
ISologna. His Latin poetiy, particularly 
his elegies, give him a place among the 
fifst modem Latin poets. There are edi- 
tions of his PoematOy by P. Burmann 
(Amsterdam, 1754, 3 vol8.,4to,), and by 
Kretschmar (Dresden, 1773]. 

Lotion, in medicine ana pharmacy, is 
a wash for beautifying the skin, by clears 
ing it of the defbrmi&es occasioned by a 
iiretematural secretion. Almost all the 
lotions advertised for sale, contain much 
deleterious matter, and therefore ought 
never to be had recourse to. 

Lottery (from lot); a scheme for the 
distribution of prizes by chance. Lotte- 
ries, like every other species of gambling, 
«o doubt have a pernicious influence upon 
«he character of those concerned in them. 
Though this influence is not so direct, and 
the immediate consequences are not so 
disastrous, as those of some other species 
of ffambling, which call into exercise the 
viofont passions, and stake the gambler's 


whole foitune upon a aa^ chance or 
exertion of 8kilV-«till, as this kind can be 
carried on secredy, and the temptations are 
thrown in the way of both sexes, all ages, 
and aU descriptiona of persons, it ^r^s 
more widely m a community, and may 
thus silentiy infect the sober, economical 
and industrious habits of a people more 
extensively and deeply, than those species 
of gamblhag which are attended widi 
greater turbulence, and a train of other 
vices. Lotteries are of diiSferent kinds : J. 
Numerical lottery, or lotto (lotto di Gt- 
nova) ,' invented by the Genoese. At the 
elecnons of the counsellors, the names of 
the candidates were cast into a vase, and 
then into a wbeel-of-fortune, when wagers 
were laid upon the eveiit of the elections ; 
the state finally undertook the superin- 
tendence of the bank. It is saia that 
Benedetto Gentile, a counsellor, first in- 
troduced this lotto in 1620 ; and, because 
the name GeiUile, by chance, had never 
been drawn, the popular belief prevailed, 
that the devil had carried him on, to^tlier 
with his name, to punish him for this un- 
lucky invention. Numbers were afler- 
virards substituted instead of the names of 
eligible noblemen, and ^nce the lotto as> 
sumed its present form. The numbers 
from 1 to 90 are used ; firom these, on the 
day of drawing^ five numbers are always 
drawn. Out of die 90 numbers, each ad- 
venturer chooses for himself such and as 
many numbers as he likes, and specifies 
with what sum and upon what kind of 
chance he will bade each selected num- 
ber ; whereupon he receives a printed 
ticket In this lottery, there are four kinds 
of chances: 1. An utrado^ so calKfi, 
which requires only one number among 
the ^Ye that are drawn, and in which the 
successful adventurers received 14 times 
the stake. By this the lotto gains 16 per 
cent, because there are 17 bmnks to one 
prize. 2. The wager, in which a man 
lays a wager, as it were, with the lotto, 
that one of the selected numbers will 
have the first, second, third, fourth or fifth 
place in the order of drawing. Should 
this event happen in the drawing, the bet- 
tor obtains 67 times the sum deposited. 
By this the lotto gains about 25 per cent 
9.' The third is an axnhof in whicn, of the 
numbers drawn, there are two winch the 
adventurer has pitched upon. He re- 
ceives from the lotto 240 times the stake. 
In this case, the lotto gains 37 per cent, 
there bein^ 399 blanks to one prize. 4. 
The last' is a ttmoy by which the lotto 
puns 54 per cent, there being 11,347 
blanks to one prise. It requires the ad^ 

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vonturar to piteh upon three of the five 
nuinben drawn, in which case he wine 
4800 times the amount of the atake. The 
qwdarnu and quinUrnti are a later in- 
vention, end seldom qiplied to practice, 
because the lotto therep^r gains 88 per 
cent and^more. The lotto was eveiv 
where patronized by the multitude, witn 
an interest increasing almost to madness. 
Wise governments soon saw into the de- 
structive tendency of the lotto, and put an 
end to it, or prohibited adventuring in it 
under a severe penalty. Though the profit 
of the lotto banks was evident, yet fortune, 
by means ofUmes and ^umteniM, brought 
many of them to ruin, or, at least, to its 
very verge, and hence, if numbers were 
backed too frequently, the conductors 
took the precaution to secure themselves, 
by dechuing before the drawing, that 
such numbers were full, and they could 
receive no further stake upon them. 
Frauds, also, were practised, by means of 
violent riding and carrier-pigeons, on 
those lottos, the under offices of which, 
being placed at a distance, were accus- 
tom^ to sell tickets, afler the drawing in 
the principal offices had commenced. II. 
The proper lotteiy, called also dasa loUe- 
ry, when divided into classes. Its origin 
is more ancient than that of the lotto. It 
has been referred to the Roman Congix- 
ri(u It is more probable that it originated 
from the transfer of merchandise by lot, 
of which method the Italian merchants 
made use even in the middle ages, and of 
which we also find traces in Germany ; 
for as early as 1521, the council at Osna- 
burg is said to have established lotteries 
for merchandise. So also in France, un- 
der Francis I, enmilar lotteries for mer- 
chandise were permitted to the merchants, 
under the inspection of eovenunent, in 
consideration of certain duties. A money 
lottery was established at Florence, in 
1590. f n 1571, there appeare to have 
been a public officer in Venice for the 
inspection of the lottery. From Italy, 
lotteries passed into France, under the 
name of wmqiu (from the Italian hiancOj 
because most of the tickets were blanks, 
mere white paper, carta bianca). In 1582 
and 1588, Louis de Qonzaga esttiblished 
such a Hangup in Paris, for providing poor 

5 iris of bis estates with dowries ; and, in 
656, Lawrence Tonti {Erom whom the 
Tontines derive their name) sought to es- 
tablish a large Uan^ ''ESP^ which v^ras 
first accomplished m idoO. Since this 
time, there have been in France only lot- 
teries rouaUs, the income of which is 
conmionly applied to public bmldings. 

This iniouitotis traffic has been revived of 
late, in France, on a much larger and 
more destructive scale than it has attained 
in any other countiy. In 1810-Hmd we 
have no reason to believe any decrease 
has since taken place—lotteries were 
drawn twice a week at Paris, and so often 
at Bordeaux, Brussels, Lyons and Stras- 
burg, as to affi>rd one every other day. 
13,^,000 fi-oncs were yearly produced to 
government by this public gambling ; and 
It has been estimated, that at Paris, the re- 
sult has been more than 100 suicides an- 
nually. In England, the first lottery oc- 
cura in 1567—1568, a printed plan of 
which, as distributed, belongs to the an- 
tiquarian society in London. In 1612, a 
lottery was granted in behalf of the Vir- 
ginia company, and, in 1680, one also in 
behalf of the undertaker of an aqueduct 
to furnish London with water. In 1709, 
the rage for private, and, in many in- 
stances, most fraudulent lotteries, was at its 
height in England, and sbop-keepers, of 
all descriptions, disposed of their goods in 
this way, the price of tickets being as low 
as half a crown, a shilling, or even six- 
pence. Towards the close of the year, 
an existing act of parliament vras put in 
force for tiieir suppression, and another to 
the same purpose was passed in the 10th 
of queen Aime. The first parHiamentary 
lottery was instituted in 1709, ajod, from 
that time tiU 1824, no session passed with- 
out a lottery bill. In October, ^826, the 
last English lotteiy was dravm. They 
are now abolished in England. As early 
as 1549, a lottery was drawn in Amster- 
dam, to procure money for the erection of 
the tower of a church, and, in 1595, one 
at Delft In 1653, one was established at 
Hamburg, according to the Dutch method, 
and, in 16Q9, the firat class lottery, at Nu- 
r^mber^, and, in 1740, the first one was 
drawn m Berlin. Most of the late Ger- 
man lotteries are drawn in classes, in or- 
der to fiicilitate the sale of tickets. The 
great lotteiy of Hamburg goes upon the 
plan of one drawing. Latterly, lotteries 
for merchiandise of^all kinds, under the 
inspection of government, have been fre- 
quent in Germany. The managere of the 
principal lotteries sell only whole tickets. 
Brokers, however, divide them into 
halves, quarters, eighths, and even nx- 
teenths, in order to facilitate their sale. In 
some places, they even let out tickets and 
parts of tickets, upon a particular number 
of dravrings ; in which case, they are not 
obliged to pay the prize which may fall to 
the ticket, umeas it be drawn within the 
stipulated number of drawings. If the 

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p ri ndpal pnzes remain for a Ibn^ time in 
the lottery, so that the probabihty of be- 
ing able to obtain them mcreases at each 
sacceasive drawing, then a great profit ia 
made in buying and selling tickets, and 
there are cases in which, in the last draw- 
ings, 10, and even 20 times the original 
price of the ticket has been demanded. 
Vefy lately, in the Austrian monarchy, in 
the kingdom of Bavaria, and in the duchy 
of Mecklenburg, estate lotteries have been 
got up, and manufactories, the estates of 
noblemen, and even whole lordships, have 
been disposed of by lottery, under public 
sanction, and, ordinarily, under the securi- 
ty of important mercantile houses, which 
undertook the disposal of the property, in 
Older to settle the debts of the owners. A 
money lonery has ordinarily been com- 
bued vnth them. Latterly, lotteries have 
been combined with state loans. When 
the credit of the state is low, or when the 
rote of interest is high, efforts have been 
made to induce capitalists to put their 
money into the hands of the state, by 
means of a letter}', which gives them the 
expectation of a premium above the cus- 
tomary interest of the country. For ex- 
ample : If a government is uncertain of 
obtaining, or cannot obtain, money at 7 
per cenL, it may, perhaps, effect ita object 
by ofiering 4 per cent, for a loan, and di- 
viding the remaining 3 per cent, among 
the lenders by means of a lottery ; for 
the hope of winning the great prizes in 
tlie lotteiy, in addition to the certainty of 
disposing of their capital at 4 per cent, 
has a stronger influence on many men 
than the offer of 7 per cent, interest. In 
tbup w^ay, loans have been raised in Aus- 
tria, Denmark, Baden and other states, and 
also in Prussia, in 1821. By this means, 
in Pnissia, stocks to the amount of 
«30,000,000 were sold at their full nominal 
value, which, in the market, were current 
only at 70 per cent In most, if not all of 
tlje U. Stated, lotteries, not specially au- 
thorized by the legislatures of the states, are 
prohibited, and the persons concerned in 
establishing them are subjected to a heavy 
penalty. This is the case, at least, in 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, 
New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ma- 
ryhmd, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Georgia, Alabama, Ohio, Mississippi, and 
probi3)ly in most if not all the other 
StalefL The nenalty is various : in Ken- 
tucky, it is a fine of $2000 ; in Tennessee, 
double the sum contained in the scheme. 
In Alabama, each person concerned is lia- 
ble to a fine of tlOOO. In Louisiana, » 

man who seDs tickeli in a lotteiy not au- 
thorized by the legislature of that state, 
must pay $5000 for the license so to do» 
and ir he sella tickets in several such lot 
teries at the same tame, this amount must 
be paid for the license in each case. If 
he sells without a license, he is liable to a 
fine of $2000 for each ticket In many 
of the states, the sale of tickets in lotteries 
established by law in other states is penaL 
In Massachusetts, any person concerned 
in the sale of tickets in a lottery not au- 
thorized by the commonwealth of that 
state, is liable to a fine of fit)m $50 to 
5000. In some of the states, lotteries 
have been very numerous. This is the 
case with several of the Southern States — 
Virginia, Maryland, and particularly Ten- 
nessee. They have also been numerous 
in New YoA. The object for which 
they have been granted has been generally 
the assistance of literary or benevolent in- 
stitutions—colleges, academies, hospitals, 
asvlums, or of public works— as roads, 
bridges, the improvement of the naviga- 
tion of rivers, fltc. Their pernicious ef- 
fects have induced the legislatures of some 
of the U. States to decline granting them 
in any case. 

Lotus. This name has been applied 
verv vaguely to various species of plants, 
which have been celebrated in mythology 
and fabulous tradidon. In the ancient 
Hindoo and Egyptian mythological rep- 
resentations of nature, the lotus (ndum- 
bium specionaiij Lin.), an aquatic plant, 
was the emblem of the great generative 
and conceptive powers of the world. Sev- 
eral varieties are found in India under the 
names of padmoy tamara and camahL 
When Vishnu, says the Hindoo fable, was 
about to create the world, the god, swim- 
ming in the ocean of milk, produced the 
lotus from his naveL It unfolded its 
flower, and displayed Brama, the first re- 
sult of the creative energy. As a^ aquatic 
plant, the lotus was the attribute of Glanga, 
the goddess of the Ganges. In E^pt, it 
was consecrated to Isis and Osins, and 
was an emblem of the creation of the ^ 
world from water. It was also the sym* 
bol of the rise of the Nile and the return 
of the sun. It is found in bass-reliefs and 
paintings on the Egyptian temples, in all 
representations of sacrifices, rehgious cei^ 
emonies, &c., and in tombs and whatever 
is connected vrith death or another life. 
With both of these nations, it was regarded 
with religious veneration, and the precept 
of Pythagoraa to abstain firom beans, has 
been supposed to refer to the firuit of the 
lotu9«olaut« Ther^avuyitfMttiiaihnJ^ 

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the fiuit of which is a souJl ftrinaoeouB 
hurjy of a delidoiu taate, which is used 
by the natives of Affica to mak&a sweet 
cake. This shrab is found on the northern 
oeast of Afiica, and is probablythe food 
of the ktoi^Mgi of antiquity. The fiibles 
of the ancients concerning them are well 
known. Tljey were represented as a 
mild, hospitable race of men, in northern 
Afiica, wno lived on the lotus berry (hence 
their name A«ro{ and ^y^v, to eat), which 
had the power of making strangers who 
ate it, forget their native country. 

Loudon, or Laudoit, Grideon Ernest, 
baron o( one of the most celebrated gen- 
erals of Austria in the eighteenth century, 
was bom at Tootzen, in Livonia, in 1716, 
a descendant of an old Scottish family, a 
branch of which had emigrated thither in 
the fourteenth centuij. In 1731, he en- 
tered the Rusman service, and rose to the 
rank of lieutenant, under Mtinnich, in the 
campaign against the Turks. In 1739, he 
was discharged, in' consequence of the 
peace, and, mtending to enter the Aus- 
trian service, went by the way of Berlin, 
where, by the advice of some of his for- 
mer comrades, he attempted to obtain ad- 
miaraon into the Prusnan service. Ailer 
being kept in suspense a long time, he 
became so poor, that he was obliged to 
support himself by copying. When the 
king finally aUowed him to be presented, 
he turned fix>m him, with the words La 
phynognomie de cd homme ne me revient 
pas, Loudon then proceeded to Vienna, 
and, in 1742, was made captain in the 
corps of Pandoors, under the partisan 
chief Trenk. In the battie of Saveme, 
he was wounded and taken prisoner, but 
was exchanged, and served against Fred- 
eric the Great, in the second Silesian war. 
Trenk imputed to Loudon the outrages 
and cruelties which he had himself com- 
mitted, but the latter defended himself 
from th# charge, and Trenk was sentenced 
to imprisonment in the fortress of Spiel- 
berg. After the peace, Loudon again lost 
his employment, and lived in great pov- 
erty. He was at length appointed major 
in a regiment stationed on the Turkish 
frontier, where he married, and embraced 
the Catholic reliipon. Five years after- 
wards, the seven years' war broke out, and 
Loudon's name was arbitrarily struck 
firom the list of officers destined for ser- 
vice. This was done by his general, who 
commanded in Croatia, a man who hated 
talent ; upon which he went to Vienna 
to complain, but fbund the* authorities 
prejudiced against him, and vras about to 
be sent badt to the finontien^ when a 

fiiend succeeded in getting himappoiiited 
lieutenant-colonel of a corps of light- 
infintry. Loudon soon distinguided 
himself! and was appointed, under the 
prince of Hildburghausen, commander of 
the imperial forces which were united with 
the French under Soubise. Thus Loudoa 
was obliged to Witness the surprise of Gotha 
by the F^ssian general Seidlitz, and the 
defeat at Rossbach. At this time, Fred- 
eric the Great sent him a flattering letter, 
with the commission of general, which hia 
hussars bad taken from an Austrian courier. 
In 1758, Loudon wbb made lieutenant 
field-marshal. He decided the victory of 
Cuneradorf (q. v.J in 1759, which threat- 
ened the destruction of the Prusnan mon- 
archy, and was appointed genend of artil- 
lery, with the command of 30,000 men. 
In 1760, he ffained the battle of Landshut, 
and covered the retreat of the army of 
Daun, after the battie of Liegnitz, in so 
masterly a manner, that Frederic exclaim- 
ed — " We must learn how to retreat from 
Loudon ; he leaves tiie field like a con- 
queror." In 1761, without any previous 
investment, he took Schweidnitz, which 
was well provisioned and strongly fortified, 
by assault — an achievement for which 
he was on the point of being called to 
account before the council of war at 
Vienna. At the breaking out of the Ba- 
varian war of succession, he was ap- 
pointed commandef-iu-chief and field- 
marshal. Afler the conclusion of peace, 
he studied diligently during nine years. 
When the war with Turkey broke out, 
Joseph II thought, at first, that he could 
conduct the campaign without the assist- 
ance of Loudon, but soon found himself 
obtiged to resort to the aged general, and 
victoiy returned to the Austrian banners. 
For the conquest of Belgrade, Loudon re- 
ceived the star of the order of Maria There- 
sa, which was composed of brilliants, and 
kept in the treasury of the imperial femily, 
and which properly belonged only to the 
emperor as grand-master. After Loudon'iB 
death, the emperor Leopold gave his wid- 
ow 50,000 florins for it Loudon also re- 
ceived the unlimited command, and the 
tide of genendisgimoj which bad not been 
conferred on any one since Eueene. He 
died July 14, 1790, at his head-ouartera, 
at New Titschein, Moravia. Loucion con- 
tinued to study, even in advanced age, 
and his military boldness seemed rather 
to increase with his years. In his private 
life, he vras moderate, and extremely mod- 
est. The duke of Aremberg, in reply to 
the question of the empress, at a court 
party, Where le Loudon? aoBwered— Ls 

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wUh eomme iofujcvn derriere la pority tout 
lonleur dPwooir tant de mhite, 

Louis DC (St), king of France, eld- 
est son of Louis VIII and Blanche of 
Cosdle, bom 1215, and baptized at Poissy 
(for which reason be sometimes wrot« 
himself Z«ou» qfPais8y\ came into pos- 
seaaon of the government in 1226, and 
remained under the guardianship of his 
mother, who was at the same time regent 
of France. This is the first instance of 
the guardianship and regency being united 
in one person. The queen had, with the 
assistance of the pope^ brought into sub- 
jection tlie independent barons, who, al- 
ways at war with each other, disturbed the 
trancjuillity of the kingdom. Louis suc- 
cessmlly pursued the enterprise of his 
mother, summoned to his council the 
most able and virtuous men, put an end 
to the abuse of the ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion, composed the distm'bances in Britta- 
ny, preserved a wise neutrality in the 
quarrels of Gregory IX and Frederic II, 
and was always intent upon promoting 
the happiness of his subjects. The wise 
management of his states enabled him to 
levy a powerful army against Henry III 
of England, with whom the great men 
of the kingdom had united themselves. 
Louis had tlie good fortune, in 1241, to 
defeat his adversary twice in the couise 
of six days, and to force him to a disad- 
vantageous peace. In tlie year 1244, 
when sick of a dangerous disorder, he 
made a vow to undertake a crusade to 
Palestine ; and neither his mother nor wife 
was able, four years after, to prevent him 
from fulfilling this vow. He embarked 
with his wife, his brothers and the French 
chivalry, landed at Damietta, and, 'n\ 1249, 
conquered this city. He afterwards twice 
defeated the sultan of Egypt, to whom 
Palestine was subject. He himself per- 
formed prodigies of valor, particularly in 
the battle of Massura (1250). But famine 
and contagious disorders soon compelled 
him to retreat ; his army was almost en- 
tirely destroyed by the Saracens, and hun- 
self and his followers carried into captiv- 
ity. The sultan demanded for the ran- 
som of the king and his lords the restora- 
don of Damietta, and 1,000,000 gold By- 
> zantines. But Louis answered — ^ A king 
of France cannot allow himself to be bar- 
tered for gold." He offered, however, to 
restore Damietta, as the ransom of his 
own person, and to pay the sum demand- 
ed for his followers. The sultan was so 
well pleased with this answer, that he 
contented himself with 800,000 Byzan- 
(jnefl (about 100,000 marks of eilver j^ oiul 

concluded a trace of 10 yean: ffai Na- 
poleon's MimoinSf AToies et Mdangt^ 
(vol. 1), is foimd a comparison between 
the campaign of Bonaparte in Egypt and 
that of St Louis.) It was not till the year 
1254, that Louis returned to France, and, 
in the interval, queen Blanche, who had 
ruled the kingdom in an exemplary man- 
ner, had died. Louis again turned his at- 
tention to the administration of the laws, 
which, until this time, had been left en- 
tirely to the caprice of the barons. Th& 
subjects could now appeal from the de- 
cision of their lords to four royal tribunals, 
and learned menwere^introduced into the 
parliaments, whose membera had till now 
been composed of barons frenquently so 
Ignorant as to be unable to write. Louis 
likewise diminished the taxes, which had 
exhausted the wealth of the subjects. In 
12G9, he drew up a pragmatic sanction, 
which secured their rights to the chief or 
cathedral churches. He, nevertheless,, 
repressed, when occasion required, the 
arrogant pretensions of the clergy The 
high character which Louis IX bore 
among his contemporaries may be seen 
from this circumstance, that Henry HI 
and his nobles, in 1268, selected him for 
the arbiter of their disputes. After he had 
united to his dominions several French 
provinces which had hitherto been under 
the dominion of f^gland, he determined,, 
in 1270, to undertake another crusade. 
He sailed to Africa, besieged Tunis, and 
took its citadel. But a contagious disor^ 
der broke out, to which he himself (Auy. 
24, 1270), together with &Jg^at part of his 
army, foil a sacrifice. "Hie instructions 
which he left in writing; for his son, show 
the noble spirit which inspired this king ; 
a snirit, which, if it had not been infected 
with the religious bigotry of the times,, 
would have rendered his administration 
the greatest of blesangs. In 1297, he 
was canonized by Bonirace Vllr. Louis 
XIII afterwards obtained fit)m the pope 
that the festival of Saint Louis should be 
celebrated in all the churches. — See Ar- 
thur Beugnot's Essay upon the fnsHtutions^ 
" SairU Louis (Paris, 1821), and count 
jffur's Life of Louis IX (Paris, 1824L 
Louis XI, king of France ; one of those 
personages who live at a period whea 
oM principles are giving way to new, and 
whose Ufo, therefore, becomes an epochs 
But Louis XI is a subject of ^reat inter^ 
est, not onhf as a representative of hin 
age, but in his ibdividual charaeter. K 
penon more ready for crime, if eondueive 
to his ends, or a sreater dtevotee, not for 
the purgow of dbceiyiBK otbfiss ^^ ^ 

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quiet himself is not to be found among 
mooarchs. Ch&teaubriand^s Etudes Hia- 
toriques contains the opinionB of many of 
the first writeiiB of France, respecting this 
-singular character. The following pas- 
mip is from that work : Imuis Xl vint 
fmrt PeMcd de la monarckie absolue star It 
cadwore pdlpUant de lafiodaLiU, Ce prince 
tout d partf pUuci entre h moyen dge qui 
mouraU et les terns miodepfies md naisacnent, 
tenati d^une mcdn la vieiUe Iwerti noble svr 
Viduifaud, de VautrejetaU h Vtau dans un 
aac lajeune UjberU bouiwnse; et pourtant 
eeUe-a PainutUj paree qSen immokml Vans- 
tocraHe, il JIattaii l& passion dhnacraHquey 
rigaUti, The life of such a sovereign 
can hardly be treated satisfactorily, with- 
in the limits to which we are confined, 
because it is not particular events, but tbe 
policy of hiis government, and the charac- 
ter of his measures, which render him 
remarkable. A full view of his life would 
be a history of France during the fifteenth 
century ; we can give onlv the outlines. 
Louis XI was the son of*^ Charles VII, 
and was bom at Bouiges, July 3, 1423. 
He was educated in a simple manner, un- 
der the eyes of his mother, Mary of .An- 
ion, one of the most virtuous women of 
ler tiipe. At the age of five years, he 
married 'Margaret of Scotland, who died 
seven years anerwards. Active, bold and 
cunning, he was the reverse of his well- 
disposed but imbecile father, of whose 
ministers and mistress, Agnes Sorei, he 
, soon showed himself a decided enemv. 
in 1440, he lefl the court, and put himself 
at the head of an insurrection at Niort, 
known under the name of la Praguerie. 
Charles defeated the rebels, executed 
some, but pardoned his son, whom he 
even trusted, in 1442 and 1443, with the 
command against the English and Swiss. 
Ijouis conducted himself with valor and 
prudence, and his fiither became entirely 
reconciled to him ; but, bavins soon en- 
tered into new conspiracies, Louis was 
obliged to fiee to Dauptiln^, which Charles 
lefl at his disposal Contrary to the will of 
his fatlier, he married the daughter of the 
duke of Savoy, and entertained a treason- 
able correspondence with the king's court ; 
he is even said to have been accessary 
to the death of Aenes Sorel.v His father, 
however, obliged him to flee to Burgundy, 
and he lived five years at Gennep, in Hai- 
nault, in a dependent condition. He re- 
peatedlv appeared disposed to return, 
when the kiu^^ death seemed to be at 
hand, but, with the restoration of his 
father's health, always declined so doing. 
Charl(» VII died in 1461, having, fipom 

fear of being. poisoned by his son, hardly 
ventured to eat any thing, and thus lost 
his life by excessive care of it. Louis 
now hastened to Rheims to be crowned. 
He promised pardon to all who had 
«sed force against him in the service of 
his fiither, excepting seven, whom he did 
not name. He swore not to increase the 
taxes, and immediately broke his oath. 
The ministers of his father were dismissed, 
and men of the lower orders — ^barbers, 
tailors, &C. — assumed their places. Insur- 
rections broke out at Rheims, Alen^on^ 
&C., in consequence of his imposition of 
new. taxes, in violation of his oath; but 
they were soon quelled, and followed by 
many executions. Louis now made a 
tour through the south of his dominions, 
supported the king of Arragon in his 
usurpation of Navarre, and obtained the 
cession of Roussillon and Cerdagne. His 
policy became more and more evident 
Whifst he pretended to reconcile con- 
tending parties, he secretly instigated 
them against each other ; and, whenever 
he had a meeting with a foreign prince, 
he corrupted his courtiers by brib^ and 
established secret correspondences with 
them : instances of this are to be found in 
his conduct as arbitrator between Castile 
and Arm^n (1463), at his meeting vnth 
Henry IV of Castile, on the Bidassoa, 
and, at /an earlier period, at the court of 
the duke of Burgundy ; he even formed 
the design of seizins tiie duke of Bui*gun- 
dy and the count of Charleroi. His vas- 
sals rebelled asainst him on account of 
his treatment of Francis II, duk^ of Brit- 
tany, whom he attempted to deprive of 
his rights. The duke, being taken by sur- 
prise, had promised every thing required 
of him, but encouraged the dukes of Lor- 
raiue, Bourbon, Alen^on, Nemours, Bur- 
gundy, and the king's brother, the duke 
of Berri, to conclude the ligue du Men jyub- 
lic^ which, in 1465, began open hostihtiea 
The Burgundians besieged Paris, and the 
king could force his way to his capital 
only by means of the batde of Montih^ry. 
But Louis extricated himself, on this as on 
other occasions, by artful treaties, which he 
never observed longer than he was com- 
pelled to. He consented to yield Nor- 
mandy to his brother, part of Picardy to 
Burgundy, &c.; but, no sooner was the 
league dissolved, than he declared that 
Normandy could not be severed from 
France, and forced his brother to seek 
refuge in Brittany. The duke, hoveever, 
was too weak singly to maintain the strug- 
gle against the king, and signed a sort 
of capitulation just as Charles the Bold« 

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the young diike of Burguody, approached 
wkh an army to his relief. Louis, who 
might have, naked a battle with Charles, 
preferred negotiation, which, however, 
proceeding sfowly, he requested a pass- 
port from die duke of Burgundy, and actu- 
ally went to visit him at Peronne. He had, 
just before, secredy instigated the people of 
Liege to rise, and promised them aid. 
Chitfkfl, having discovered this act of 
treachery, was furious with rage, and 
hesitated three days (during which he 
kept the king in prison) as to what course 
he should adont Nothing but the aver- 
sion of Charles to take the life of a 
king, and the ffreaiest presence of mind 
on me part of the ktter, who asserted his 
innocence nnder the most solemn oaths, 
saved him.* He was obliged to accom- 
pany Charles to Liege, and to wimess the 
pillage and slaughter of which he had 
been the cause. A peace waa concluded 
on fiivorable terms for Charles and his 
allies ; but, when Louis returned to Paris, 
he used every artifice to evade its fulfil- 
ment He had promised to cede Cham- 
pagne to his brother, but persuaded him 
to take Guieime instead. The duke of 
Burgundy, irritated at this conduct, secret- 
ly concluded an alliance with England 
and Brittany. Meanwhile, Louis XI had 
become the father of a prince (afterwards 
Chartes VIII), and the duke of Guienne 
had lost all hope of ascending the throne 
of France. He, therefore, renewed his 
connexions with Burgundy. Louis ob- 
tained information of^these proceedings, 
and soon afler, the duke of Bern died of 
poison administered in an apricot It 
never has been doubted that th^ king was 
the perpetrator of the crime, though he 
ordered masses to be said for the deceased. 
The duke of Burgundy openly accused 
him of the murder of his brother, and also 
of an attempt on his life, whilst Louis 
charged Charies with a design of assassi- 
nating him. The war broke out between 
them with renewed fuiy, but an armistice 
was soon afler concluded, in which the 
duke of Brittany was included. The 
kin^ of Arra^n, who had also waged war 
agamst Louis, was not a party to this 
treaty, and the French king now turned 
his arms against that prince, fit>m whom 
he wrested a large extent of territory. He 
sent the cardinal Joufiiroi against the 
count of Arraa^ae, who aton^ for his 
constant rebelhons by a terrible death. 
During the armistice, Charles had attack- 

*Oar readen are aoquaioted with the fine rep- 
meatatiDn of this iceii* by tir Walter Scott, m 
hisQueatin Durward. 

ed NeusB, with great loss. Louis united 
with the emperor Frederic III and the ' 
Swiss, and attacked Burgundy, in 1475. 
He concluded a truce of seven years with 
Edward lY of England, who had hasten- 
ed to assist Charles, by the promise of a 
sum of money and a pension, and of 
marrying the dauphin to an English 
princess. Burgundy and Brittany soon 
after concluded another armistice with 
him, by which St Quentin vma Jeded to 
Louis, and the comUiaUe count St Pol 
was given up to him. After the death of 
Charies the Bold (q. v.), before Nancy, in 

1477, Louis lock possession, by force, of 
a considerBble part of^his dominions, as 
vacant ^e& of France, and rejected the 
proposed marriage of the daughter of 
Charles, then 20 years old, with the dau- 
phin, who was but ten years of age, 
Maximilian, son of the eniperor Frederic 
III, obtained the hand or that princess, 
with a part of her dominions, and defeat- 
ed the forces of Louis at Guinegate in 

1 478. After protracted negotiations, peace 
was finally concluded, Dec. 23, 1482; 
Mary being then dead, and the city of 
Ghent remaining fiiithflil to her heirs, 
Marearet and Philip. It was agreed thai 
the dauphin should marrv Margaret, and 
receive the counties of Artois and 3ur- 
gundy, &c^ and that Philip should receive 
die remaining territories. In 1481, Louis, 
who had been twice affected by apoplexy, 
haunted by the fear of death, shut him- 
self up in his casde of PUssis-Us'Toun, 
endeavored to conceal the state of his 
health, loaded himself more than ever 
vrith images of saints and relics^ contin- 
ued to commit crimes and ask pardon for 
them from sa bonne dame^ sa petite mat- 
iresse (the virgin), and died at last, Aug. 
31, 1483. The great object of Louis was. 
the consolidation of France, the establish- 
ment of the royal power, and the overthrow 
of that of the great vaseols. He has often 
been blamed for neglecting to marrv the 
dauphin to Maiy of Buigundy, and allow- 
ing her to be umted to an Austrian prince ; 
al») for not taking the opportunity to mar 
ry the dauphin to Joanna, daughter of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, which would 
have made Charles VIII heir of Spain 
and America. But Chateaubriand says, 
that mere increase of territorial dominion 
viras never the policy of Louis. He re- 
fused the investiture of Naples, and, 
when the Genoese offered to take him 
for theur sovereign, he ^answered, **The 
Genoese give themselves to me, and I 
give them to the devil" His great object 
vras to overthrow the feudal aristocncji^ 

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and make himself absolute ; and he neg- 
lected no oppoitmiity and spared no crime 
to effect his purpose. The chronicles of 
the time enumerate four thousand people 
who perished on the scaffold, or by the 
ffibbet, during his reign. Tristan, his chief 
hangman, ivas his fiivorite. His ministers 
and comoanions were of the lowest classes. 
His cruelties were often studied. The chil- 
dren of the duke of Nemours were placed 
under tie scaffold, in such a manner that 
their fiither's blood flowed upon them ; 
thej were then thrown into dungeons, 
where they were exposed to great sufier- 
ing, and their teeth were pulled out at in- 
tervals. There was no ffreat man in his 
reign, and no virtue. Fear supplanted 
every other feeling. The people were as 
submissive as galley slaves. On the other 
hand, he encouraged commerce as much 
as the ignorance of his times aUowed, was 
extremeiv 'active, and attended to every 
thing. The contradictory traits of h is char- 
acter occasioned a singular opposidon in his 
tastes and feelings. He was, at the same 
time, confiding and suspicious, avaricious 
and lavish, audacious and timid, mild 
and cruel. "Towards the end of his 
life," siws Chateaubriand, '^ Louis XI shut 
himself up in PUssis-Us-Tours, devoured 
by fear and ennui. He dragged himself 
from one end of a long gallery to the 
other, sunrounded bv grates, chains, and 
avenues of gibbets feeing to the castle. 
The only man who was seen in these 
avenues was Tristan, chief hangman, and 
the companion of Louis. Fights between 
cats and rats, and dances of young peas- 
ant boys and girls, served to amuse the 
tyrant It is said that he drank the blood 
of young children to restore his strength. 
De terribUs et de fneroeiUeuses mSdicineSj say 
the chronicles, were compounded for him. 
Yet his efforts could not avert death.' 
Louis XI was the first French monarch 
who had the tide of most Christian king." 
The principal counsellors of this prince 
were rhiUp de Comines (q. v.), and John 
du Lude, called, by his master, Jean des 

Louis XII. (See ^pendixy end of this 

Louis XIII, sumamed the Just, in the 
early part of his reign, from what cause is 
not known, was bom in 1601, the .son of 
Henry IV and Maria de* Medici. He 
ascended the throne May 14, 1610, after 
the murder of his fiither. Maria de' Med- 
ici, who was made euardian of her son 
and regent of l!he kingdom, squandered 
the treasures of the crown in forming a 
paHy for herself and departed fi»m me 

principles of her husband, specially by 
ibrming a close alliance widi Smdn. The 
troops were dismissed, and Sully was 
obliged to retire from the court The 
princes of the blood and the nobles took 
advantage of the weakness of the king- 
dom occasioned by these measures ; thev 
rose in rebellion, with the marshal Bouif* 
Ion at their head. The government was 
compelled to yield to their demands, and 
these concessions led to still greater en- 
croachments upon the rights of the crown 
and people. France became the prey of 
internal parties and civil dissensions, which 
the Florentine Concini, marshal D'Ancre, 
prime minister at that time, was utterly 
unable to suppress. The disturbances 
rose to the highest, when the king, in 
1615, married a Spanish princess. Henry 
II, prince of Cond^, abandoned the ro^'al 
party, and took up arms in conjunction 
with the Huguenots. The king, too weak 
to oppose th^ attack, made peace with the 
prince, but sent him to the Bastile some 
time after, whereby another civil war was 
kindled, in which, however, the insur- 

S^nts had no success, and, the marshal 
'Ancre, whom the young kuig hated, 
being murdered with his connivance, 
(1617), tranquillity appeared to be again re- 
stored. (See Jjumes,) But when the 
king, soon after, banisned his mother to 
Biois, new disturbances arose; for the 
people, who had hated Maria on account 
of her tyranny, now took compassion upon 
her, in her misfortune. The king was 
obliged to be reconciled with her, and a 
formal peace was concluded at Angou- 
l^me (1619|, between the contending par- 
ties. But It was hardly signed, when it 
was again broken. Maria, at the insti- 
gation of the bishop of Lu^on, again 
took up arms against her son. A ,new 
reconciliation took place, only to be fol- 
lowed by new dissensiona During these 
disturbances, the Huguenots rose in arms, 
with Rohan and Soubise at their head ; 
and a great pNort of the kingdom rebelled 
against the king, who now delivered him- 
self up to the guidance of the cardinal 
Richelieu, (q. v.) After victory had in- 
clined, sometimes to one side, some- 
times to the other, and both parties felt 
deeply the necessity of repose, ^esce was 
again concluded between the king and 
the Huguenots (1623). This also contin- 
ued no loncer than the preceding. Ro- 
chelle, the liead-quarters of the Hugue- 
nots, revolted, and was supported by £lng* 
land. The lung drove the Eiu^sh to the 
sea, conquered the island of Il6.and at 
last (Oct 2d, 1628)^ Rochelle likeTOei^ 

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whicfa, under tbe mritied eommand of the 
modier of the do&e of Rohan, had de- 
fended itself for more than a year, and 
eontMided with all the horrors of anege. 
This siege cost the crown 40 million livrea 
Afterwards a war arose widi the emperor, 
who had refused to the duke of Nevers 
the inTestiture of Mantua. The united 
forces of the emperor, Spain and Savoy, 
were again defeated by the French, at 
VegUano (1630), and the duke of Mantua 
confirmed in his po sooqoi ons by the peace 
ofChi^aeco(]630). The only brother of 
the kinff, Gaston of Orleans, now revolted 
against him, in conjunction with the queen 
mother. The insurgents were, neverthe- 
less, defeated ; the duke of Montmorenci. 
in alliance with Gaston, was vanquishea 
in the batde of Castelnaudaiy, Se|^ 1, 
1632, taken prisoner,' and executed at Tou- 
louse, Octobier 90, of the eame year. Gas- 
ton received a pardon. In the succeed- 
ing war with Spain, which continued 25 
years, during 13 of which it was waged 
in Germany, succeea inclined eometunes 
to one side, sometimes to the other ; yet 
the king was at last enabled (1636) to ex- 
pel fiom the French dominions the Span- 
iards, who had landed in Provence, and 
the imperial troops which had penetrated 
as fiir as Burgundy. The events of the 
foUowing year were yet more favorable to 
France ; but the exhausted state of the 
finances opposed an insuperable obstacle 
to the progresB of the French arms. In 
this state of misfortune, Louis XIII died, 
l^Iay 4, 1643. During Uiis war, Louis had 
(Aug. 15, 1638) put bis person, his crown 
and kingdom, under the protection of the 
holy viiigin ; ft day which was long regard- 
ed as a festival in France. His equestrian 
statue, in bronze, erected 1639, was de- 
stroyed by the people in 1792. 

Louis AlV, king of France and Na- 
vane, was bom Sept. 5, 1638, after a bar- 
renness of 22 years on the part of his 
mother. Being, therefore, considered a 
pardcular gift of Heaven, he was called 
IHeurdonrU. He came into the world 
with several teeth, on which subject Gro- 
this has some jests in his letters. He died 
Sept. 1, ni5. He married, in 1660, Ma- 
ria Theresa, daughter of king Philip IV, 
who died Julv 30, 1683. In the same 
Year, he secretly married Framboise d'Au- 
bign^ widow of Scarron (madame de 
Maintenon, who died Apru 15, 1719). 
His principal mistresses were Fran^oise, 
duchess de la Valli^re (see VaUih^), the 
marchionesB of Montespan, mother of the 
duke of Maine and of the count of Tou- 
bMise (see iZoo&ecftouorf ), and Maria An- 

gelica d'EscoraOlefl^duchen of Fontanm^ 
who died in 1681^-Loui8 XIV was five 
years of age when his fether, Louis XIII, 
died. His mother caused herself to be 
declared regent and guardian. To Maza- 
rin was intrusted the superintendence of 
the education of the kinff, which was 
much neglected. But, although Louis 
learned nothing from his teacher, the arch* 
bishop P^r^fixe, he observed much. A 
deep impression was made on him, dur- 
ing his minority, by the commotions of 
the Fronde (see jFhmcfe, and Retz)j which 
set BO many diflferent characters in action. 
Sept 7, 1651, Louis proclaimed his ma- 
jority ; but Mazarin continued at the head 
of the goveinment till his death, March 9, 
1661. From this time, Louis rei^ped 54 
years^ without any prime minister, m com- 

Slete accordance with his own words— 
/Hat^ c^esi mot / From Mazarin he had 
learned an ambitious policy, and a con- 
tempt of the parliament On one occa- 
sion, when Mazarin could not effect his 
purpose, the younff king, 17 years of age, 
entered the hall of the parliament of Par- 
is, booted and spurred, with his whip in 
his hand, and conmianded an edict to be 
registered. Every thing united to sur- 
round him with splendor. History, how- 
ever, has not connrmed his title of great 
Louis possessed some royal qualities, per- 
haps afl that are requisite for show. Thus 
he was enabled to gratii^ the inclination 
of the French for theatrical display ; he 
even gave this inclination a permanent 
direction. His reign was adorned by great 
statesmen and generals, ecclesiastics, and 
men of literature and science. The civil 
wars had produced the same effect, which 
the revolution afterwards produced, of 
calling foith men of talent and enercy, 
who made the national glory and the 
.splendor of the king the object of their 
exertions. Louis himself had a taste for 
a kind of greatness. ** This was," as John 
MfiUer says of him, ** the source of the 
benefits which he rendered to the arts and 
sciences, of the distiubanees of Europe, 
of the violation of all treaties, in short, of 
the renmrkable character of his reign." 
TTie king was, unfortunately, ignorant, and 
destitute of settied principles. U aima 
la gloirt et la reHgifm^ sa^s Montesquieu, 
a on Vempicha touU savtedt ccnnaUrt m 
Time m Vauirt. His person was vigorous 
and noble.* With handsome features 
and a tall fonn he united a peculiar digni- 
ty of language and manner. The noble 
and charming tone of his voice won the 

* John Kettler. of Zurich, cast aa < 
statue of Louis XIV, at Pans, in 1699. 

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heart; but the loftmees of his whole de- 
meanor uiapired respect Hia kindneas 
never paaaed into fiuniliarity. Otie look 
of hia kept the witling in check. The 
Spaniah gravity, which he inherited from 
hia mother, waa tempered by the gracea 
of French politeneaa. Naturally ao grave, 
tbat even the oldest courtiers never recol- 
lected to have heard more than one jest 
from hia mouth, he loved, nevertheless, 
gayety in others, applauded Moli^re's 
comedies, and laughed at the witty sallies 
of madame de Montespan. At bis court, 
which became a model for all the others 
of Europe, every thing had reference to 
the kinff, and tended to augment bis dig- 
nity. The nearer you approached his per- 
son, the higher rdse your awe. It was a 
reverence resembling worship, which was 
paid to the throne, the person of the king, 
and the pride of the nation. On the 
whole, to use an expression of Boling- 
broke's, hardly ever has a king played his 
part better. But a theatrical representa- 
tion he always would maintain, even in 
trifles ; for example, in his latter years, he 
never appeared in the presence of any 
one without his ffreat peruke. But he 
possessed, nevermeless, qucJities which 
are requisite for playing well the part of a 
monarch. ** The qualities of his mind," 
says Grouvelle, ^ were justness, solidity, 
constancy and application. He united 
therewith habitual discretion and the seri- 
ousness which conceals deficiencies. He 
waa naturally silent, and inctined to ob- 
aervation.*' Louis had nothing of the 
hero, but he possessed the art of ruling 
those who surrounded him. He was no 
ffeneral, but was able to appropriate to 
himself the reputation of his generals. 
Resoluteness and energy elevated him, at 
times, above the restrictions of courtly 
etiquette. Elarly in life, he danced in the 
balieta. But hearing at the theatre, when 
Brikmnieus was performed, the verse in 
which it is said of Nero, as a reproach, B 
excdU h 8t donner Ivi-mimt en spectacle 
aux Bomains, he never again danced in 
public The manners of his time favored 
Lis natural disposition to gallantly. He 
loved with enthusiasm, and expressed his 
feelings with dignity and tenderness. 
With an excellent memoiy, his judgment 
was sound ; he knew how to say what 
was auitable at the riffht time, and with 
dignity and delicacy ; he understood bow 
to punish and reward with words. Thus 
after the widow of Scanon, aupported by 
many firiends, had solicited in vain, for 
aeveial years, her husband's pension of 
1500 Uvres, he gave her a pension of 3000 

liwea, with the woids^ Madame^ je vou$ 
(d faU aUendre long tenu, mats vous avez 
imU (TamiSf que fed vouhi avoir $tul ce 
nUrite aiupris de vous. The following 
trait shows, that, even in generosity, he had 
a dacdi of ostentation. The marquis of 
Uxelles, having been compelled to sur- 
render Mayence, 32 days after the opening 
of the trenches, threw himself at the feet 
of the king, whose displeasure he feared, 
while he related the reasons of the sur- 
render. *^ Rise, marquis," said the king ; 
"you have defended the fortress like a 
man of spirit, and capitulated like a man 
of sense." He intimated to the aged Boi- 
leau,.who had retired to Auteuil, and aph 
peared but seldom at court, that when his 
health permitted him to come to Versailles, 
he would always have a half an hour for 
him. Louis was above the praise of 
trifles. When De Grammont found &ult 
with a madrigal of tlie king's, Louis was 
pleased, that the couitier, being ignorant 
of the author, had spoken so fi^eely. Boi- 
lean, also, ventured to blame some verses 
which met the king's approbation, and 
Louis was by no means displeased. " He 
imderstands such things ; it is his busi- 
ness," was his remark. Low flattery he re- 
pelled : thus he rejected the prize-quesdon 
of the French academy — ^** Which of the 
virtues of the king deserves the prefer- 
ence ?" By the esteem which he manifested 
for Boileau, Moli^re, Bossuet, Massillon, 
&c., he contributed to inspire the higher 
classes with a respect for the arts and sci- 
ences, and a taste fer the society of men 
of learning and genius. But this was only 
meant to give splendor to his reign. Cor- 
neille and Lafontaine, and the meritori- 
ous scholars of the Port Royal, remained 
unnoticed by him. The great Amaud, doc- 
tor of the Sorbonue, was compelled to live 
almost entirely concealed, from 1641, and 
died in exile. Louis was 20 years of age, and 
devoted to the pleasures of the court and 
chase, when Mazarin died. •* To whom 
shall we now apply ?" asked his secreta- 
ries of state : •* To me," he replied with 
dignity ; and the handsomest man of the 
kingdom, who had grown up in perfect 
ignorance, with his heart full of ro- 
mantic gallantry, devoted himself sedu- 
lously to business and the acquisition of 
information. In the first half of hisreiffn, 
he labored daily eight hours. But nis 
natural pride often degenerated into 
haughtiness, his love of splendor into use- 
less extravagance, his firomess into des- 
potism. Determined no longer to tolerate 
Calvinism in France, he said — ^''My 
grand&ther loved the Huguenots without 

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feeriDg them ; my Mbm ftered, without 
loving^ them; I neither fear nor love 
them?* He erinoed his severity, also, in the 
case ofFouquet, mperintendent of finance, 
from whom he accepted a fUe^ when 
he was on the point of condemning him 
to perpetua] imprisonment, in 1661 ; with 
equal cruelty he took revenge for his of* 
fended pride, on the pope, in 1662. He 
was, as may be seen from his hulntcHom 
pour U Dauphxiiy a despot from religious 
conviction. As an absolute sovereign, he 
regarded himself as the proprietor of all 
the possessions of his subjects, but deem- 
ed himself bound to make a wise use of 
liis power. He rarely, however, mistook 
the extraordinary men who signalized his 
age and France. He manifested an in- 
terest in the advancement of his nation ; 
but, deceived by self-love, he submitted to 
the influence of others. While he be- 
lieved himself free and independent, ma- 
dame de Maintenon exercised the strongest 
power over him, by her talents, piety and 
virtue. His credulity went so far, that he 
assured the nuncio, in 1685, that whole 
Cities^ such as Uzes, Nismes, Montpellier, 
&c^ h|d been converted! While the 
Protestants were robbed of their property 
and freedom, he was engaged in splendid 
hunting . expieditiona Two mentorious 
naval officers, who had taken the liberty 
to oflfer some modest suggestions respect- 
ing a naval school, were imprisoned tor a 
year, and cashiered. The reputation of 
Louis is the work of bis nunisters and 
senerals. (See Twrtmu^ Cond^j Luxtmr 
oouyg, Oarftiutf, and ViBara,) Feuqui^res 
raised the art of war into a science. Lou- 
vois (q. V.) introduced discipline into the 
arno^. Vanban ffreatly improved the art 
of fortification. Men like Estrades and 
D'Avaux, made diplomacy at home in 
France. Louis himself was capable of 
negotiating immediately with ambassa- 
dora, on matters of state. The splendor 
of the French court, the boldness dis- 
played in the cabinet and the field, the 
fame of the nation in arms and arts, intro- 
duced the French language into the courts 
of Europe, and from the peace of Nime- 
guen, in 1678, it gradually supplanted Lat- 
in, as tbe official language of states. But 
Colbert was the chief source of the great- 
ness of Louis and France. That ordering, 
creating, and sagacious spirit originated the 
great standing armies of Louis, and im- 
posed this bunlen on all the ffovemments 
of Europe; at the same time, he maintain- 
ed 100 ships of the line, and encoursged 
manu&cmres, navigation and commerce ; 
and die fine French settlement in the 

East Indies was founded at Pondieheny. 
Ck>lbert developed the astonishing re- 
sources of France, in population, natural 
riches and national spnit. But, afier his 
death, in 1683, Louvois and Louis plucked 
the fruit, while they felled the tree. The 
pride of the king, and the vanity of the na- 
tion, seconded tne ambition of me despotic 
minister of vrar. Notwithstanding all this 
oppression, disafiection never found a rally- 
ing point of reostance. Such gratification 
did the nation experience in the splendor of 
a cruel and prodigal reign ! Five wars, the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes (which 
Benj. Constant has well termed Vtrreiarde 
Louis XIVy et U crime de mm conseil)^ 
the building of Versailles, the hatred of the , 
nations, the battle of La Hogue, and die 
deep policy of William HI of England, 
overthrew the power of Louis in the 
Spanish war of^ succession. Favorable 
circumstances, the opinion of the age, and 
the consciousness or strength on the part 
of a people not yet corrupted, were all 
that preserved from downfiill the tottering 
throne of the failing king. Death rapidly 
snatched away those who stood nearest 
him ; first his only son, then his grand- 
son, with his grandson's vrife and eldest 
son, the hopes of France. The court in- 
trigues, satiety, devotion, and the religious 
predominance of Maintenon, together with 
the influence of his confessor. La Chaise, 
and his fiir worse successor, Tellier, finom 
1709, made the heart of the aged kin^ in- 
different to the state of his domimons. 
The proud Louis, who imagined himself 
competent to every thing, who, after the 
death of his great minister, selected young 
men, whom he could guide at pleasure, 
was, at last, so led astray by his confessor, 
Tellier, that he caused the constitution l/m- 
genUus, drawn up according to Tellier^s 
plan, W three Jesuits, to m issued as a 
bulVn 1713, by pope Clement XI,who was 
equally deceived, thus giving the Jesuit 
party the triumph over theur opponents, 
and, at the same time, producing commo- 
tions, which continued for forty yean to 
agitate the church and state. Louis man- 
ifested, however, a strength of mind and 
firmness in death, as well as in the misfor- 
tunes which, in his last years, shook his 
throne and house ; for Heinsius, Eugene 
and Marlborouch humbled the pride of 
France before the Spanish throne was se- 
cured to the second grandson of Louis, bv 
the death of Joseph I and the victory of Vilr 
Ian at Demain. He submitted to all con- 
ditions, unless thev were dishonorable, 
but such he rejected with scorn. When 
Philip was dually estabfiahed on the 

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throne at Madrid, the partition wall of the 
F^nees was not destroyed, as Louis had 
hoped, when he said to his ciandson, on 
his depaiture, Mn^a fdus de PyifyUs ; 
and France was burdened with a debt of 
2,500,000,000 iivres. The plan of attach- 
ing Spain to France, in order to counter- 
act the connexion of England and Hol- 
land (which threatened the French com- 
merce, navigation and colonies^ exhausted 
X France, and laid the foimdation of that 
revolution wliich was not to terminate 
till a century afier the death of Louis XIV. 
Grouvelle says, therefore, of him, with 
justice — *^ We may allow him good qual- 
ities, but not virtue. The misfortunes of 
succeeding reigns were, in part, his work, 
and he Ims hardlr inJfluenced posterity, 
except for its rmJ* The same judgment 
is passed by madanHr de Btael, in her Re- 
flections on the French Revolution. What 
is called the age of Louis XIV, as com- 
pered with P-iricles, Augustus and the 
Medid, was a result of the impulse which 
circumstances communicated to the na- 
tional genius. Louis, who was not him- 
self possessed of a great, comprehensive 
mind, and who was much and laborioudy 
occupied on trifles, patronized, genius 
only as a necessary mstrument for his 
purposes. At Colbert's suggestion, he 
founded the academy of sciences and 
that of inscriptions ;. he improved the 
French academy, encouraged able writers 
to raise hts reputation and the French 
language above the hatred of nations, 
and the sphere of its influence was wider 
than that of his armies. His nation gave 
laws to Europe, in matten of taste. The 
tone of French society was a model for 
the German courts, and corrupted the 
spirit of the npbili^, while it desbroyed 
morals. It is not, however, to be forgot- 
ten, that the expulsion of the Huguenots 
from France also promoted the dmusion 
of the French language and manners. 
The great art of pleasing was the soul of all 
the ouier arts in France ; it even opened to 
science itself the avenue to the circles of 
the polished classes. Pascal, who wrote 
with vigor and delicacy, the sublime Bos- 
suet, and Fenelon, splendid in his humili- 
ty, the great Comeiile, who boldly took 
his flight above the surrounding baiiia- 
rism, me unique Moli^re, the immltable 
Fontaine, and the calm thinker and spirit- 
ed satirist, Boileau, the fiiend of the clas- 
sical Racine, kindled the blaze of light 
and philosophy in France. *< Their elec- 
trical shock roused," as John von M(iUer 
expresses himself^ ''the north fifom the mo- 
notonous studies of its universities." The 

floe arts were not negfected. OfLebmn's 
epoch of art under Louis XIV, we are 
reminded by 34 paintings by this master 
in the museum of the Louvre. The 
Flemish school, particulariy Teniers, did 
not please the kinff. Leeueur, Poussin 
and Af ignard were me ornaments of the 
French school. Giiardon was distin- 
guished among the sculptors. Lendtre 
bud out the splendid gardens of Versailles; 
Perrault built the colonnade of the Lou- 
vre, Hardouin Mansard the dome of the 
invalids. Lulli was the creator of French 
music A lane proportion of the great 
monuments of France, which excite the 
astonishment of the traveller, had their 
origin in the reign of Louis. He con- 
structed the wonderful harbors, ship- 
yards and fortifications at Brest, Rochefort, 
L'Orient, Havre, Dunkirk, Cette and Tou« 
Ion. At his biddinff, the canal of Longue- 
doc united the A^diterranean with the 
ocean. — See Voltaire's Sikle de Lofuia 
XIF, the duke de St. Simon's (Entores 
eanmlHespour aervir h riRttoire dea Court 
de iMim XIVy de la Rkgence ti de Louis 
XV; and the Mbmin* de Dangeauy as 
well diose published bv madame de Gen- 
lis, as those published by Lemoncey (Par- 
is, 1818), in his Eaioi wr rttaUissemeni 
fMnarchique de Louii XIV; the Glwrea 
de Louis X/F (vol. i— vi, Paris, 1806), 
published by the diplomatist Grouvelle 
and the count Grimoard, and the Conr 
sidiraHoru sur Louis X/F, by GrouveUe, 
contained in this selection, which, al- 
though too fiivorable, are an excellent in- 
troduction to the histofy of this monarch. 
The Instructions pour le DoMphin^ of 
1661 — ^1668, comprised in that w6rk, are 
supposed to have been taken down by 
PeusBon, fiiom the mouth of the kin^. 
But Louis himself did not practise his 

Erecepts. Thus he warns the dauphin to 
eware of the influence of fiivorites, and 
still more of the love of the female sex, 
which tends to divert the mind from bu(d- 
nesB. These writings, besides other hin- 
torical matter, contain information respect- 
ing the system of corruption practised by 
Louis XIV, even at German coiuts, e. ^ 
at Berlin. The Mimoires and Pieces mt- 
liUnreSf which constitute the third and 
fourth volumes of the woric, relate to the 
campaigns of 1672—1678, and that of 
169Sl In Grimoard's preface, they are 
said to be not unimportant for the history 
of the vnur. The lettera of Louis, in the 
two last volumes of this woric, are mostly 
of little consequence. The politeness and 
dignity with which this proud king writes 
to his ministers and generals are remark- 

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able. This delicate tone was tfien gen* 
eral, and gave to language and manners 
that agieeahle refinement which made 
Paris 80 attiactiTe. 

PoUHcal Oecumncea during 1hi$ Reigru 
The most splendid period of the reign of 
Louis XIV extended from the peace of the 
Pyrenees, concluded by Mazarin, in 1659, 
to the death of the great Colbert, in 1683. 
That peace, however, lasted only till 1665, 
when Louis, on the death of his iather-in- 
law, Philip IV, kinff of Spain, laid claim 
to the Spanish Neuierlands, by virtue of 
the right of decoluUonj as it was called 
(which was a private law in part of the 
Netherlands, but could by no means be 
considered the rule of succession to the 
government of these states), Holland, 
therefore, concluded, in 1668, a triple alli- 
ance with England and Sweden, for the 
preservation of the Netherlands, of which 
alliance, although Louis was victorious in 
two campaigns, the peace of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle was the result Louis retained, in- 
deed, the conquered places in the Nether- 
lauds, but was compelled to abandon his 
intentions on the country at laree, and, as 
be attributed this to the triple alliance, he 
rpsotved on a retaliatory war aeainst Hol- 
land, having previously succeeded in sep- 
arathig England and Sweden from their 
connexion with the republic, and uniting 
them with himself. This war, undertaken 
without regard to the commerce of France, 
to which It was very detrimental, and in 
which Spain, the German emperor and 
Brandenbuiv also engaged against France, 
continued mm 1672 till 3ie peace of 
Nimeguen, concluded 1678 and 1679, in 
whi^h Holland lost nothing, while Louis 
XIV received from Spain, Burgundy (the 
Franche Comt^l which the kmg of Spain 
had previously held, as an appurtenance 
to the circle of Burgundy, under the sove- 
reignty of the German empire, and 16 
places in the Netheriands. Louis lost, in 
this war, his two greatest generals, Tu- 
renne and Cond^ ; the former fell at Sas- 
bach, in 1675 ; the latter retired in 1676, 
on account of his feeble health. Louis, 
however, still had Catinat, Crequi, Lux- 
embourg, Schomburg and Vauban. After 
the peace of Nimeguen, it would have 
been politic for Louis to have ceased pros- 
ecuting, for a while, his plans of affgran- 
dizeroent ; but he renewed, immeoiatelv 
after, the rkadonsj as they were called. 
In the three treaties of peace, a number 
of places, vrith all their appurtenances, 
bad been ceded to France, tnou^h it had 
not been decided what really did pertain 
to them. Louis, therefore, establisiied, in 


1680, chamben of r^imiofif at Mecz and 
Brisach, whose office it was to accord him, 
under the form of ri^t, eveiy thing tlmt 
couki be conadered m any vny as be- 
longing to those phuses. France, in this 
manner, acmiiied large districts on the bor- 
ders of the Netheriands and of Germany. 
Louis would also gladly have obtained 
Strasburg, but, as even the chambers of 
rhmians could start no formal claim to it, 
this important place was quietly surround- 
ed by soldiers, and compelled to surren- 
der, in 1681, without a blow. Spain and 
the German empire protested against this 
act, but both found it expedient, in 1684, 
to euter into a 20 years' truce with Louis 
XIV, by which this monarch obtained, 
for that time, besides Strasburg, all the 

S laces reunited prior to August 1, 1681. 
Eeanwbile, Colbert had di^ in 1683. 
From this time, France declined with the 
same rapidity that it had risen under his 
administration. The first blow it receiv- 
ed, was the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes, October 22, 1685, after several 
vears* oppressions of the Protestant party, 
by which measure the kingdom lost 
700,000 of its most valuable subjects. To 
this measure the king was led by the 
tmited exertions of the two parties of the 
court, in other respects opposed to each 
other— the parties of the minister Louvois 
and of Maintenon, who cooperated with 
the generally benevolent confessor of the 
king, Lachaise. Colbert, to his death, had 
opposed the adoption of violent measures, 
which might induce the Protestants to 
emigrate. France was, soon after, involve* i 
in a new war. Several circumstances 
pave Louis XIV and Louvois opportunity, 
m spite of the 20 yeare' truce, to enter 
the field anew. The war, which Louis 
now waged from 1688 to 1697, against 
Grermanv, Holland, Spain, Savoy and 
England, was terminated by the peace of 
Ryswick, in which Louis resigned all the 
r^ntofu, and, in addition, ceded to Ger- 
many, Brisach, Friburg, Kehl and Phil- 
ipsburg, besides all the smaller fortresses 
erected by France on the Genuan side of 
the Rhine. Although, throughout the 
war, Louis was conqueror rather than 
conquered, he was bent on peace. The 
exliaustion of his kingdom, and especially 
the. fear that a continuance of the war 
might frustrate his views on the Spanish 
succession, compelled him to yield. The 
death of Charles II, king of Spain, to 
which Louis had Ions looked forward, 
took place at the end of 1700. Louis had 
already concluded treaties of partition, 
with respect to the Spanish eaccemoUf 

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UOVai XlV— iXXJlB XV. 

with En^andand HoOand; batCbvlM 
n, by a aeopQt tafltament, had desiffiiated 
the grandsoa of liouis, Philip of Aiyou, 
ea heir of the Wiole monarchy, to the 
disadvantage of the house of Austria, in 
which the inheritance was kntimately 
vested. On the enforcement of this tes- 
tament Louis insisted, after the death of 
Charles, and was thus involved in the 
Spanish war of succession, 1702 — 13, 
which he precipitated by acknowledging 
the English pretender (son of James 11^ 
in violation of the peace of Ryswic^k. 
The finances of Louis were in great dis- 
order ; he had also lost manv of his great 
men in the cabinet and field ; while, on 
the other hand, his numerous enemies — 
England, Holland, the emperor and the 
German empire, Prussia, Ponugal and 
Spain— «ould oppose to him two of the 
greatest generals — ^Eugene and Marlbor- 
ough. FraDce sufiered greatly by this 
war, which was terminated by the treaty 
of Utrecht, in 1713, and those of Rastadt 
and Baden, in 1714, brought about by the 
concurrence of several circumstances fa- 
vorable to France, especially by the change 
that took place in the political system of 
England, in 1710, after Louis had several 
times pro^^red peace, without success, on 
account of the hard terms insisted on by 
bis enemies. Louis made, indeed, some 
concessions to England, Holland and Sa- 
voy, but saw his grandson acknowledged 
as kinff of Spain, under the name of 
Philip V, This, however, was connected 
with the condition of a renunciation, 
which should prevent the possibility of 
any future union of the Spanish and 
French crowna The internal prosperity 
of the kingdom was totally ruined by this 
war, of which the expenses, in the year 
1712 alone, amounted to 825,000,000 
livres. The great array which he kept on 
foot, was what chiefly excited and nour- 
ished in Louis the love of conquest He 
maintained a larger standing army than 
any other prince of his time. It rose 
from 140 to 300,000 men. Respecting the 
policy of Louis XIV, the following is the 
langutte of Flassan : — "The cabinet of 
Louis AlV, notwithstanding the diversity 
of talents of his ministers, exhibits, in 
its most important negotiations with for- 
eign powera, almost always the same 
character of lofty pretension. The spirit 
of ills policy may be clearly seen in the 
manner in which he in^sted on interpret- 
ing the treaties of Miinster, of the Pyre- 
nees, and of Nimef^en, and the renunciap 
tion of queen Mana Theresa. The means 
of imparting validity to such ariutraiy ez- 

pianationa, were, force of uam, attM fr 
i^macy, expert spies^ and conruptioii. 
The king expended great sums in secur- 
ing the favor of sovereigns — Charles II, 
for example, of England— 4heir miniaten 
and mistresses. Against his enemies, ho 
employed, even in tiroes of war, clandes* 
tine popular excitements ; he encouraged 
the commotions in Catalonia, Sicily, Eng- 
land, Portugal and Hungary. More than 
any kin^ l^fore him, he enlarged the 
boundanes of the kingdom, especially 
towards the north ; by which means, he 
secui'ed the capital against the accidents 
of war. Till the battle of La Hogue, 
May 29, 1692, in which the combined 
English and Dutch fleet, under admiral 
Russel, overcame the French admiral 
Tourville, he maintained the balance of 
power on the ocean, and made his flag 
respected ^ by the natives of Barbary and 
by the most powerful maritime states. On 
the continent, he held a decided predomi- 
nance till tiie peace of Nimeguen, so that 
he had no reason to fear any coalition of 
the other powers. To this his connexion 
with Sweden and some of the small Ger- 
man principalities mainly contributed. 
He subeequentiy fell somewhat fl^)m this 
high elevation, but continued to be the 
fiiit sovereign of Europe, even after his 
defeats in the Spanish war of succession ; 
for, afler he had severed the league form- 
ed against him by the peace with Eng- 
land, neither Austria nor the German em- 
pire could long ofier resistance." To this 
foreign policy, favored by the weakness 
and political errors of his neighbors, was 
added an arbitrary internal administration. 
The system of police, organized by D'Ar- 
senson, in the last years of the reign of 
Louis, was, in its efl^ts, as formidable as 
an inquisition. 

Louis XV, the sreat grandson of Louis 
XIV, and son of^that excellent duke of 
Burgundy (q. v.), who was educated by 
F^nelon, was bom February 15, 1710, 
commenced his reign in 1715, and died 
May 10, 1774. He married, m 1725, Ma- 
ria, the daughter of Stojiislaus Leczyn- 
ski (she died in 1768). The History of 
Louis XV, by Antoine Fantin Desodoards 
(Paris, year VI, 3 vols.), and the Age 
of Louis XV, by Araoux Laffiney, pub- 
lished by Maton (Paris, 1796, 2 vols.\ do 
not coirespond to what might be expect- 
ed from French writers, after Voltaire's 
work on the reign of this king. The 
memoirs of Ducios, St Simon and others, 
the Histoiy of France in the 18th cen- 
tury, by Lacretelle (Paris, 1811, 6 vola), 
and the well known work La VU prioi^ 

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ifc tofmg XF{A Tofe.), cmitBin imporuoit 
materials for the history of this unworthy 
and degraded king, who, by his licen- 
tioasness, bigotry, prodigality and despot- 
ism, rendered the evils of the state incu- 
rable. The age which educated and coiv 
nipted him, and on which he and his court 
reacted in a not less injurious manner, 
explains not only the orfgin, but also the 
spuic and malignity of the revolution. A 
great part, however, of this fault, falls on 
the repency, administered by Philip, duke 
of Orleans, and the cardinal Dubois, till 
172a (See Orleans, PhiHp of^ The in- 
fluence of the age of Louis ^IV on the 
religious and political notions of the cul- 
tivated classes, and especially the increas- 
ing power of public ofiinion in France 
during the reign of Louis XV, are con- 
spicuous. The characteristic of the age 
of Loub XV, consists in the intellectual 
developement of the nation, in the splen- 
dor and boldness of new philosophic 
views, which had so strong an influence 
on society. From them proceeded a 
fearful separation of reason fix)m mo- 
rality, of the passions from rectitude, and 
of enlightened ideas from the forms of 
state and church. The immoderate love 
of pleasure, which, from the higher, de- 
scended into tlie lower classes, and was de- 
fended or excused by the philosopliy of the 
day, was united with an avaricious selfish- 
ness,which was awakened bythc rash finan- 
cial schemes of Law and tJie regont, and 
connected with fhiud,despair,and the bank- 
ruptcy of 500,000 citizens* From this love 
of pleasure and selfishness, proceeded most 
of the faults and vices of the contempo- 
raries of Louis XV. The moral infection 
spread farther and farther, and ate deeper 
and deeper into the roots of public s)>irit 
and every civil virtue. Louis XIV left 
his great grandson and successor with tlie 
wonls, "I have, against my inclination, 
imposed great burdens on my subjects ; 
buj have been coinpelled to do it by the 
long wars which I have l>een obliged to 
mamtain. Love peace, and undertake no 
war, except when the good of the state 
and the welfare of your people render it 
necessary.'' A much deeper impression 
should have been made on the mind of 
the royal child, by the conduct of the 
people who accompanied the hearse of 
the king with insults and the grossest 
expreanons of ioy. But what an idea 
must the boy of six years have formed 
fiom the hi de justice (the strongest exer- 
lioD o£ despotism), held by the regent, to 
confirm his re^ncy! How different were 
the views of his ftther, the noble duke of 

Bimundy, who intended, in dee he a»- 
cended the throne, to restore to the people 
their lost riffhts ! In his 7th year, Louis 
was first placed under the care of men. 
But his tutor, the marriial Villeroi, was no 
Montausier, Beauvilhers or F^n^lon. On 
one occamon, when Louts had recovered 
fit>m a violent sickness, his subjects mani- 
fested their satisfaction by repeated re- 
joicings. The court and gardens of the 
Tuileries were full of men. Villeroi car- 
ried the kinjf from one window to anoth- 
er. " See them, my king ! your people : 
all tills people belongs to you ; all that 
you see is your property ; you are lord 
and master of it." The instructor of the 
young king,the prudent and modestFleury, 
won the confidence of his pupil in a no- 
ble manner. A third, who had, however, 
less influence on the voung king, was his 
confessor, the Jesuit Lini^res. The car- 
dinal Dubois had effected his appointment 
to tliis important office against Fleiiry's, 
wish and the advice of cardinal NoaiUes. ' 
Ffeuiy, however, acquired the entire con- 
fidence of Louis, who, after the death of 
tlie regent, in 1724, by the advice of his 
instructer, • appointed the duke of Bour- 
bon chief minister of state, who could 
undertake nothing, however, without the 
knowledge and consent of the prelate, 
then 73 years old. Till now, the king, 
who entered upon the government him- 
self in 1723, but had hitherto intrusted 
the management of affairs to the former 
regent, as first minister of state, had 
shown no will of his own. A Spanish 
princess of six years had been destined 
for his wife, and had been subsequendy 
sent back to her parents; the marshal 
Villeroi had been banished from tlie court, 
and the king had married Maria Leczyn- 
ski, the daughter of Stanislaus, the de- 
throned kbg of Poland, mdifferent and 
submissive in all these proceedings. But 
when the party of the duke attempted to 
get rid of the prelate, and the offended 
FIcur}' had retired to his country seat, the 
king insisted on his return with such firm- 
ness, that the duke found himself obliged 
to apply to the prelate, and solicit his re- 
turn. Soon after, m 175J6, Fleury was 
placed at the head of the administration, 
tie declined the tide of first minister, but 
vras, in fact, such till his death, in 1743. 
His habit of dissimulation extended it- 
self to the king, in whose private life a 
great change now took place, probably 
favored by Fleuiy himself. rThe nobis 
germ which his appfication and 8om» 
generous expressions nad manifested, vm 
stifled in sensual pleoflures and the luxury 

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of a ooiut life. The peaceful Flemy, 
who eodeayored to ratore order and 
economy, now gave the enervated mon- 
archy a eeyen gears' tranquillity ; but he 
was not sufficiently enlightened to com- 
poee the controversy respecting the bull 
Unigmihu. He soon saw himself, con- 
trary to his will, involved in a war. After 
the death of Augustus II, king of Poland, 
in 1733, Louis vna^^ed to see his father-in- 
law chosen successor of Augustus, and 
declared that the freedom of election 
should be interrupted by no foreign pow- 
er ; but the emperor Charles VI, having 
concluded an alliance with the elector of 
Saxony, and supported his election as 
king of Poland, Louis's plan was firus- 
trated, and a war broke out. After two 
camp^gns. France acquired for Stanis- 
laus, who had fled from Dantzic in dan- 
ger of his life, che possession of the duch^ 
of Lorraine, by the preliminaries 6f Vi- 
enna, in 1735. After the death of Charles 
VI, in 1740, the project of marshal Belle- 
isle, to dismember the Austrian herediuiry 
states, plunged the aged cardinal into a 
war, the success of which was frustrated 
by the parsimony of the minister, tlien 85 
years old. The French armies fought on 
the side of the elector of Bavaria, who 
laid claim to the whole Austrian mon- 
archy. England was on the side of Ma- 
ria Theresa. The conquest of Bohemia 
was not accomplished ; scarcely could 
MailleboLs, Belleisle and Broglio effect 
the retreat of tlie wreck of the defeated 
army from Bohemia and Bavaria, over 
the khine. Still greater were the losses 
of France by sea ; for Fleury had neg- 
lected the marine. After his death, m 
1743, the victories of count Maurice of 
Saxony (see Maurice) gave new splendor 
to the French arms ; and, by the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, France regained 
her lost colonies. But the state was, more 
tl)an ever, exhausted by an unjust and im- 
politic war. Louis had himself taken a 
))art in several campaigns, and, when he 
was attacked at Metz by a severe mala- 
dy, received the appellation of the well- 
beloved (le hien-airrU), The affection felt 
for him by the French exceeded his de- 
serts ; for Louis became, from this dme, 
more and more unworthy of the public 
respect, sinking into the grossest indo- 
lence and sensuality, and amuidoning the 
management of state affairs to the mar- 
chioness of Pompadour. (See Pompcuhvtr,) 
She was, in reahty, the ruler, the monarch 
being absorbed in his orgies, or childish 
amusements and despotic fears. He 
■bowed himael^ without dignity, the 

, sport of petty passoDflii and die infltni* 
ment of extemaJ influences. The Dation, 
on which ao powerless a goyemmmic 
could have no efiect, fbUowed entirely 
its resdesB caprices. Contests of pubUc 
opinion, bold hopes and new systems, 
amused and engaged all classes of so- 
ciety. Every one longed for a new and 
better state ; obedience became more and 
more lax, the wish of change more de- 
cided ; a few steps more would lead to in- 
surrecuon. The sensuality 6f the king 

Cut him entirely in the power of tlie am- 
itious Pompadour. While she made 
him lead the shameless life of an Eastern 
monarch, she sacrificed, according to the 
caprice of the moment, the honor, wealth, 
and the prosperity of the state, to those 
who were able to gain access to her by 
their attractive qualities. She accustomed 
the king to the acquUs de compUxnty or 
warrants for payment, which exhausted 
the treasury, and introduced confusion 
into the accounts. The cost of the oorc- 
auX'CerfSy as it was called, — the most abom- 
inable instrument of tlie king's voluptu- 
ousness, — was defrayed by such acquits^ 
which, according to Lacretelle, amount- 
ed, eventually, to 100,000,000fr. Lou- 
is also loved to play deep, and ap- 
propriated, for this purpose, a private 
chest, the losses of which lie supplied 
from the public chest Those who lost 
to him were indemnified by lucrative pul>- 
lic offices. In order to increase this fiind, 
he engaged in stock-jobbmg and in spccu- 
ladons in grain. The rise and foil of the 
stocks, and die price of com, interested him 
in a manner entirely unbecoming a-king. 
He appropriated a capital of ten millions, 
from his private treasury, to tliis disgrace- 
ful traffic, and even allowed the name of 
M. Mielavand to be introduced into the 
state almanac of 1774, among the offi- 
cers of finances, as trisorier des grains 
pour h compte de S, M, To relieve his 
ennui, he printed several books, and was 
even pleased with the celebrated physio- 
cratical system of his physician Quesnay. 
He called him his thinker (pensewr\ lis- 
tened with satisfaction when he censured 
the policy of his ministers, but never 
troubled himself about the application of 
his ideas. Towards women he conduct- 
ed, in public, with the courteousness of a 
French chevalier, mingled in their petty 

3uarrels, and placed the part of a conn- 
ant He was mquisitive about the in- 
tri^es of all the courts of Euro))e, and, 
to inform himself respectinj^ them, main- 
tained secret agents, of which his minis- 
ters, in many cases, knew nothing. The 

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d^pufifedy nnsJy cotknict of th6 dftuphiiiy 
the Tinues of the dauphineaB, made no 
pennaoent imiMiesBion on him. He somo- 
timesy however, seemed to feel remone, 
especiaUy after the death of the queen. 
But be soon sought and found solace m 
his old pleasures. From the year 1769, 
he was goremed by Du Bany (see Barry\ 
who is said to have cost the royal treasu- 

Z, in ^ve years, 180 million Uvres. As 
>uis became older, his bigotry and apa- 
thy increased, wliile he sank deeper in 
sensuality. His secret debaucheries dis* 
hcxiored innocence, and poisoned the do- 
mestic happinesB of his subjects. The 
public contempt was expressed in satires, 
caricatures and songs, to which the people 
had already become accustomed under 
the regency. The hatred of the people 
gave credence to the most exaggerated ac- 
cusations, and Louis, from fear and aver- 
Bon, withdrew himself from the public 
eye. With tliis carelessness and apathy 
of the king, tlie French levity increased 
continually ; every one was engaged with 
triBes and selfish plans ; the most impor- 
tant affidrs of state, on the contrary, were 
neglected. France, at the same time, saw 
itself involved, in 1754, in a maritime war 
with England, on account of the forts on 
the Ohio, and, as if this contest was of 
no importance, rashly took the side of 
Austria against P^issia, in 1756. The 
shrewd Kaunitz had gained the favor of 
the vain Pompadour, who was offended 
by the sarcasms of Frederic II. By her 
influence, the duke de Choiseul (q.v.) 
was appointed fiist minister, in the stead 
of the abb^ Bemis, and. May 1, 1756^ a 
new alhance was concluded with Austria, 
at Versailles, which wa& unique in history. 
The French suffered great losses by sea 
and land ;^ even their military reputation 
had declined since the batde of Rossbach, 
Nov. 5, 1757 ; and, afler seven unhappy 
years, they had reason to congratulate 
themselves, when Choiseul concluded a 
])eaoe with England at Fontainebleau, in 
1762, and the definitive treaty was settled 
at Paris, in 1763, although France had to 
relinquish to England, Canada, as far as 
the Mississippi, Cape Breton and the 
islands Grenada, Tobago, St Vincent and 
Dominica, together wi3i Minorca. Louis 
remained incOfTerent to all these events. 
The first time that he saw marshal Riche- 
lieu afler the conquest of Mahon, in 1756, 
be turned to that general, vrbo was adored 
by the whole natk>n, with the question, 
** How did you like the Minorca figs ?' 
The famous ftmily compact of the K>ur- 
lioosi by which Choiseul hoped^ ia the 

coufse of die war (176Ij^ to unite forever 
the policy of SiMun, Sicily and Parma 
with the French interest, was of no great 
benefit to France. After the war, Choi- 
seul's minisby was marked bv several 
(often violent) ref(Mins ; especially by the 
expulsion of the Jesuits from France, in 
1764, and by the acquiation of Corsica, 
in 1769. Shortly after, Mme. du Bany, in 
connexion vrith the chincellor, Maupeou, 
effected the overthrow of the duke De 
Choiseul, and elevated to his post the 
duke of Aiguillon. The quanel of the 
latter with the pariiament at Rennes^ 
which had written against him in a vio- 
lent tone, as former governor of Bretagne, 
and the refractoriness of all the partia- 
ments, especially with respect to the new 
oppressive financial edicts, induced the 
king, in 1771, to banish the members of 
the narliament from Paris, and, soon after» 
to aoolish the parliaments entirely, which 
were first reestablished under Louis XVI„ 
in 1774, with certain limitations. The 
notorious edict which the chancellor 
Maupeou then issued, called the king the 
sole and supreme legislator of his king- 
dom, who permitted parliament, indeed, 
to protest against a new law, but, after 
two considerations, miffht demand uncon- 
ditional obedience. Thus Maupeou made 
the absolute will of the monarch a consti- 
tutional law! A worthy counterpart of 
Maupeou was the comptroller-general of 
finances, the abb^ Terrai, who impover^ 
ished the country, while he received an 
income of 1^200,000 livres. In proportion 
as the king was despised at home, the au- 
thority of France was lessened abroad. 
The partition of Poland took place in ' 
1773, without the knowledge of^ France. 
Afler having sunk into a complete nullity, 
the king, whom no domestic misfortunes^ 
not even his own attempted assassination^ 
in 1757, by a &natic, Damiens (see Da- 
mien$)j nor the public misery, could restore 
to consciousness, died of the small pox» 
caught of a yoimg girl, by whom the 
countess Du Barry vrisbed to dispel his 
melancholy, leavinga debt of 4,000,000,000 

^ge of Lotds XV. — ^In proportion bb 
the reign of Louis was weak and per- 
nicious to the state, the spirit of the nation 
rose, awakened by the times of Louis 
XIV, and by distinguished men in the 
arts and sciences. In Paris, public insti-< 
tudons arose ; palaces and churches were. 
Imilt (for example, the church of St.. 
Genevieve, l^ SoufSot, &c^^ the militaiy 
school of Paris, and the Champs Eliaius^ 
wen laid QUX ia IT^bjtheminitfexc^ 

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wmr, count IVArgenson ; the intendant, 
Tmdaine, prosecuted, with euccess, the 
oODBtruction of roads. The commerce 
of Lyons and Bordeaux adorned these 
cities with regal splendor. Stanislaus 
Leczynski, who died in 1776, restored the 
public prosperity in Lorraine, and Pigal 
executed a splendid monument, which was 
erected in Strasburg, to the marshal Saxe, 
who died in 1750. \)f the numerous paint- 
ers of this period, the best were Lemoine 
and Vemet But taste degenerated under 
the influence of a voluptuous court, and 
art paid homage to luxury. It delighted 
in empty show, but, at the same time, car- 
ried manufactures to perfection. Theinge- 
. nious Vaucanson applied his talents to the 
improvement of the Gobelin manufactory. 
(See Gobelin.) Louis XV himself took 
an interest in the porcelain manufactory 
established at Sevres, by the advice of 
madcune do Pompadour. At the same 
time, he is said to have suppressed, from 
humanity, a means of destruction, which 
would have been more formidable than 
the Greek fire ; but this is not historically 
proved. Enterprising and intelligent men, 
like La Bourdonnaye, the founder of the 
colonies of the Isle de France and Bour- 
bon, and even his calumniator, Dupleix, 
extended the commerce of France. Lou- 
isiana^ Canada, especially St. Domingo 
and the Lesser Antilles, the colony on the 
Senegal, and the ports of the Levant, em- 
ployed the French activity, and enriched 
the maritime cities. But, by the unjust 
measures of La Bourdonnaye, tlie state de- 
prived itself of the advantages acquired in 
the East Indies over England ; and, while 
France lost Canada and several islands by 
the manner in which it carried on the 
war (from 1756—62), it promoted the 
British power in India. The third estate, 
however, gradually acquired, by its wealth 
and intellectual advancement, consequence 
and influence. Public opinion assumed, 
in the a^ge of Louis XV, the character of 
levity, frivolity and boldiiet^ which was 
afterwards so strongly develof)ed in the 
revolution. Striking events, such as the 
trial of the imfortunate John Calas (q. v.), 
'and the execution of the young chevalier 
I>e Labarre ^q. v.), for sacrilege, brought 
new opiuions mtOjQ;eneral circulation. But 
the evil genius of France willedthat the de- 
cline of morals and reli^on, contemporary 
with the abuses of arbitrary power, with 
prevalent projudipes and the oppressions of 
the priesthood, should change the li^ht of 
truth, just springing up in France, mto a 
desu-oyinff fire, and the defensive weapon 
of knowledge into a two-edged sword; 

that the egotism of senauafity should gfuxk 
poesession of the territoiy of reason, and 
that brilliant wit should fa!e more esteemed 
than a serious purpose and a solid charac- 
ten This unhappy concurrence of the 
public misery with sensual licentiousness, 
stifled those improved views, and that 
scientific cultivation, which Montesquieu 
and others, to whom France was indebt- 
ed for its intellectual influence on the 
higher classes of society, in^ a great part 
of Europe, exerted themselves to dissemi- 
nate. The ignorant, stupified Louis had 
an abhorrence of all intellectual cultiva* 
tion. He feared talented writers, and fiie- 
quendy said of them, that theynvould be 
the cause of ruin to the monarchy. He, 
nevertheless, followed, in the first part of 
his reign, the advice of cardinal Fleury, 
who highlv esteemed the sciences, and 
subsequently yielded to the opinion of 
the court, and especially of Pompadour, 
who took a pleasure in being denominated 
the patron of genius, and a judge of the 
excellent The most powerful and per- 
manent influence on the spirit of the na- 
tion was exerted by Voltaire, who com- 
menced his splendid career, in 1716, with 
the tragedy of (Edipus. Louis had an 
aversion to him, but the marchioness in- 
duced him to appoint Voltaire his histori- 
Offrapher and groom of the chambers. 
Meanwhile, the preference visibly mani- 
fested by the court towards the poet Cre- 
billon, inspired the author of the Henriadt 
with a disgust at residing in Paris. Si- 
multaneously with him, the immortal 
Montesquieu awoke the powers of reflec- 
tion and of wit in the nation. His Letbres 
Persannes (1721) kindled the spirit of 
public criticism, and his work iSiir Us 
Causes de la Grandeur et de la Dicadence 
des Romains [I7^)y like his Esprit des Lens 
(1734), became a classic manual for the 
study of politics. About this time, the 
interest universally felt in scientific sub- 
jects, induced cardinal Fleury and count 
Maurepas to persuade the king to ascer- 
tain the truth of Newton's opinion re- 
specting the form of the earth by the 
measurement of a degree in a high north- 
em latitude and under the equator, which 
was undertaken in 1735 and 1736, and to 
potronize Cassini's map of France. After 
1749, J. J. Rousseau, Diderot, D'Alem- 
bert, Duclos, Condillac and Helvetius aro 
found in the ranks of the great writers of 
France. The greatest agitation in public 
opinion was caused by the DiOionnairt 
JElncydopidique of Diderot and D'Alem- 
bert, against which the clerey, particular- 
ly the Jesuits, and .the minister^ rose en 

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No ksB attentioii was exeited by 
the woikofHelyetiu8,I>er£fprtt Even 
the ladies took a veiy active part in the 
contest of philosophy. Bureaux d^esfrU 
'were formed, anci from the philosophjcal 
circles at the bouses of the baron or Hoi- 
boch and Helvetius, there proceed^ sev- 
eiai works in support of materialism and 
atheism, especially from 1758 to 1770. 
The most famous of them is the Susihne 
dt la Mature, of which the baron of Hoi- 
bach is regarded as the author. Religion 
was shamelessly assailed by La Mettrie, 
IVAigens, the abb6 de Piades, who, ban- 
ished from France, sought refuge with 
Frederic II, but whose opinions found 
reception in France. Condemnation by 
the Sorbotme only excited opposition, and 
the boldness of the age loved to defend 
rash and splendid errors, if they afforded 
opportunity for the exhibition of acuteness. 
No work was more destructive of public 
morals than Voltaire's PweUe—^ talented 
poem, which the licentious spirit of the 
times of the regency alone could have 
inspired. But l:^tter men, such as Tur- 
cot and Malesherfoes, labored, not without 
tne approbation of the better part of the 
public, to counteract this pestilence, and 
saved the honor of sound reason. Such 
a production is Duclos's ConaidiraHons 
swr les Moeurs, of which Louis XV him- 
self said, ** It is the work of a man of 
honor.** Thomas, Marmontel and Laharpe 
remonstrated loudly against atheism. Vol- 
taire's wit was particularly directed against 
the Christian religion, after the duke de 
X^hoiseul, in order to have all the voices 
against the Jesuits for himself, undertook 
the protection of the philosophers an3 of 
the author of the Didumnaire PhUoao- 
phique (Voltaire). Rousseau roused the 
most violent anger of the antiphilosophers, 
by his EmUie. Jesuits and Jansenists 
united against him, and, notwithstanding 
the general admiration which he received, 
he was obliged to leave France. Such 
was the revolutionary spirit of the age of 
Louis XV. The contempt for the court 
and royalty produced by his reign, the ex- 
haustion of the state caused by his extrav- 
agance, the rise of a critical and liberal spi- 
rit, and the corruption of state and church, 
gave birth to the revolution, and the de- 
based state of the public morals, poisoned 
by the example of the court, stained it with 
hideous excesses. 

Louis XVI, who was destined to as- 
cend the throne of France on the eve of a 
great poHtical convulsion, and to atone 
with his life for the faults and follies of liis 
predecessors, was the grandson of Louis 

XV, and the Beoond son of the dauphin, 
by his second wife, Maria JosepWe, 
daughter of Frederic Augustus, kuig of 
Poland and elector of &Lxony. I^uis 
was bom Aug. 2S^ 1754, and, in 1770, 
married Marie Antoinette of Austria. The 
countess Marsan, governess of the royal 
&mily, had a large share in his education, 
and even after he became king, Louis lis- 
tened to her representations, of which the 
abb6 Georeel relates a remarkable in- 
stance in bis memoirs. With the beet 
intentions, but entirely inexperienced hi 
matters of government, this unfortunate 
prince ascended the throne in 1774, at the 
age of hardly 20 vears. He modestly 
declined the title of U Duiri, civen him 
by the nation, which he excused from the 
tax usual on the occasion. Afler the 
death of the Dauphin, in 1765, his grand- 
&ther had intentionally kept him from 
acquiring the knowledge connected with 
his destination ; and the countess Du Barry 
sought to revenge herself for the contempt 
exhibited towards her by the serious, 
strictly moral prince, who dearly loved 
his wife, whom she hated, by making him 
ridiculous in the eyes of the king. The 
ministers, also, secretly spread the opinion 
that the prince was severe, and far re- 
moved from the indulgent kindness of his 
grandfather. He was retiring, silent and 
reserved, and did not dare to express his 
benevolent feeling His reserve passed 
for distrust He felt himself a stranger at 
a court where he was surrounded by vice 
under a thousand glittering forms. As he 
heeded not flattery, he was indifferent to 
the courtiers. The duke Choiseul there- 
fore said, that, on the most desirable throne 
of the world, he was the only king who 
not only had no flatterers, but who never 
experienced the least justice from the 
worid. In his countenance, which was 
not destitute of dignity, were delineated 
die prominent features of his character — 
integiity, indecision and weakness. He 
was injured, however, by a certain stiffs 
ness of demeanor, repulsive to the commu- 
nications of friendship. His manners had 
nothing of the grace possessed by almost 
all the princes of the blood. In confiden- 
tial intercourse alone, he fifecjuently ex- 
Eressed himself sensibly and ingeniously, 
ut blushed if his observations were re- 
peated. TaciUty of comprehenaon, in- 
dustry, and an extraordmary memoiy, 
made him successful in his studies ; but, 
unhappily, they had no immediate rela- 
tion to the duties and knowledge of a 
prince. He employed himself too assidu- 
ously in uninipoitunt particulars. Thus ha 

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printed, when dtuphin, in 1766^ 35 copies 
of Maximts moredw ei poUtiqwgy tiria dt 
T&4mafut^ iouprvniea poor I^vis-Jht^usUy 
DcMpkxiu ViriaiUes, dt rimprimene dt 
Monseigneur U Dawphxn. He had liim- 
self couected these maxims from F^n^- 
lon^s work. He was familiar with geo- 

Saphical and chronological details; but 
e practical lessons which kings should 
derive from history, were unsown to 
him, although, while dauphin, he had 
read seveFal good historical works. A 
translation, by him, of some parts of Gib- 
bon's History, appeared under the name 
of Le Clerc de Sept Chines, his reader. 
Upright, pious and indulgent, he was 
philanthropically disposed, bodi towards. 
Lis nation and towards individuals. The 
virtues of his &ther, the quiet, domestic 
life of his mother, had deeply impressed 
upon him a moral, reli^ous feeling. But 
his example was destined to show how 
insufficient, on a throne, are the virtues 
of a private man. He chose count Mau- 
repas his minister of state, a man of talent 
and experience, but of little solidity of 
character, and desirous of shining in epi- 
grams. In the room of the infamous 
abb6 Tenrai, he committed the financial 
department to the enlightened, able and 
upright Turgot, who resolved to remedy 
tlie abuses of the state by tliorough re- 
forms on strict philosophical, and, in some 
degree, physiocratrcal principles, and 
looked upon the pri\dleged orders as the 
sources of all evil. But the friends of 
ancient abuses, tlie high nobili^, the 
court, and the cler^, immediately formed 
a combination against him. When the 
parliaments were restoi^ed, by the influ- 
ence of Maurepas, against the judgment 
of Turgot, the contest of opinion, between 
old and new views, more than ever em- 
barrassed the government. The count of 
Vei^ennes was at the head of foreign 
afiairs ; count Muy was minister of war ; 
and Sartine, of the marine. The new 
theories, which Turgot proposed in the 
council of state, had, indc^ the approba- 
tion of the philosophers: even the tal- 
ented men and women, whom madame 
Helvetius, madame GeoflHn, mile. Espi- 
nasse, the princess of Beauveau, and the 
duchess D'Anville, collected around them, 
took a lively interest in Turgot's liberal 
plans, which were loudly praised by Jo- 
seph II and Leopold ; but his opponents 
found a support for their reeistance in the 
old parliaments. The most oppressive 
fendal services, arbitraxy exactions, slave- 
ry in the mountains of Jura, and the rack, 
were abolished^ and nuiny useful regula- 

tions established} but Turcot eould not 
overcome the king's dread of an open 
struggle with the cfergy, the nobility and 
parhament. These bodies united against 
the minister, and the people, which was 
on his side, could not, without representa- 
tives, afford anv assistance against such a 
league. The mes of the minister stirred 
up the populace, and, on occasion of an 
edict declaring the corn -trade free, scenes 
occurred resembling those which subse- 
(]uently marked the revolution. The 
tunid and inexperienced Louis believed 
himself hated by the nation, and was in- 
dulgent towards the seditious; finally, by 
the advice of Turgot and Muy, he acted 
with vigor, and the disturbances, called^ 
in Paris, la guerrt desfcaineg, were quieted 
afler the amnesty of May 17, 1775. The 
coronation of «the king, 11th June, 1775, 
was followed by the appointment of the 
virtuous Malesherbes as minister. He 
was the friend of Turgot Their united 
influence might, perhaps, have done much 
towards reforming the old abuses, but, 
unhappily, the new minister of war, the 
count of St. Germain, was too violent in 
his innovations. The corps that' were 
disbanded or diminished, and the ofiiended 
military nobility, loudly expressed their 
dissatisfaction at the system of innovation, 
which was disliked, moreover, by the 
higher classes. "The state vnll perish," 
was the general cir, and the paniament 
refused to register five edicts of^ the kin^. 
Louis resolved, indeed, to maintain his 
authority, by & lit de justice^ March 12, 
1776 ; but the queen, a princess who was 
equally superior to her husband in vivacity 
of understanding and in wit, and loved 
splendor and pleasure, supported the op- 
position together with Maurepas, who was 
Turgot*s secret enemy. Her the king^ 
could not resist He hesitated: the deficit 
produced by the payment of debts and the 
expenses of the coronation, in 1775, in- 
spired him with distrust of Turgot's phil- 
osophical views. Malesherbes gave in 
his resignation. Tunrot was obuged to 
follow his example. The privileged party 
was victorious, but tlie hatred of the third 
estate, and the desire of all enlightened 
and well-disposed persons for a thorough 
reform, was increased. They did not 
v?ish to overthrow the whole system, until 
the North American revolution threw a 
firebrand into this inflammable mass. The 
day on which Louis concluded the treaty 
witii the U. States, Feb. 6, 1778, decided 
his fate ; for the war to which it gave rise, 
from 1778 to 1782^ and which cost Franco, 
according to Audouio^ 1,400,000,000 livres,, 

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ac c u Mo n ied die natioii and aatmy to re- 
puUicaii idflasi and produced a curelen 
doficit; thia, a meetmg of the statea-gen- 
cral; and this, the fidlof the monarch and 
moDATchy. Louia himself waa averse to 
eogacing in this war; but he was out- 
TOted in the council of state, the ministera 
hoping- to establish French commerce on 
the OTCfthrow of the English. After Tur- 
goc*8 removal, the extravagance of the 
court increased: while Louis refused him- 
aelf any great expenditures he yielded too 
easily to the tastes of the queen and the 
psinces of the blood. Luxury and splen- 
dor made the expenses of the court very 
great : they played high ; they built ; they 
exhibited races; they gratified every 
whim ; and Louis's dissatusfaction, which 
oAoi withdrew him from these entertain- 
ments, was regarded as the indication of 
an ordinary mmd. The regularity of his 
manner of life, in which smdy and do- 
mestic pleasures were intermingled with 
businesB, made no impression on the gay 
spendthrifts. Louis did not possess the 
art of inspiring the court and princes with 
respecL He paid the debts of count 
Artois. The queen, also, gave herself up 
lo her love of gayety. Taste and love of 
the arts, clothed in all the humors of 
the fashion, reigned in the festivals of 
Versailles and Petit Trianon. Maurepas 
^ther did not see whither all this must 
lead, or, with his characteristic levity, 
yielded to necessity. Pleasure was his 
element He remained the directing min- 
ister till his death, Nov. 21, 1781, sharing 
the confidence of the king with die tal- 
ented queen, and with every one who 
could deceive the monarch under the ap- 
pearance of zeal for the common welfare. 
The changes- in the ministry of the A- 
ziances, which was committed, in turn, to 
Ctugny, Taboureau, Necker, Joly de Fleu- 
ly, and D'Ormesson, increased die confu- 
sion. The existence of great abuses was 
notorious; but the extirpation of their 
deep-rooted causes was impossible. The 
dimiissal of Necker, who had become an 
object of great dislike by his vain compte 
rtndu, was considered as a public mis- 
fortune by the third estate, whose favor 
Necker exerted himself to acquire. Thus, 
long before the revolution, a real anarchy 
prevailed in 4)ub]ic opinion, which pene- 
trated even to the council of state. After 
the peace of Versailles, in 1783, which 
brought some advantages^ — not, however, 
sufficient to repay the expense incurred, — 
the fiivolous Calonne, liberal in promises, 
few of which were redeemed, was ap- 
poimed miniBter of finance. In foreign 

afiaiTB, for easmple, in the dkpute about 
the Scheldt, Vei^^ennet maintained, though 
not without sacnfioe of money, the honor 
of the French crewn ; but the commercial 
treaty of 1786^ with Endand, was deemed 
the greatest error of his administration, 
although it was a consequence of the 
peace of Versailles. He was also blamed 
for having rejected the closer connexion 
profifered by Joseph II, and for thus 
causing the approxunation of Austria to 
Russia. The king himself betrayed weak- 
ness in dismiasung the minister before the 
accomplishment of his plans, which he 
had at first approved. It is said that he 
sometimes spent his leisure hours in tho 
labors of a blacksmith, and this led him to 
the use of strong liquors. Drinking and 
workinff at the furnace had heat^ hia 
blood, bis understanding vras weakened, 
and, subsequently, his natural indolence, 
with his increasing corpulence, destroyed 
his mental activity, and produced a phleg- 
matic indifference. Yet it is known that 
Louis took pleasure in literary occupatioiiSy 
and engaged with fondness in public en- 
terprises. He frapied, with much sagacity, 
the plan and instructions for Lap^rouse's 
voyage round the world, in 1786. Sev- 
eral passages in those instructions express, 
in a touching manner, the benevolent 
feelings of this artless prince. He often la- 
mented Lap^rousc's unhappy fate, with the 
words, " I see very well that I am not for- 
tunate.'' His kindness of disposition made 
him particularly interested for the poorer 
clergy. He followed, however, the max- 
im of Louis XV, not to give bishoprics, 
or rich benefices, to any but nobles. He 
drew a line of division, equally unjust, 
and far more pernicious, with respect to 
the army, in which military rank was con- 
fined exclusively to the nobility. The 
third estate could not speak out ; so much 
the more bitterly and violently did the 
populace complain of the court and higher 
classes, when, in consequence of the infa- 
mous ^fiair of the necklace, the process 
against the cardinal prince of Rohan was 
commenced in 1785, (See GeorgePs 
MimoinSf vol. ii.) The libel of the brand- 
ed countess De la Mothe and her hus- 
band, disseminated the grossest calumnies 
against the innocent queen, which were 
but too easily credited by the people. By 
this means, the throne was dieu;raced in 
public opinion ; and the duke of Orleans, 
the implacable enemjr of the queen, waa 
accused of using the infamous La Mothe 
as the tool of his hatred. In this fermen- 
tation of public sentiment, Calonne per^ 
suaded the king to convene the iiotaUfl8» 

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in oidar to find some nworces for die 
exhausted treasury. Unhappily, the coui it 
of Vergennes died, Feb. 13, 1787, and, on 
the 2& Februaiy, the ]ung opened the 
aasembly with a speech, which was not 
fiivorably received. The deOcit, which 
the comptroller-general had stated at 
112,000,000, but which was estimated at 
more than 140,000,000, rendered Calonne's 
plans suq>ected. An opposition was 
formed, and Calonne received his dismis- 
sal. Parliament refused the imposition 
of two new taxes, which would have been 
burdensome to the lai|;e landed proprie- 
tors, and demanded the convocation of the 
estatea The nation heard the proposition 
with exultation ; the court trembled. 
Loiiia ventured on a lit de justice ; but the 
parliament declared it void. According 
to Lacretelle, a calembourg was the spark 
which kindled the mine that overthrew 
the throne, while the mass of the nation, 
excited by opinions and passions, exas- 
perated by hatred and contempt, reduced 
to desperation by the sight of multiplied 
wants, and inspired, by the example of 
America, with the love of freedom, be- 
came incapable of restrafnt or moderation. 
The king^ banished the parliament to 
Troyes. Thus war was declared between 
the throne and nation. The government, 
moreover, had acted without dignity in 
regard to the contest of the Dutch patriots 
with the hereditary stadtholder, in 1787, 
and thus entirely lost the respect of the 
people. The king himself manifested a 
good nature, bordering on weakness, to 
his nearest connexions, who, like the duke 
De Coigny, consented only with the great- 
est reluctance to the restrictions of tlie 
royal household. A negotiation was final- 
ly commenced with the pariiament ; it 
returned ; the measures, on botl) sides, 
became more violent ; the rebellion broke 
out in Brittany, in June, 1788 ; the nobili- 
ty and tlie officers of the regiment Vas- 
signy, then, for the first time, dared to 
carry arms against the commands of the 
king. Even the clergy loudly demanded 
the convocation of the estates. (Respect- 
ing the pernicious artifices of the royalists, 
tn general, much information is contained 
in ^esenvaPs and MoUeville's Memoirs.) 
The weak prime minister, Brienne (see 
Lominie), opposed in all liis projects, re- 
signed, and Necker entered the council, in 
1788, as minister of finances. Louis con- 
vened a second time the notables, to setde 
the form of the estates and the manner of 
voting. May 5, 1789, the states-general 
met Amidst the conflicts of the privi- 
egdd orders, and the new opinioiifl^ the 

king remained jentle and tiinid, dwe rt od 

and alone. ^ wd forbid," said he to the 
uobihty, who would not unite with the 
third estatOi ''that a single man should 
perish for my sake." His sole object, 
which he pursued with earnestness of 
purpose, was the common weal; but 
around him eveiy thinff vacillated ; how 
could he show firmness ? The democrats 
bated him as a king ; the emigrants and 
the aristocrats, who remained in France, 
deemed him incapable of governing. He 
himself made the greatest sacrifices to the 
state, even such as endangered his per- 
sonal security, for instance, the disbanding 
of his body guard. He coidd not, never- 
theless, escape the most envenomed cal- 
umny. Among other things^ it was re- 
ported that, by a secret act, he had pro- 
tested against every thing, which had 
been extorted from him ui limitation of 
the ancient royal prerogatives. Mean- 
while, even amid the gix)6se8t calumnies, 
a flattering word was sometimes heard. 
When Louis XVI attended the nation- 
al assembly . (Feb. 4, 17901 the national 
guard of Versailles caused a gold med- 
al to be struck, on which was repre- 
sented a pelican feeding its young with 
its blood. The device was, F/wicaiSf 
80U8 cet enibUTne adortz voire roi ! The 
12th, 13Ui and 14th of July, 1789; the 
night of August 4 ; the horrors of the 5t)i 
and 6th of October ; the flight of the lung, 
June 21, 1791, intercepted at Varennea, 
60 leagues from Paris, when Louis, ironri 
his hesitation to use force, prevented the 
success of Bouill^'s plan for his escape, 
and, at the same time, excited public 
opinion against himself by the declaration 
which he left behind (see tlie statement 
of M. de Vulory, in tlie Mrurvey Novem- 
ber, 1815, and die Metnoirs of Bouill^ and 
Choiseul) ; the acceptance of the constitu- 
tion of Sept 14, 1791, which declared his 
E*rson inviolable ; the attack of the popu- 
ce of Paris on the royal palace, June 20,* 
1792, when Louis, with equal firmness 
and dignity, rejected the demands of the 
insurgents, and, on tlie 22d, openly de- 
clared that violence would never induce 
him to consent to what he considered 
hurtful to the general welfare ; the catas- 
trophe of August 10, to which Louis 
submitted, because he had not the courage 
to overcome the danger ; his arrest in the 
national aasembly, to which he had fled 
for refuge ; fijudly, his trial before the con- 
vention, where he replied to the charges 
with dignity and presence of mind;-— 
these were the most important events ia 
the hifltoxy of thekuig. (See Ihmu^Jhm 

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1789 fe 1814) He ezhiI»Cedy under these 
dxcammBncefL the courage of innocence^ 
■od a mreug ti i of mind before unknown 
in him. As a prisoner of the municipaHtv' 
of Paris, in the Temple, he was dented, till 
aboitly before his death, pen, ink and 
paper. (See the Jcunud de ce qui s*eH 
pau4 h la T\iur du TtmpU pendant la 
Ca^&mU dit Louii XF7,.by Cl^ry, the 
fidlhful servant of the king; and a work 
on the same subject by Hue, who followed 
Louis to the Temple.) His usual employ- 
ment was instructing his son and reading. 
He preferred Latin authors to the French. 
He read, almost every day, portions of 
Tacitus, Livy, Seneca, Horace and Ter- 
ence; in his native language, chiefly 
travels. On the evening befoiti his death, 
he found that he had read 157 volumes, 
m ihe five months and seven days of his 
imprisoimient. He evinced himself a loving 
husband and an affectionate &ther. In his 
pHvate capacity, no candid man can vnth- 
hold from him his esteem. Jan. 15, 1793, 
Louis was declared guilty of a conspiracy 
againat the fieedom of the nation, and of 
an attack on the general security, by a vote 
of e90 out of 719 ; on the 17th January, he 
was condemned to death, the law requiring 
for condemnation two thirds of the votes, 
haying been repealed on the 16tb, during 
the truJ, and a bare majority declared su^ 
ficient Afler repeated countings, it was 
found that 366 votes were given for death, 
makinff, consequently, a majority of 5 in 
727. Jan. 21, 1798, he was ^illotined, 
in front of his former palace, m his 99th 
year, the appeal to the nation, proposed 
by his advocates, Malesherbes, Tronchet 
and Des^ze, having been rejected, on the 
19th, by 380 vbtes out of 690. He died 
with the courage of Christian faith. His 
last words, which asserted his innocence 
and forgave his judges, were drowned in 
the rolling of drums and in the cry Five la 
rMbttqut ! — See the Memoirs of the Abb6 
Ekigeworth (the priest who prepared him 
for death), containing his narrative of the 
last hours of Louis XVI (London, 1816). 
— ^Even in his youth, Louis manifested a 
sensibility unusual in the higher classes. 
He needed not the sisht of misery ; when 
he heard it spoken of, he shed tears, and 
hastened to relieve it Unknown, he alio- 
'nated misfortune in the cottage and gar- 
ret When he was first saluted at court, 
as dauphin, ailer the death of his father, 
the duke of Burgundv, he could not 
restrain his tears. Still greater was his 
ffrief at the death of Louis XV. " O God," 
he cried, ''shall I have the misfortune 
to be kmg!" His fovcnite maxim was, 

"Kin^ exist only to make nations han 
by their government, and virtuous by tneir 
example." The esmblishment of the 
moni de pidL the coiMe d^tswmple^ the 
abolition of feudal services, of torture, 
and of slavery m the Jtuts are only some 
of his benevolent measures. He caused 
the state prisons to be examined, and 
liberated the unhappy victims of despot- 
ism. Louis declared that he would never 
sign, beforehand, a UUrt de cachd. His 
great object was the happiness and love 
of his people. On his journey to Cher- 
bourg, m 1786, where he had updertaken 
the construction of the celebrated harbor, 
in 1784, to which he had appropriated 
37,000,000 livres, he received the most 
unequivocal marks of the love of the 
French. He wrote, at the time, to the 
queen, ''The love of my people has 
touched me to the heart ; think you not 
that I am the happiest king on earth?" 
And in his will of Dec. 25, 1792, he says, 
"I forgive, from my whole heart, those 
who have conducted towards me as ene- 
mies, without my inving ^em the least 
cause, and I pray trod to forgive them. 
And I exhort my son, if he should ever 
have the misfortune to reini, to forset tdl 
hatred and all enmity, and especially my 
misfortunes and sufferings. I recom- 
mend to him always to consider that it is 
the duty of man to devote himself entirely 
to the happiness of his fellow men ; that 
he will promote the happiness of his sub- 
jects only when he governs according to 
the laws ; and that the kins can make the 
laws respqrted, and attain his object, only 
when he possesses the necessary authon- 
ty." In the same spirit he wrote to Mon- 
sieur (Louis XVIII) : " I submit to Provi- 
dence and necessity, in laying my inno- 
cent head on the scafibld. By my death, 
the burden of the royal dignity devolves 
upon my son. Be his father, and rule 
the state so as to transmit it to him tran- 
quil and prosperous. My desire is, that 
yoCi assume tne titie of a regent of the 
kingdom ; my brother, Charles Louis, will 
take that of lieutenant-general. But less 
by the force of arms than by the assur- 
ance of a wise freedom and good laws, 
restore to my son his dominions, usurped 
by rebels. Your brother requests it of 
you, and your king commands it Given • 
in tiie tower of tiie Temple, Jan. 20, 1793." 
Louis was buried in the Magdalen churcb*- 
yard, Paris, between the graves of those 
who were crushed to death, in the crowd, 
at the Louvre, on the atmiveraary of his 
marriage, in 1774, and the mves of the 
Swiss, who iUl on the 10th August, 1792, 

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LOUIS xvi--];x)uiB xvni- 

in hia defence. Deaodoeid's woik on the 
histoiT of thie priDce, is of little value. 
J. J. Kegnault's SUcU de Louis XVI is not 
impartia]. The Fte prwh et politique dt 
Lom8 XVI, avee un Precis historique mxr 
Marie ArUametU, Mme, ElvuAelk, etc., par 
M, A^ contains little that is not to be 
found elsewhere. More important are 
the abb(& GeorgePs Mhnoires pour aervvr 
h riRatoire dea J^^vinements depuis 1760, 
Ju^qu'm 1806—1810, published by the 
nephew of the author, after his death 

Saris, 1817, 2 vols.), and Mad. Campan's 
emoirs of the private Lifeof tlie Queen, 
with Anecdotes of the Times of Louis 

XIV, XV, XVI (Paris, 1822, 3 vols.) ; and 
the abb^ de Montgaillard's Histoire de 
Drance dhpvM la Fin du Regne de Lams 

XV, &c (Paris, 1827, 4 vols., to 179a) 
Louis XVII, second son of Louis 

XVI and of Marie Antoinette, was bom 
at Versailles, March 27, 1785, and, in 
1789, after the death of lids elder brother, 
received the title of dauphin. He was 
four years old, when his mother presented 
him to the seditious populace of Paris, 
and carried him to the capitiU on the ter- 
rible 5th and 6th October. Confined with 
his parents and his aunt Elizabeth (q. v.), 
in tne Temple, his innbcent gayety and 
aftectionate disposition wer6 the chief 
solace of the uuhappy prisoners. On the 
death of Louis XVI, he i^as proclaimed 
king by the royalists, and his uncle (since 
Louis XVIII) assumed the title of re- 
gent. He was soon after separated from 
his mother, sister and aunt, and delivered 
(1793} to a shoemaker by thf name of 
biinon, a fierce Jacobin, of a gross and 
ferocious disposition, who, with his wife, 
treated the young Capet widi the most 
unfeeling barbarity. Keproaches, blows, 
scanty food, tiie damps and filth of a dun- 
geon, and a sleep broken by menaces and 
abuse, were the lot of the innocent child. 
He was even compelled to drink strong 
liquors, and join in the obscene songs, and 
repeat the atrocious language of ms tor- 
mentor. He survived this treatment only 
till June 8, 1795, when he died, at tlie age 
of 10 years and two months. He was 
buried in the common grave in die ceme- 
tery of Ste. Marguerite, where his remains 
could not be distinguished in 1815. Seve- 
ral impostors have appeared, pretending to 
be the prince ; among them, Hervagant, 
a tailor's son, in Iml (died 1812 in 
prison), and Bruneau, a shoemaker, who, 
m 1818, was condemned to seven years' 
imprisonment. (See Eckard's Mhnoirea 
9W Louis XVn.) 
Loiiis XVIII (Stanislaus Xavier), le 

DMr^ foimeriy oouat of Provence, thiid 
son of the dauphin (the son of Louis 
XV), bora November 17, 1755, married. 
May 14, 1771, the daughter of king Vic- 
tor- Amadeus III of Sardinia, Mary Jo- 
sephine Louisa, who died in 1810. At 
the accession of his brother, Louis XVI, 
in 1774, he received the tide of Monsieur, 
and, afler his death, became regent of 
France. After the death of his nephew, 
June 8, 1795, ftt>m which dme he reck- 
oned his reign, he took the name of Louis 
XVIII, king of France and of Navarre. 
But, with the exception of England, the 
states of Europe did not acknowledge 
him as king of France before the taking 
of Paris, March 31, 1814. His brodier, 
Monsieur, eount of Artois, as lieutenant- 
general, became the head of the provis- 
ional government in Paris, April 13. Im- 
mediately afler, Louis XVIII began his 
reign, by his manifesto from Sl Ouen, 
May 2, 1814. During the reign of his 
brother, he had taken but litde interest in 
the intrigues and the pleasures of the 
court, and had principally occupied him- 
self with books ; his -wife had followed a 
different course. It is said that, in his 
youth, Louis had much taste for poetir, 
and was the author of several tolerably 
good poems. He translated also some 
volumes of GiblK>n'8 Histoiy, and applied 
himself to the study of the Roman poets 
and philosophers. The history of his 
emigration, he has related in an agreeable 
manner, in a work which appeared at 
Paris, in 1823 (Relation d*un Voyage a 
Bruxdles el a CoUence, 1791); dedicated, 
a AfUoine Louis Ihtnpois (tAvaray, son 
libiraieur, Louis Stanislaus Xamer de 
France, plHn de Reconnaissance, Salut, In 
die first assembly of the notables, in 1787, 
he was at the head of the first of the 
seven bureaus, and appearefl on the side 
of the opposition, against Calonne, con- 
iroUur-geniral des Jmanuxs ,* at least, the 
latter was most violendy attacked by the 
bureau, under thepresidency of the count 
of Provence. The people, therefore, 
looked upon him with favor, and saluted 
him with cries of joy, when he received 
fiom the king orders to compel the regis- 
tration of some edicts, by the cour des 
comptes. His brother, die count of Ar- 
tois (Charles X), on the other hand, who 
did not belong to the oppoation, was 
loaded with reproaches. At the second 
assembly of the notables, November 9, 
1788, he alone declared himself for the 
double representation of the third estate. 
During the revolution, it was as imposa- 
ble for him as for the king to escape the 

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lofcahimny. After the deBtniction 
of the BttBtile, ihe kiDc; accompanied by 
bis two bfotfaefB, eoteied the hall of the na- 
tioiMl aaeinbly, July 15, and declared 
that he counted upon the love and the 
fidelicy of hk aubjectB, and had, therefore, 
eiven orden to the troops to withdraw 
irom Paris and Veraailles. But the peo- 
ple of Paris had aheady proscribed the 
count of Artois, who, therefore, left the 
kingdom, Julv 16^ with his two sons. He 
was followed by the princes of Cond^ 
and Conti, and the ^kes of Bourbon, 
Engfaien and Luxembourg. Monsieur 
remained. As the people were clamor- 
ous for the execution of the marquis of 
Favras, who had sought means ft>r the 
escape of the king, and had attempted 
a counter revolution, in which the count 
of Provence had taken part, the latter 
went to the A^<e< (fe viUe, in Paris, the day 
afier the arrest of the marquis (December 
26, 1789), to defend liimself in pereon. 
He saKTted that the only connexion he 
had ever had with the marquis, was, that 
he had bargained with him for 2,000,000 
of livres, wherewith to pay his debta 
The people believed that this money was 
to have been appropriated to the levying 
of troops. The marquis was condemned 
to death, by the chdtdet^ and hanged Feb- 
ruaiy 19. At last, the violence of the 
factions in Paris induced the king, June 
21, 1791, to attempt to escape to the fron- 
tiers of the kingdom. Loum took the 
road to Montmmly, and the count of 
Provence that of Mon& The fbimer 
was arrested at Varennes; the latter reach- 
ed Brussels in safety. From Coblentz, he 
protested against the decrees of the na- 
tional assembly, and the restraints put up- 
on the freedom of the kinc. When the 
king, October 30 and 31, im, called up- 
on him fo return, the princes issued a 
declaration, that they regarded the con- 
sdmtion as the work of rebels, and that 
the king held the throne merely in trust, 
and was obliged to leave it to bis posteri^ 
as he had received it. January 16^ 179^ 
the legislative assembly, therefore, de- 
clared the count of Provence "to have for- 
feited his right to the succession. The 
two brotheiB of the king, at the head of 
6000 cavalry, now joined the Prussian 
army. After the death of Louis XVI, 
Monsieur, who had previoushr been re- 
siding at Hamm, in Westphalia, lived at 
Verona, under the name of count of 
lille. In 1795, he was here proclaimed, 

a the emigrants^ king of France and of 
ivaire. The calamities which after- 
watds befell him he bore vritb dignity and 

V0&. VUK 10 

reaolutioD. In the foUowiBg vear, when 
the Venetian senate, through fear of Bo- 
naparte, obliged him to leave Verona, he 
declared himself ready to do so, but re- 
quired that the names of six princes of 
bis house should first be struck fiom the 
golden book of the republic, and that the 
armor, which his ancestor, Hemy IV, had 
given it, should be restored. He now led 
a wandering life, supported by foreign 
courts, especially the E^glbh, and by 
some friends of the house of Bourbon. 
He first went to the amiy of Cond^ on 
the Rhine, to serve as a volunteer, but 
was afterwards obliged to leave it, and 
went to DiUingen, in Suabia. July 19, 
1796, at 10 o'clock in the evening, as he 
viras standing at a vrindow, with the dukes 
of Grammont and Fleury, a musket ball 
was fired at him, which grazed his tem- 
ple. ** Never mind it,** said he immedi- 
ately to the alarmed dukes; *^a blow ou 
the head, that does not briug a man down, 
is nothing." When the count D'Avaray 
exclaimed, <* If the ball bad struck a liue 
deeper — " Louis replied, *^ then the king 
of France would have been called Chariea 
X." From thence he went to Blanken- 
btirg, a small town in the Hartz, where ha 

. lived under the protection of the duke of 
Brunswick, and carried on a correspond- 
ence with his fiiends in France, especially 
with Pichegni. After the peace of 179/, 
he went to Mittau, where he celebrated 
the marriage of the duke of Angoulemo 
vrith the daughter of Louis XVI. When 
Paul I refui^ to permit him to reside 
any longer in hie suites, the Prussian ffov- 
ernment allowed him to remain in War- 
saw. While here, Bonaparte, in 1803, 
attempted to idduce him to renounce his 
claims to the throne. But he answeretl 
to the messenger of the first consul, Feb- 
ruary 26, <* I do not confound M* Bona- 
parte with his predecessors ; I esteem his 
valor and his military talents, and thank 
him for all the good he has done mv peo- 
ple. But, fiiithnil to the rank in which I 
wos born, I shall never give up my rights. 
Thouffh in chains, I shaU still esteem my- 
self the descendant of St. Louis. As 
successor of Francis the First, I will at 

Jeast say like him—* We have lost all ex- 
cept our honor.' " April 23, the princes 
concurred in the answer of the king. In 
1806^ Louis, with the consent of the em-* 
peror Alexander, returned to Mittau ; but 
the peace of Tilsit obliged him to leave 
the continent, and he, at last, took refuge 
in England, in 1807. His brother, the 
count of Artois>-since 1795, Monsieur^ 
had lived in Great Britain, principally in 

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Edinbmisfa, ftom 179& Louis had taken 
aerend alepB to procufe the restoratioaof 
hia fiunily in France. With it^w view, he 
had written to Picfaegm, and given him 
iull powera. His letter of May 34, 179(3^ 
ia a proof of the great confidence wluch he 
had in this ** brave, diaintereatedand mod- 
eat" general, to whom, aa he then thought, 
<< was reaerved the gloiy of restoring the 
French monarchy." When the army of 
the prince of Cond^, in which, since 1798, 
the duke of Bern had commanded a cav- 
alry regiment of nobles, first in Russian, 
and afterwards in English pay, had been 
by circumstances ffradually broken up^ 
and had obtained from the Russian em- 
peror the liberty of residing in Volhynia, the 
princes of the llourtran fiunilyceased to take 
an active parkin the operations of the war. 
Louts XVIIJ, until the conclusion of the 
great struggle, remained in England, where 
he lived at Haitwell,jD Buckinghanishire,in 
a very simple manner, occupying himself 
pardy with the Roman classics, especially 
Horace, of whom he translated much, and 
retained in memory a large part, and part- 
ly with political studies. Ttiat he resem- 
bled in character his unfortunate brother. 
We know from several examples of his 
kind feelings. Soon after the disastrous 
expedition of the French to Russia, he 
wrote to the emperor Alexander a letter, rec- 
ommending the French prisoners of war, 
as his children, to the magnanimi^ of 
that monarch, and he refused to jom in 
the rejoicings in England, for he could 
not but mourn the death of so many 
Frenchmen. When the allies invaded 
France, the count of Artois went to Basle, 
February 2, 1814 His eldest son, the 
duke of*^ Angoul^me, had cone to join 
W^ellington. They published a proclama- 
tion from Louis XVIII to the French, 
dated Hartwell-house, 1st February, 1814, 
which induced a paity, first in Bordeaux, 
and oflerwards in Paris, to declare for the 
Bourbons. The king promised entire 
oblivion of the past, the support of the 
administrative and judicial authorities, the 
preservation of the new code, with the 
exception of those laws which interfered 
with religious doctrines ; security to die 
new proprietors against le^ processes ; 
to the army, all its rights, titles and pay ; 
to tiiQ senate, the support of its political 
rights ; the abolition of the conscription ; 
and, for himself and his family, every sac- 
rifice which could contribute to the tran- 
qullUty of France. Soon after the disso- 
lution of the congress of Chatillon, the 
count of Artois entered Nancy, March 19. 
But the duke of AngouUme fint saw the 

lifies of the Boufbona pkntad on Franch 
ground at Bofdeaux, March 13. The res- 
toration of the Bourbons was a sut^ect 
first brought strongly home to the French, 
at the time of the entrance of the allies 
into Paris, by the declaration of the em- 
peror Alexander,March 31, that they would 
treat neither with Napoleon nor with 
any member of his fiimilv. Talleyrand, 
Jaucourt, the duke of Dalberg, Louis and 
De Pradt contributed not a littie to this in 
an interview vrith Alexander, the king of 
Prussia, Schwartzenbeiig, Nesselrode, Poz- 
zo di Borgo, and Liechtenstein, March 31, 
by the assurance ihat the restoration of 
the Bourbons was the wish of a large ma- 
jority of the nation. (See De Pradt's 
RieU kistoriqut 9ur la ResiawraHon de la 
EoyauU en /Vance, 2e 31 Mara, 1814.) The 
senate now appointed a provisional gov- 
ernment under the presidencv of Talley- 
rand, wiiich, April 3, ^ve the authority 
of a law to the resolve of the sonate of 
April 2, for the deposition of Napoleon, 
and published in the Momttwr the project 
of the constitution of April 5, according 
to which the Bourbons were to be recall- 
ed to the throne. A decree of April 4 
also intrusted the government to the cqpnt 
of Artois, until the moment when Louis, 
called to the throne of France, should ac- 
cept the constitution drawn up for the 
kingdom. Louis XVIII now left Hart- 
well, and reached London, April 20, 
whence the prince regent (Geone IV) ac- 
companied him to Dover. From Dover, the 
duke of Clarence (now William IV), Api*il 
24, conducted him to Calais. With Louis 
landed also the duchess of Angoulenie, 
the prince of Cond^ and his son, the 
duke of Bourbon. Upon landing, he 

Eressed the duchess of Angouldrae to his 
eart, and said, *^ I hold again the crown 
of mvancestore; if- it were of roses, I 
would place it on your head ; as it is of 
thorns, it is for me to wear it" The mem- 
oiy of his landing upon French ground, 
is perpetuated by a Doric column of mar- 
ble erected at Calais, and the trace of his 
first footstep is carefully preserved in 
brass. The king remained some davs in 
Compi^gne, where, as at St Ouen, ne re- 
ceived deputations from the authorities at 
Paris. He was welcomed at St Ouen by 
the emperor of Austria, and at Compi^gne 
by the emperor of Russia. From St 
Ouen, May 2, he issued that remarkable 
proclamation, by which he accepted tho 
most essential part of the constitution of 
the senate (April 5), in 12 articles, but sub- 
mitted the whole, as being too hastily 
drawn up, to the revison of a comnutiee 

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of the tenate and legialadTe body. May 
8k Louifl made his entrance into Paha. 
The ^opea of all now rested upon him. 
In compliance with the will of his unhap- 
py brother, who had conunanded forgive- 
neea, he solemnly declared ** that all ex- 
aminations into opinions and votes, until 
the time of the restoration, are forbidden. 
The same oblivion is made the duty of 
the courts of justice and of the citizens." 
He formed liis ministry of members of 
the former provisional government, and 
of zealous royalists, such as the chancellor 
D'Ambray. One of his first ordinances 
related to the continuance of the op- 
pressive taxes (droits r^unu), which the 
state of the kingdom rendered necessarv. 
It had been promised that they should 
be abolished, but it was only possible to 
ameliorate the mode of their collection. 
He afterwards concluded peace with Aus- 
tria, Russia, England, Prussia, Spain, Por- 
tugal and Sweden, at Paris, May 30, 1814, 
and caused a constitution to be drawn up. 
Although his ministry too lltde under- 
stood the spirit of public opinion, yet, by 
prudence and firamess, it was able to re- 
strain die disaffected. It mclined to the 
old prejudices, and fulfilled none of the 
just expectations of the nation, with re- 
gard to the fineedom of die press, and the 
prevalence of liberal ideas. The old roy- 
alists, as well as the partisans of the empire, 
had been deceived in the dreams of their 
pride and Uieir covetousness. The former 
thirsted for revenge, and aspired to regain 
their lost advantages. The latter, in- 
cluding the soldiers of Napoleon, 100,000 
of whom had returned from captivity, 
were indignant at the disgrace of the 
French arms. After the procluraation of 
peace, Louis caused Lis chancellor, D'Am- 
bray, in his presence, to lay before the leg- 
islative body and the senators the consti- 
tution of the kingdom (la charie conatiiU' 
tionneUe)y June 4, it having been already 
approved by nine senators and nine depu- 
ties^ after it had been drawn up by the 
three ministers D'Ambray, Montesquieu 
and Ferrand. It was unanimously ac- 
cepted as the will of the king, and re- 
corded. (See fVcmce, since 1814.) The 
chamber of deputies, which was estab- 
lished by this instrument, requested the 
king to take the surname of ** the desired," 
JjouU It DMrL When the chamber was 
occupied with fixing the civil list, Louis 
answered the deputies, "' Let them attend 
ID the stata, and neglect me." Tlie king 
app<nnted from the new and old nobility, 
from the senators and manhak, 151 mem- 
Imib of the chamber of peen ; 53 of the 

former senatorB, among whom wero 23 
forei^en^ were not appointed peers by 
the kmg ; others were excluded, as Cau- 
laincourt, Feach, Fouch^, Gr6goire, Ro- 
derer, Si^yea. They retained, however, 
their property, and the widows of those 
who had died received pensiona. It was 
not to be expected, that men who had 
voted for the death of Louis XVI could 
now be peers of France. The king save 
his fill! confidence to his minister, 51. de 
Blacas, and the chancellor D'Ambray. 
The latter and the ^vet secretaries of state, 
(the minister of foreign afibira — ^Talley- 
rand—of the interior, of war, of the 
finances, of the navy), and the directoia- 
general of die police and the post-office, 
together with the state counsellors and the 
maUres des requites, formed the king's 
council, to which were admitted distin- 
guished men of the old and new nobility, 
and the former state officers, togeUier with 
some whose only claim jvas, that they had 
shared the sufterines of Louis. The new 
relations with foreign powers were ref- 
lated by Talleyrand with his usual ability, 
and not without dignity and a proiier re- 
gard to the pride of the nation, ilis di- 
plomacy now professed great magnanimi- 
ty and respect for the rights of the peo- 
ple. On tne other hand, the minister of 
the interior, abb^ Montesquieu, did not 
succeed in gaining the public opinion in 
fiivor of the Bourbons. Still less did the 
minister of war, general count Dupont, 
succeed in gaining the favor of the armv, 
which hated him. His successor, Soult, 
contributed much, by his severe meas- 
ures, to excite the anger of the army 
against the kins. The >per5onal mild- 
ness of Louis XVIII, and his love of 
justice, were often betrayed, in spite of 
the judgment which he frequendy show- 
ed, into imprudent and inconsistent meas- 
ures, lie was accused of surrounding 
himself with the leaders of the Chouans, 
and with emigrants, and admitting them, 
in preference to all others, into the 
royal guard. The army was exasperated 
by the diminution of the pensions of the 
members of the leeion of honor, and the 
severity which had placed so many offi- 
cere upon half pay. The chamber of 
peers, composed mostly of tlie old nobili- 
ty, and attached to their old prejudices, 
often thwarted the better views of the 
chamber of deputies. The chancellor 
D'Ambray showed great weakness in 
fovoring the privileged cla8Be&^ and was 
careless in the duties of his office. The 
cotmt Blacas, little ac<}uainted with FrBnc«i| 
waa bated by all pmtiea. The cenanrthip 

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LOUIS xvm. 

of the minifllen limited the fieedom of 
the praes, while fibeb were promulgated 
agamst men who had diepleaeed the goT- 
. emment Merely in consequence of a 
political reaction, thirty honorable names 
were struck from the list of members 
of the national institute. Hired or &nat- 
ical writers maintained that the sale of 
the national domains was invalid, and 
that the crimes of the revolution were 
not to be pardoned. The restoration of 
tithes and the old privileges Was openly 
talked of in the country. The ordinance 
of Blacas with regard to the Sunday po- 
lice excited so much ill feeling in Paris, 
that it was found necessary to repeal it 
The prohibition of masked balls during 
Lent, caused still greater dissatisfiiction ; 
and the obstinacy of the curate of St. 
Roch, who opposed the burial of a cele- 
brated actress in consecrated ground, ex- 
asperated the people against the priests. 
In short, eveiy tiling appeared to confirm 
the warning of Lally-Tollendal :— *< But 
one more act of madness was wanting to 
France ; and that we now have ; we see 
the throne of the king shaken by his 
friends.*' Against the pure, or, as they 
were afterwards called, yUra royalists, 
were united the republicans and the mili- 
tary and constitutional royalists. In the 
midst of all this Napoleon returned from 
Elba. To understand the events of 
March, 1815, it is necessary to call to 
mind what the majority of the nation ex- 

BM^ted of Louis XVIII. (See Comte and 
unoyer's Censeur ou Examen des AcUa et 
de$ Ouorages qui tendent h cUtruire ou h am- 
sdider la Corutihdion de r':^Uat ; and the 
JBromen rmndt du GouvememerU des Bour-- 
hona en Ircmee, dtpuis U Mois d^AvrU^ 
1Q14, jusqu'au Mais de Mars, 1815.) The 
nadon wished, 1. to have its political lib- 
erties secured, or the right or being rep- 
resented by depudes, chosen by the peo- 
ple ; 2. the personal liberties of the indi- 
viduals, or security from prosecutions for 
imaginary crimes, or contrary to the legal 
forms ; SL the equality of citizens in the 
eve of the law, and the rights of all to 
obtain any civU and military dignitv, by 
merit and talents ; 4. the abolition of feu- 
dal services; 5. the risht, in criminal ac- 
cusations, to be judged b)r a jury ; 6. the 
independence of the judiciary upon every 
othw power in the state ; 7. the right of 
levying taxes by their representatives, and 
on all m proportion to their property ; 8. 
the right of every individual to exercise 
any means of ([tuning a living which did 
not interfere with the rights of otiier citi- 
aseog ; 9. the right of every one to com- 

municate his thoaglits to his feOow citi- 
zens^ by puUic writings, being responsible 
only to the law; and, 10. the right of 
every one to perform divine worSiip in 
his own way, without molestation. But 
instead of satisfying the demands of the 
nation, the Bourbons, it was maintained 
by the parties above meuticHied, had sought 
to destroy public opinion, and had thus 
lost the attachment of the French. The 
following grievances were particularly 
complained of: 1. the abolition of the na- 
tional colors ; 2. the surrender of all the 
fortresses beyond the ancient frontiers of 
France, to the allies, by Monsieur, as lieu- 
tenant-general, April 23, 1814 (with these 
fortresses he had given up 13,000 cannons, 
and had thus caused the loss of Belgium, 
and of the left bank of the Rhine) ; 3. the 
royal declaration, whereby the new con- 
stitution had been imposed upon the na- 
tion by virtue of the royal pleasure and 
prerogative, while it ought to have been 
proposed to it for acceptance (from the 
form used for this purpose, it would fol- 
low, that eveiy successor of the king 
might abrogate or alter the charter at wiU) ; 

4. the stain upon tiie national honor, from 
the king's declaration that he hwed his 
crown to the prince regent of England ; 

5. the exclusion of many respectable 
members of the senate from the chamber 
of peers, and the filling their places by 
others, who, for 20 years, had borne arms 
against France ; 6. the neglect to abolish 
the droit rSunis, and other vexatious taxes ; 
7. die restrictions ou the freedom of the 
press ; 8. the persecutions of the holders ^ 
of the national domains, and the expres- 
sions of die minister, count Fernina, on 
this subject iu the chamber of deputies ; 
9. the libels against those who had taken 
part in the revolution, although these 
were forbidden by the constitution; 10. 
the exclusive appointment of the old no- 
bility to embassies; 11. arbitrarv taxes, 
imposed without die consent of the legis- 
lature; 12. the great influence of priests, 
&c. It ought to be observed, however, 
on the other hand, that Louis XVIIl 
had provided for the personal security 
of the subiect by the independence of 
the tribunals, and the responsibihty of 
the ministers ; though the law on the lat- 
ter point had not yet gone into effect 
when the revolution of March began. 
But the ministers should have forgotten 
their old ideas, and ruled in a popular 
manner. Henry IV had, when he as- 
cended the throne, changed his religion, 
and thus obtained the love of his people. 
Napoleon at Elba was fully infomwd ik 

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LOUI8 xvm. 


the tnmUea in France, and the diyiaona 
at the congreas. Hiis appearance in 
France, March 1, 1815, was like a thun- 
der-bolt to the army and the nation. The 
state of popular feeling was entirely un- 
known to Louis. Those who surrounded 
him, as ignorant as himself^ still deceived 
him with accounts of the devotion of the 
army, and of desertion among the soldiers 
of Napoleon. The defection of Lab^do- 
y^re and Ney finally opened the eyes of 
the king, but it was too late. He was 
obliged to flee from Paris, in the night of 
March 20, after having dissolved the two 
chambers on the 19th. On the evening 
of March 22, he reached Lille, whence he 
issued several decrees, forbidding all levies 
and contributions for Napoleon, and dis- 
banding the rebellious army. Twenty- 
four hours ailer, he was obliged to leave 
Lille, to avoid fiUling into the hands of his 
enemies, and went by Ostend to Ghent 
The duke and duchess of Orleans, the old 
prince of Cond^, the count of Artois, and 
the duke of Berry, hastily left Paris. The 
duke of Bourbon remained in Vendue, 
and the duke and duchess of An^oul^me 
in the south of France. Their object was 
to awaken a popular sympathy in favor 
of the king. An army was, indeed, 
formed in vendue, and the duke of An- 
goul^e levied troops, but, deserted by a 
part of them, and surrounded by the gen- 
erals of Napoleon, he was obliged to con- 
clude the capitulation at Pont d'Esprit, 
April 8, in consequence of which he em- 
barked, April 15, at Cette for Barcelona. 
The duchess of Angoul^me, whose for- 
timde hod been the subject of admuntion, 
showed, at Bordeaux, the courase of a 
heroine. The city and the people were 
devoted to her, but the troops favored 
the advance of general Clauzel, and the 
duchess ^vas obliged to embark for Eng- 
land, April 2. Besides the ministers and 
several officers, njaishal Berthier, Vic- 
tor, Mannont, and the duke of Feltre, 
followed tlie king. The number of bis 
followers amounted at last to a thousand. 
While in Ghent, he issued an official pa- 
per, the Journal Unwersd, which con- 
tained several pieces by Chateaubriand. 
In the meanwhile, Talleyrand, at Vienna, 
was actively engaged in the cause of the 
kinff, and Louis was included in the league 
of March 25^ against Napoleon. When 
the allies invaded France, Louis XVIII 
returned, and went fo Cambray. He 
here proclaimed a general amnesty, with 
the exception of traitors, and promised to 
avoid all the faults he had committed in 
1814| from ignoiance of the new mnl of 
10* .^ 

the nation, and to diflmias Blacas. In the 
meanwhile, the chambers, convoked by 
Napoleon, had appointed an executive 
commission under tne presidency of Fou- 
ch^, and deputies who were to negotiate 
with the allies upon the basis of their inde- 
pendent right to choose a form of govern- 
ment ; but the aUies would not consent to 
this. BKicher and Wellington besieged 
Paris, and Fouch^, who had already in- 
duced Napoleon to leave France, put a 
stop to the sheddinff of blood, by the 
capitulation of Paris, July 3. Louis was 
thus again restored to tiie throne, of 
France. July 7, the Prussians and Eng- 
lish entered Paris, and on the afternoon of 
the 9th, Louis followed, under the protec- 
tion of Welluigton. The king immedi- 
ately appointed his new ministry, at the 
head or which wab Talleyrand, and in 
which Fouch^ was minister of police. 
The most declared partisans of Napo- 
leon now lost their places. July 13, the 
former chamber of aeputies was dissolv- 
ed, and a new one summoned. (See 
Chambre IntnnwabU,) Among the most 
decided measures oy which the king 
sought to support his throne, was the or 
dinance of July 16, disbanding the army, 
according to the wishes of his allies; 
which Auicdonald efiTected with great ])ru- 
dence. To form a new army, 4000 ofii- 
cers were appointed, in part oV those who 
had escaped the conscription ; and accord- 
inff to the edict of May 20, 1818, of the 
half-pay officers of the army of 1815, only 
those were appointed who had served for 
15 years or more, and, consequently alt 
French soldiers, since 1803, were made 
incapable of service. Yet the constitution 
of 1814 had secured to all officers the 
preservation of their rank and their pen- 
sions. An ordinance of July 24, 1815» 
designated the rebels who were excluded 
from the amnesty. According to this, 19 
generals and officers, Ney, Lab&Ioy^re, the 
brothera Lallemand, Erlon, Lefevre, Des- 
nouettes, Ameilh, Drouot, Brayer, Gllly» 
Mouton, Duvemet, Grouchy, Clauzel, La- 
borde, Debelle, Bertrand,Cambronne, La« 
valette and Savary, were to be arrested and 
brought before a court-martial. Thirty- 
eight others were exiled, according to a 
resolution of the chambers, incruding' 
Souh, Cam.ot, Excelmans, Bassano, Van- 
damme, Lamarque, Lobau, Bair^re, Ar- 
righi, Keffnault de St Jean d'Angely, 
Real, Menin de Douay, Hulin, the poet 
Amauld, colonel Bory de St. Vincenti^ 
Mellinet and others. Twenty-nine were 
degraded from the peerage, fia Lefebvrs, 
SiKhfiti Augereau, Mortier, Gadore^ Pia 

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by proYing that tbej had not received 
m>m Napoleon a seat in the new cham- 
ben. Of the rebek, towards whom many 
circtunfltancea recommended mercy, Li^ 
b^oy^re was shot Auguat 19 ; Ney, De- 
cember 7, 1815; and Mouton Duvernet, 
July 26, 181& LAvdette (q. y.) escaped 
from prison, December 21, 1815; Drouot 
and Cambronne were releaaed ; the great- 
er number took refuge in flight; some, 
like Debelle, were pardoned; others, as 
Demean the son, Laurence, Gamon, Al- 
quier, Duboisduhai and Grandpr^ receiv- 
ed, in 1818, permismon to return. In the 
meanwhile, die royalists, who called them- 
selves recHUgnes, obtained greater influ- 
ence. The princes were dissatisfied with 
Fouch^'s appointment to the ministry. 
At the sarae*time, he made himself ob- 
noxious to the allies by his reports to the 
kinff on the new state of France. TaUey- 
rand and Fouch^, though devoted to the 
cause of the lung, were looked upon by 
the royalists as men who ought not to he 
admitted to authority in the new system 
of things. Thus a change in the ministry 
took place, September 25, 1815. Fouch6 
was dismissed, ' and, in order to please 
Russia, the duke of Richelieu was made 
minister of foreign aflSiirs in his place. 
Decazes became minister of police, Cor- 
vetto, of the finances, and Clarke, duke of 
Feltre, minister of war, &c. The ultra 
royalists now raised their heads. The 
state of things before 1789, aloae appear- 
ed legitimate in their eyes. The election 
of the deputies was made accordinglv, 
and many of tliose elected were but 25 
years old, though 40 was the legal age. 
A change of the constitution was opeuly 
talked of. On the other hand, the paitisans 
of the fallen government, excited by the 
ultras, began to form conspiracies ; but for 
their speedy punishment prevotal courts 
were introduced, which, however, were 
abolished in 1818. Decazes discovered 
several conspiracies among which, how- 
ever, that under Didier alone broke out, 
in May, 1816, in the vicinity of Grenoble. 
The numerous arrests attracted attention, 
and several foreigners, as the English who 
had favored Lavalette's escape, loi-d Kin- 
naird (in his letter to lord Liverpool), and 
the Polish count Sierakowski, complained 
of the arbitraiy conduct of the French 
police. It excited great dissatisfaction 
that the duke of Richelieu, as minister, in 
the trial of Ney, had availed himself of the 
extreme ri^r of the law in procuring his 
condemnation. Among the princes, the 
duke of Orleans (see Lmda-PkUip) alone 

used a miUflr tone. Whenanaddfevof 
thanks to the king, written by Chateau- 
briand, was read in the house of peen^ the 
duke proposed to change the passage in 
which traitors were given up to the ju»- 
tice of the king, so as to recommend the 
persons there named to the mercy of the 
lung. The censors of the press would 
not allow his 8p>eech to be printed ; and 
the duke, for whom a party was already 
forming, though without his own consent, 
soon arter (October, 1815) went to Eng- 
land. Richelieu now concluded with the 
allied powers the treaty of November 20, 
1815 (see fVcmce), which embarrassed the 
finances of the longdom, since, fi!om De- 
cember 1, 1815, France was bound to pay 
140,000,000 yeariy, towaid 700,000,000, 
which had been the expenses of the war, 
with 130,000,000 for die support of the 
army of occupation. A violent dispute 
soon afler arose in the chambers on the 
subject of the law of amnesty. The ultra 
royalists, January 6, 1816, proposed some 
changes, which extended and rendered 
more severe the first propositions of the 
king. All the relations of Napoleon were, 
under pain of death, banished fioni 
France ; they lost the property conferred 
upon them, and were obliged to sell what 
they had bought Those, also, who had 
voted for the death of the king (rigicidks), 
and those who, in 1815, had received 
offices or honors fi*om the usurper^ or 
had acknowledged the Additional Act to 
the constitution, were banished fit)m the 
kingdom, and forfeited all their civil riffhts, 
and the tides, estates and pensions, which 
had been conferred on them. Of 366 
who had voted for the king's death, 163, 
who were stiil living, were banished from 
France. Three only— Tallien, Milhaud 
and Richard — ^were allowed to remain. If 
violent measures were taken against the 
real or suspected anti-Bourbonists (among 
others a captain was imprisoned on suspi- 
cion, for having named his horse Cossadc)^ 
the public authorities di<l but little to re- 
strain the commotions at Nismes, and the 
deputment of Gard, where political and 
religious fanaticism had caused the. perse- 
cution and murder of the Protestants, in 
1815 and 1816. One voice only was 
heard in the chamber, in the cause of the 
Protestants— that of the noble D'Argen- 
son ; but Tr^staillons, who was universally 
known to be a murderer, remained un- 
punished. (He died in 1827.) The vic- 
tory in the chambers gradually inclined to 
the royalists, who were called exagireSf or 
tvkiU Jacobins.. The king, therefore, closed 
the aession, April 29, 1816, after a law. 

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LOUIS xvm. 


proliSNliii^ difoiVMiy had boon passed. 
Lam^ the former preadent of the cham- 
ber of deputiea, was ajMMHDted minister of 
the interior, and, with Corvetto, Richelieu 
and DecazeSy fbiroed, in the ministry, the 
constitutional majority'; the minister of 
the marine, Dabouchage, appeared to join 
them, so that the chancellor, D'Ambray, 
and the minister of war, Feltie, alone pos- 
sessed the confidence of the ultras. (In 
September, 1817, marahal Sl Cyr took 
the place of the latter; count Mol^a peer 
of IVance, the place of Dubouchage ; and, 
somewhat later, Roy, the place of Corvet- 
to.) In the midst of continual seditions 
in France, the majority of the ministers, 
supported by the influence of the Russian 
ambassador, Pozzo di Borgo, and of Wel- 
Jington, succeeded in obtaining from the 
Icii^ the ordinance of September .5, 1816, 
by which he dissolved the chamber of 
deputies, and ordered that the new mem- 
ben should all be of the lawful age of 40. 
At the same time, he declared that the 
constitution should be subjected to no 
alteration. This victoiy of the consti- 
tutional party gave a checJc, for a time, to 
the ultn royalnts, to whom Louis XVIII 
himself did not appear to be enough of a 
royalist, and silenced, for some time, their 
Fwe le roi^quand mhn^ ! The organ of 
that party, Chateaubriand, ifi his woric Dt 
la MofuarMe Bdon la CharUy reproached 
the government with having taken away 
pefsonal liberty and the Ubeity of the 
pieas. He was even bold enough to 
maintain, that that ordinance was contraiy 
to the wishes of the king. The elections 
for the new chambers were such that the 
constitutionalists could raise their voices. 
They spoke in vain, though with great 
talent and boldness, for the ueedom of the 
press and a juiy. The law of censorship 
of November 9 remained in force. The 
Slate of the people, in the general deamess 
of all articles, and the weight of the taxes, 
needed every possible alleviation, and the 
king's spirit of order contributed greatly 
to ttiiB. From 1814 to 1816, the arrears 
anoounted to more than 83,000,000, which 
had increased the budget of expenses 
for 1817 to 1,068,000,294 fhmcs, being 
6d9fi00 more than m 1816 ; while the reve- 
nue for 1817 could not be estimated high- 
er than 774,000,000, so that a deficit of 
314^000,000 was to be covered. Recourse 
WO0 had to loans; the same thing took place 
in 1818. The diminution of the standing 
anny, and its entire dissolution in conse- 
onence of the eongress of Aix, were, there- 
ma. foituoate events. Among the events 
of tii« ariminisiwtkm of Louis XYIII» it 

however, be vemarited, that the na* 
tional institute was restored in 1816, with 
its fonnerfouracademiee,ahhough the best ' 
institutions, as that of the decennial prizes^ 
were not retained. The attempt to bring 
Hayti to submission, bv the offer of fa- 
vorable conditions, utterly foiled, and the 
concordate was not effected with the 
pope. Louis was himself inclined to 
use mild measures. On the day of St 
Louis, therefore, August 2S, 1818, when 
the bronze statue of Henry IV was erect- 
ed in Paris, which had been paid for by 
private subscription, several persons ar- 
rested for political offences were pardon- 
ed. He allowed, also, some of the exiles 
who had voted for the death of the king, 
as Cambac^r^ Rabaud, and 15 members 
of the convention, to return. As, howev- 
er, he gave way to the inclinations of the 
emigrant party, on several occasions, the 
nation conceived suspicions that the Bour- 
bons could not sincerely forgive. The 
king neglected to give full security in their 

Property to the possessors of the national 
omains, by a particular edict At the 
same time, the constitutional party was 
strengthened by the passage of laws which 
contradicted the articles of the charter. 
The liberals, therefore, obtained, for a 
time, the superiority, and Louis named, 
December 29, 1818, bis diird, and, No- 
^rember 19, 1819, his fourth ministry, un- 
der Decazes. (See Drancej since 1814.) 
From this time, the goveniment of Louis 
had the support of public opinion. But, 
after the assassinauon of the duke of 
Beny, February 14, 1820, the party of 
the ultras again raised its head. Riche- 
lieu took me place of Decazes; the 
law of election was altered ; the censor^ 
ship of newspapers was introduced, per- 
sonal freedom limited, &c. All this gave 
more power and influence to the extreme 
royalists. The party of anti-Bourbonists, 
which thought mat the welfare of France 
required a dynasty not belonging imme- 
diately to the Bourbon line, remamed still 
a large one, while the party o^ the princes, 
which showed a very great and veiy 
natural predilection for Louis; was sup- 
ported by the ultras, who sought to form, 
in all Europe, a general coalition a^jainst 
liberal principles. The white consmracjf, 
as it was called, detected in 1818, snowed 
that it was the object of the ultra royalists 
to destroy the constitution.* They had 
given to the ambassadora of foreign pow- 
ers a paper— written, it is said, by the 
baron de Vitiollea-JVUe itaite expoioni 
(ioiii to attract their atteotion to the dan- 

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KB which menaced the reign of the 
urbone, that their troops might not be 
wi^drawn from France, but a change 
made in the French ministry. This note, 
the giving of which was, according to the 
French laws, treasonable, caused so much 
dissatisfaction, that Chateaubriand, in his 
Remarquta 8ur Us Affairs du Moment, de- 
niefi having had any thing to do with it 
Tliat party had in view to form a new 
ministry, of which Vill^le, ChlLteaubriand, 
Donadieu, and others, were to be mem- 
bers. All examination into this business 
was, however, prevented, and the ffenerals 
Canuel, Chapdelaine, with H. H. Joannis, 
Romilly, De Sorgis, &C., who had been 
already arrested as accomplices, were re- 
leased August 19, 1818, nx>m the secret 
prison (secrd). By the ordinance, July 
S4, however, the baron Vitrolles was 
struck off the list of ministers of state and 
members of the privy council of the 
king. But Louis allowed what was 
called the theocratic party, in union with 
the friends to old privileges, to gain, con- 
tinually, more innuence in the internal 
management of the kingdom. This was 
shown by the prosecutions against the 
vrriters, who complained of abuses in 
the public administration, and, especially, 
of the measures of the secret police, by 
which those who were suspected of being 
political enemies were enticed to mani- 
fest their feelings by deeds. An instance 
of this kind was the punishment of the 
deputy Kochlin. By the chance in the 
law of elections, in June, 1820, the system 
of the strict royalists was triumphant; 
Vill^le (q. V.) was placed at the head of 
the ministry. But the strength of the 
king, who had, for several years, been un- 
able to walk, now entirely failed him. 
His last triumph was the campaign in 
Spain in 1823. In August, 1824, it be- 
came evident that his disease was mortal. 
Until the day of his death, September 16, 
1824, he gave proo& of finnness and 
resignation. ** Un roi doit mourir,^ said 
he, quaintly, ^mais ne doit jamais itre 
matade/* Louis XVIII possessed much 
intellectual cultivation and sagacity, but, 
enfeebled by disease, he had not suffi- 
cient strength of character to restrain 
the ultras, nor did he understand new 
France. — He had one remarkable max- 
im — Uexactitude est lapoUtesse des rois. 

Louis III (called, in German histoiy, 
the Child), bom in 893, succeeded his 
father, the emperor Amulph, when six 
yean old. In his minori^, archbishop 
Hatto, of Mentz, administered the cov- 
emnent, aod canied the uugiaich about 

with him, wherever the affidn of the ( 
pire required the presence of the regent, 
buring the course of his reign, Germany 
was desolated by the Hungarians, and 
torn asunder bv civil discord. He assum- 
ed the imperial tide in 908, but was never 
crowned. He died in 911 or 912, and 
with him ended the royal line of Charle- 

Louis IV, the Bavarian, emperor of 
Germany,, son of Louis the Severe, duke 
of Bavaria, was bom in 1286. On the 
death of Henry VII (q. yX five electors 
were in favor of Louis, while the others 
supported Frederic, duke of Austria. Hie 
two rivals being both crowned, a war en- 
sued, and Frederic was made prisoner, 
in the battie of Miihldorf; in 1322. (See 
Bavaria; and Germamf, History of) In 
1815, Louis had expelled his brother, Ro- 
dolpb, who opposed his election, from the 
Palatinate, but, after the death of the lat- 
ter, had formed a convention with his 
sons, by virtue of which their patrimony 
was restored to them, and the electoral 
dignity was to belong altemately to Bava- 
ria and the Palatinate. The vacant Mark 
of Brandenburg he conferred, in 13^ on 
his eldest son. In his disputes with pope 
John XXII, against whom he was joined 
by the Visconti partv in Italy, he main- 
tained the di^ty of the German crown, 
and set up the antipope Nicholas V. In 
1346, Clement VI excommunicated him, 
and succeeded in causing five electors to 
set Charles of Luxembourg, king of Bo- 
hemia, on the imperial throne. In the 
midst of this dispute, Louis died (1347). 
(See Mannert's Louis IF, or the Bavarian^ 
in German, 1812.) 

Louis Bonaparte. (See.^^ipen(/tr,end 
of this volume.) 

Louis -Philip I, elected, Aug. 7, 1830, 
king of the French,known previously under 
the tide of the duke of Oneans, eldest son 
of Louis-Philip, duke of Orleans (t%d^\ 
and of Marie- Adelaide de Bourbon Pen- 
thi^vre, grand-daughter of a natural son 
of Louis Al V by madarae Montespan, was 
born at Paris, Oct. 6, 177a The line of , 
Bourbon-Orleans (see Bovrfton) was found- 
ed by Philip, brotiier of Louis XIV, who 
conferred on him the duchy of Origans. 
Philip II, his son, was the well known re- 
gent of France, whose grandson was Louis- 
rhilip, father of the subject of this article. 
(See OrUans.) The wife of king Louis- 
Philip is Maiy- Amelia, daughter of Fer- 
dinand IV, king of the Two Sicilies. (The 
royal fiunily is ^ven in the article'/Vonee^ 
division StaMics.) Louis bore, at first, 
the title of (Me y VMs^ audi whoa Im 

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duke of OrieaiM, tiwt of 
dbifte of Ckarin$. At tbe ace of Ave 
yetm, he wee placed under the care of 
the chevalier 1>b Boonard ; but, m 1782, 
die direction of his education was intrust- 
ed to the countess De Genlis. In 1791, a 
decree of the constituent assembly having 
retpured the proprietary colonels to ouit 
the military career, or to take the enect- 
ive command of their regiments, the 
duke of Chartres, who was ambitious of 
the honor of serving his country, placed 
himself at the head of the 14th regiment 
of dragoons, which bore his name, and 
was then in ffarrison at Venddme. Here 
he succeeded in saving, b^ his courage 
and presence of mind,a nonjuring clergy- 
man, on the point of being massacred by 
the populace, which accui^ him of hav- 
ing treated with contempt a procession 
conducted by a constitutional ciereyman. 
He shortly after gave a new proof of his 
humanity by saving an engineer from 
drowning. The ci^ of Vend5me decreed 
him, on account of these honorable actions, 
a dvic crown. In August, 1791, he quit- 
ted Venddme, with his regiment, to go to 
Valenciennes, where he passed the win- 
ter, fulfilling the duties of the oldest colo- 
nel of the parrison. In 1792, when 
Louis XVI had declared war against 
Austria, the duke of Chartres made 
his first campaign. In 1792, Dumouriez 
succeeded lAfiiyette in the command of 
his division of the army. Sept 11, 1792, 
the duke of Chartres was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general, and was called to take the 
conunand of Strasburg. ** I am too 
young," said he, ''to shut myself up in a 
town, and prefer to remiun active in the 
armv." He did not go to Strasburg, and 
Kellermann, whose army was reinforced 
by a division of the army of the Rhine, 
confided to him the command of his sec- 
ond line, composed of 12 battalions of 
infimtry and 6 squadh>n8 of cavalry. At 
the head of this second line, he fousbt at 
Vahny, SepL 20, 1792, and displayed mat 
bravery and judgment The 26th of the 
same month, the executive council ap- 
pointed the duke of Chartres to the second 
command in the new-levied troops, who 
were to be united by Labourdonnaye at 
Dmiay. But the duke declined this ap- 
pointment, and went to Paris to ask per- 
miBBion to remain in the line, and in Kel- 
]ennann*8 armv ; but, as he had 6een al- 
ready superseded there, it was proposed 
to him to pass into that of general Dumou- 
riez, who was (^ing to Flanders, to at- 
tempt the invasion of Belsium, and he 
neoqpled the offer. Nor. S, the French, 

under Domouries, gained the eelehntted 
batde o€ Jemappes jq. r.), in which the 
duke of Chartree dirtinguiahed hunseK 
The duke was at Touniay when the con- 
yention passed a decree of banishment 
against all the members of the Bourbon 
family who were in France. He was de- 
sirous that his fiither, and all the fiimily, 
should join him in emijmtinff to the U. 
States ; hut his distance from Paris delay- 
ed the arran^ments, and the decree .was . 
revoked before they were finished. In 
February, 1793, the duke was recalled to 
the army, and employed at the siege of 
Maestricht, under the orders of general 
Miranda. Shortly after this, the duke, 
who had manifested, with more fiwikness 
than prudence, his honor at the revolu- 
tionary excesses in France, saw a decree 
of arrest levelled af^ainst himself. He 
then resolved to quit the army and his 
country. He went to Mons, where he 
was kindly received by the archduke 
Charles, who offered him the commission 
of heutenant-generol in the Austrian ormy. 
This, however, he declined, and obtained 
passports for Switzerland. He went fiom 
Mons to Switzerland, in April, 1793^ vrith 
Csesar Ducrest, his aid, havmg but a small 
supply of mone^ ; crossed, as a fugitive, 
the same countries through which he had 
passed, a short time before, as a conqueror 
with the French army, and learned, fi^m 
a newspaper, the arrest of all his family. 
He amved at Basle in September, and 
there waited for lus sister, who had just 
arrived at Schaffhausen, vrith madame de 
Genlis and the count Montjoye. In order 
to join them, he quitted Basle, and at- 
tempted, in vain, to fix himself at Zurich 
or Zug. He was every where repulsc>d, 
and received notice that no part or Swit- 
zerland vfras safe for him. In this sad sit- 
uation, he was anxious to find a retreat for 
his sister; and count Montjove applied to 
general Montesquieu, who, having fallen 
under the accusation of the constitutional 
assembly, while he commanded tiie army 
of the Alps, had token refuge in Switzei^ 
land, and lived in retirement at Breingor- 
ten, under the name of chevalier Rionel. 
This genUeman took an interest in their 
situation, and succeeded, not vrithout difil- 
culty, in getting admission for mile d'Qr- 
leans, and even madame de Genlis, into a 
convent in Bremffarten. To the duke of 
Chartres he could only say, that tiiere was 
nothing for him to do but to wander in 
the mountains, taking care to stay but a 
short time in any one place, until ciicum* 
stances should become more fiiyorable. 
The duke of Chartres^ satiBfied with haying 

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placed fak uflter in security, fbUowed tbis 
judicious ad?ice. Alone and on foo^ 
almoflt without money, he began his 
travels in the interior of Switzeriand and 
the Alps. Every where he was seen 
contenoing with courage against fatigue 
and poverty. But his resources were 
entirely exhausted, and, being recalled to 
Bremgarten by a letter from M. Montes- 
quiou, he obtained, through the interfer- 
ence of that gentleman, Uie situation of 
prof^sor at the college of Reichenau. 
He was examined by me officers of this 
institution under a feigned name, and 
unanimously admitted. Here he taught 
geography, history, the French and Eng- 
lish languages, and mathematics, for eight 
months, without having been discovered. 
The simplicity of his manners prevented 
any suspicion being entertained of his 
elevated rank, and ne was able to con- 
ciliate the esteem of the government, and 
the gratitude of his pupils. It was at 
this place tliat he learned tlie tragical 
end of his unfortunate father. Some 
political movements taking place in the 
Grisona, mademoiselle d'Orleans (quitted 
the convent at Bremgarten, and joined 
her aunt, the princess of Conti. M. 
Montesquiou thought that he might now 
five an asylum to the prince, of whom 
his enemies had for some time lost all 
trace. The duke received the most hon- 
orable testimonials in quitting Reiche- 
nau, and retired to Bremgarten. Here 
he remained, under the name of Corby, 
until the end of 1794, when he thought 
proper to quit Switzerland, his retreat 
there being no longer a secret. In the 
state in which Europe then was, there 
was no country where the duke of Or- 
leans (for this was now tlie title of the 
subject of this article) could be safe 
from the indefatigable persecution of 
which he was the object. He resolved 
to go to America ; and Hamburg ap- 
peared to him the best place for his em- 
barkation. He arrived in tiiat city in 
1795. Here his expectation of &nds 
failed him, and he could not collect suf- 
ficient pecuniary means to reach the 
United States ; but, beinff tired of a state 
of inactivity, and provided with a letter 
of credit for a small sum on a Copenha- 
gen banker, he resolved to visit the north 
of Europe. This banker succeeded in 
obtaining^ passports for him from the 
king of Denmark, not as the duke of Or- 
leans, but as a Swiss traveller, by means 
of which he was able to travel in safety. 
He travelled through Norway and Swe- 
den, seeing every thing worthy of curi- 

osity in the way ; journeyed on foot vnA 
the Laplanders, along the mountains, to 
the gulf of Tys, and reached the North 
Cape August 24, 1795. After staying 
a few days in this resion, at eighteen 
degrees ^m the pole, he returned 
through Lapland to Tomeo, at the ex- 
trinity of die gulf of Bothnia. From 
Tomeo he went to Abo, and traversed 
Finland ; but he did not visit Russia, 
where Catharine then reigned. He next 
visited Stockholm, where he was discov- 
ered by the French minister in Sweden, 
and introduced to the king and the duke 
of Sudermania, who treated him with 
distinction, and offered him every fiicility 
for seeing all he desired in the kingdom. 
After this northern tour, tlie position of 
the duke of Orleans, in a political and 
pecuniary point of \iew, did not improve. 
Emissaries from different parties sought 
the prince, bringing him different prop- 
ositions. Some of tiiem were desirous 
of drawing him into foreign . camps ; 
while the agents of the executive direC' 
tory, to which he had become an object 
of suspicion, wished to persuade him 
to leave Europe. In #he month of Au- 
gust, 1796> he received a letter from his 
mother, the duchess of Orleans. She 
begged him, in the most touching man- 
ner, in her own name, and for the inter- 
est of her other children, detained at 
Marseilles, to quit Europe for America. 
He sailed from the Elbe, on board the 
American ship America, in September, 
1796, and, in October, he arrived in Phila- 
delphia. The passage of his two broth- 
ers, the duke of Moutpensier and count 
Beaujolais, wbs not so fortunate. It was 
not until Februarv, 1797, that they reach- 
ed America, ancf joined their brother. 
They brought him more hopes than re- 
smirces. The duke of Orleans proposed 
to them to travel ii^ the interior of the 
United States. Thev set out on horse- 
back, accompanied by a single servant, 
named Beaudouin, who had followed 
the duke of Orleans to St. Gothard. 
They went to Baltimore, and thence into 
Virginia, where they saw general Wash- 
ington at Mount Vernon, who, before the 
expiration of his presidency, had invited 
them to visit him. After travelling 
through the south, they visited d)e falls of 
Niagara, and, in the month of July, 1797, 
they returned to Philadelphia, at the time 
the yellow fever raged in that city. 
These three princes, who had been bom 
to the highest fortune, could not quit this 
dangerous residence for want of money. 
It was not until September, that their moth- 

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er, liamg ncowend potKnion of ber 
propoiy, Mpplied them with meaiM for 
a new joimiey. Th^ went fint to New 
Yoik, and then Tinted Rhode laland, 
MewMKhiiiwinnj New Hampshire and 
Maine. On dieir return to Boston, the 
newspapm informed them of the ban- 
ishment of their mother. They then 
went immediately to J^hihidelphia, in- 
tending to join their mother in Spain, 
whither they were informed that she 
had been transported. Bat the want 
of funds, and the war between Spain 
and England, opposed their desires. 
There seemed but one course left, namely, 
to go to Louisiana, and thence to Havana^ 
They left Philadelphia in December, 
1797, and went down tlie Ohio and the 
MisBiBBippi, to New Orleans, where they 
were kindly received. They staid in 
this city fiye weeks, waiting for a Span- 
ish Teasel ; but, being disappointed, they 
embarked in an American ship, which was 
taken, on the voyage, by an English 
fiigate. The duke of Orleans discor- 
er»i himself to the captain, who landed 
him with his brothers at Havana, the 
11th of March. They attempted in vain 
to get a' passage to Europe. Notwith- 
standing their regret at being obliged 
to live out of France, they would have 
been contented in obscurity, if they 
could have obtained the means of an 
honorable subsistence. Their reception 
by the Spanish authorities, and the in- 
habitants of Havana, gave them some 
hopes; but the court of Madrid disap- 
ponited them, by forcing them to quit 
the island of Cuba. An order was issued 
at Anuijuez, directing the captain-geiieml 
of Havana to send the three brothers 
to New Orleans, without providing them 
yviih any means of support. The broth- 
CFB refused to go to the place designated, 
but went to the English Bahamas, where 
they were kindly received by the duke 
of Kent, who, however, did not feel 
authorized to give them a passage to 
England in a British frigate. They were 
not discouraged, but sailed in a small 
vessel to New York, whence an English 
packet carried them to Falmouth, and 
they arrived in London in February, 
1800. The duke still desired most 
earnestly to see his mother, and the 
^ English government allowed him to 

take passage to Minorca in a frieate. 
The war between Spain and England 
threw manv obstacles in the vniy of the 
interview between the duke and his 
mother, and he was obliged to return 
to England withont seeing her. He then 

established himseKwith his brothers, at 
Twickenham, in Enf^and. The duke 
Tisited every thing curious in Great Brit- 
ain, and smdied, with great zeal, the po* 
litieal economy and the laws of tlie coun- 
try. The duke of Mon^naier died in the 
Tear 1807. Count Beaujolais was in feeble 
health, and was ordered by the English 
physicians to visit a warmer climate. 
The duke accompanied him to Malta; 
from thence to Sicily; but, before their 
arrival at the latter place, the young 
prince died. Aftftr many adventures, the 
duke met his m'otlier at Mahon, from 
whom he bad been separated sixteen 
years. In November, 1809, he was mar- 
ried, at Palermo, to the princess Amelio, 
daughter of the king of Sicily. After the 
fall of Napoleon, he returned to Paris, and 
enjoyed the happiness of finding himself 
in a country which had not forgotten his 
former services. On the return of Napo- 
leon, in 1815, be sent his familv to Eng- 
land, and was ordered by the king to take 
command of the department of the North. 
He remained in this situation until the 
24th of March, 1815, when he gave up 
the command to the duke of Treviso, and 
went to join his family in England, where 
he again fixed his residence at Twick- 
enham. On the return of Louis XVIII, 
after the hundred days, an ordinance 
was issued, authorizing, according to 
the charter, as it then stood, all the 
princes of the blood to take their seats in 
the chamber of peers ; and the duke re- 
turned to France, in September, 1815, for 
the purpose of being present at the ses- 
sion. ^Here he distinguished himself by 
a display of lil)eral sentiments, wiiich 
were so little agreeable to the administra- 
tion, that he retired asain to England, 
where he remained till 1817. lie wcs 
not agau) summoned to sit in the cham- 
ber, on his return, and remained, there- 
fore, in private life, in which he displayed 
all the virtues of a cood father, a good 
husband, and a good citizen. In 1824, 
he received the title of royal highness. 
His son, the duke of Chartres (now 
duke of Orleans), was educated, like his 
ancestor, Henry IV, in the public institu- 
tions of the country, and distinguished 
himself by his success in his studies. 
The family of the duke was ever a model 
of union, good morals, and domestic 
vutues. Personally simple in his tastes, 
order and economv were combined with 
a magnificence brooming his rank and 
wealth. The protector of the fine arts, 
and the patr of letters, his superb palace, 
and his delightful seat at Neuilly, were 

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LOUIS i^inup I--ST. LDUia 

ornamented nidi the 

of the 

former^ and freouented oy the dietingtiiah* 
ed Bchoian of tne age. After the events 
of Jul V, 1830 (aee Ihnux, sbice 1814)» the 
deputies present, 89 in number, inTited the 
duke to assume the executive power, un- 
der the title of lieutenant-general of the 
kingdom. During the three days, he had 
remained at his countiy seat, at Neuilly, 
and had even kept himself concealed, so 
that confidential messenserB, sent to him on 
Wednesday and Thursday, had been un- 
able to find him. But, after the combat 
was over, feeling that the throne was now 
vacant, he accepted the invitation of the 
deputies, to become lieutenant-general of 
the kingdom, and, on Saturday, issued a 
proclamation in that capacity. The ses- 
sion of the chambers was opened, Aug. 3; 
by the lieutenant-general, who communi- 
cated to them the abdication of Charles X 
and his son. Aug. 6 and 7, the chamber 
of deputies decla^ the throne vacant, 
and invited the duke of Orieans to assume 
tlie title of king of the French, under cer- 
tain conditions, which he accepted, and, 
on the 9th, took the oath to the new char- 
ter. Thus, in a fiirtnight from the issuing 
of the ordinances, the old dynastv was 
overthrown, and a new one estabhshed, 
on republican principles. The kins im- 
mediately proceeded to name his cabinet, 
firom the moderate liberal partv. Guizot, 
Louis, Mol^ the duke de Brogue, Gerard 
and Sebestiani, were the new heads of 
the difterent departments, and numerous 
changes were made in the officers of the 
government, to establish a hannony be- 
tween the agents of power and the new 
system. In the administrative branch, 
out of 86 prefects, 76 were removed; 196 
subprefectB, out of 277 : in the military, 
65 general officers, out of 75, were chang- 
ed ; 65 colonels removed, and nearly all 
the governors of fortresses : in the leeal, 
74 procureun were dismissed. The ror- 
ei^ relations of the new dynasty next re- 
quired attention : special missions were 
sent to the difiTerent courts of Europe, and 
were favorably received by all except 
Russia. Security against foreign invasion , 
and the preservation of domestic tranquil- 
lity, were provided for by the organiza- 
tion of the national guard, and the increase 
of the army. (For the trial of the inini»- 
ten, the riots attending it, and farther de- 
tails on the history of France, see ^^Ippen- 
dtf to the concludmff volume of this work.) 
Peyronnet (q. v.), Chantelauze, Guemon 
de Ranville and Polignac (q. v.\, were sen- 
tenced to imprisoument for lire, with the 
additional penalQr of civil death, in the 

case of Pofignae. Nor. 9, the _ 

vras chanced, and Laffitte became pr o ia- 
dent of Uie councii and niinisler <^ 
finance, who was saoceeded in this post 
by Casinur-Penier (see Parriar'L March 
14, 1831. 

Louis, the haron, fbrmeily more known 
as the abU LoumSj a French Htafeeman, 
was bom at Toul, in 1755, and, at the 
outbreak of the revolution, was connected 
with the parliament of Paris. He showed 
himself fiivorable to the new principles^ 
and, in 1790, assisted the bishop of Autun 
(Talleyrand) in celebrating mass on the 
Champ de Man. On the overthrow of 
royalty, he retired to England, where he 
remained until the revolution of the 18th 
Brumaire. During the imperial govern- 
ment, he held several inferior posts in the 
departments of war and finance, and, in 
1814, was made minister of finance by 
Louis XVIII, whom he followed to Ghent. 
After the second restoration, he was a 
member of the chamber of deputies, until 
1818, when he was again placed at the 
head of the financial department, from 
which he retired in 1819, m conse<}uence 
of the arbitnuy tendencvof the ministerial 

Eolicy at that time. After this retirement, 
e voted, in the chamber of the deputies^ 
with the liberal side of the house ^c6U 
gauchey M. Louis was the first minister 
of finance under the new ffovemment, in 
1890, but was succeeded (Nov. 3) by Laf- 
fitte. (q. V.) M. Louis is largely engaged 
' in the wine trade, and has accumulated a 
large fortune by successful commercial 
operations. Of a cool temperament, his 
moderation has never permitted him to 
ioin in the extremes of any party ; but his 
honesty, information and good sense seem 
to have acquired the esteem and confi- 
dence of all. 

Louis, St.; the chief town of Missouri, 
on the west bank of the Mississippi, 18 
miles, by water, below the junction of the 
Missouri, and 14 above that of the Mara- 
mec, SO below that of the Illinois, 200 above 
that of the Ohio, 1180 above New Or- 
leans, about 1100 below the faUs of St. 
Anthony, 897 from Washington ; Ion. 8Sf^ 
30^ W.; lat 38*> ae' N.: population, in 
1810, 1600 ; in 1890, 4596 ; in 1830, 5852. 
The situation of the town is elevated, 
pltjasant and healthy. The ground on 
which it stands rises gradually torn die 
first to the second bank. Tmee atreeta 
nm paraUel with the river, and are inter- 
sected bv a number of othera at right an- 
gles. The town extends along the river 
about two miles. The second bank is 
about 40 feet higher than iUe pbun on 

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TiMdi the town is ehiflfisr biiit» and affordi 
a §a^ riew of the town and river. On 
tluB bank atan'd the fortificationa erectedi 
in early timea, for the defence of the place. 
Hie «>wn conCaina several houses or pub- 
lic wofahifi, among which is a Catnohc 
cadMdral, and a theatre. The houses 
are mostly of wood, but many are built 
of stone, and whitewashed. Most of 
them are furnished with a large garden. — 
Sl Louis was first established in 1764. It 
ia, at present, in a state of rapid improve- 
ment, fiist increasing in population and 
trade. Its situation is advantageous and 
interesting, being more central, with re- 
gard to uie whole territory belonging to 
tlie U. Ststes, than any other considerable 
town ; and, uniting the advantages of the 
three great rivers, Miasisnppi, Missouri 
and Ulinois, with their numerous branches, 
end possessing unrivalled &cilities for an 
extensive trade, it will probably become a 
iai^ city, and be the centre of an exten- 
sive commerce. The country around and 
west of St. Louis, for the distance of 15 
miles, is an extended prairie, of a very lux- 
uriant aoil.. (For the college, see MUtowL) 

Louisa, Augusta WiLHJKL|fiKrA Aha- 
UA, queen of Prussia, daughter of Charles^ 
duke of Mecklenbunr-Strelitz, was bora 
March 10, 1776, at Hanover, where her 
father was commandant When six years 
ok), she k)st her mother; and her grand- 
mother, at Darmstadt, took charge of her 
education. In 1798, the present king of 
Prussia, then prince roval, saW her at 
Frankfcrt, when she and her sister were 
presented to his iiither. The prince was 
immediately struck with her uncommon 
beauty, and was soon after betrothed to 
her. Prince Louis, of Prussia, was be- 
trothed, on the same day, to her sister, the 
prraent duchess of Cumberland. Dec. 24, 
1793, the princess Louisa was married to 
the crown-prince at Berlin, and, when her 
husband ascended the thrcMae, Nov. 16| 
1797, she became, in her exalted station, 
tlie model of a wife, a mother, and a queen, 
who alleviated miseiy wherever she coukl, 
and promoted merit In 1806, when 
Pruana was suffering severely under the 
burdens of war, this princess became still 
more popular: indeed, her beauty and 
grace, her benevolent and pure character, 
her sufferings and her fortitude, rendered 
her an obj^ ahnost of adoration. She 
died m 1810. 

LouisBUBe; capital of Cape Breton; 
atualed on a point of land on the south- 
east side of the island; k>n. 59° 56^ W.; 
laL4SPS4fN. Its streets are regular and 
broad, eoanstiDg, fcnr the most part, of 

vol.. VIII. 11 

stone hooses^ with a ]aa» parade at a littls 
distance fiom the citade], the inside of 
which is a fine square, near 200 feet every 
way. The town is half an EngUsh mile 
in length, and two in circuit . The har- 
bor is excellent, and m more than half an 
English mile in breadth in the narrowest 
part, and six miles m length, &om north- 
east to south-west The principal trade 
of Louisburg is the cod fishery. It was 
taken fi^m the French by the English 
fleet, under sir Peter Warren, and the 
American forces, commanded by sir Wil- 
liam Pepperel, in the year 17^ but af- 
terwards restoi^ to France, bv the treaty 
of Aix-larChapelle, in 1748. It was again 
taken by the English, under the command 
ofadmiralBoscawen.and lieutenant-gen- 
eral Amherst, in July, 1758, and its &rti- 
fications have been since demolished. 

Louis d'or ; a French gold coin, which 
received its name from Louis XIII, who 
first coined it in 1641. (See the article 
Coins.) The value of the LouU is there 

S'ven at $iJ35, Louis XIII coined, 
lewise, a piece of silver money, called 
lows hUmc^ also e^uSj and, among us, 
Drench erotons. 

Louisiana Territory. The French, 
when in poasession of a great portion of 
the continent of North America, seem to 
have applied this name, in a vague man- 
ner, to ail the territories claimed by them 
south snd west of Canada. In this sense, 
it must be considered as coextensive with 
the valley of the Mississippi, bounded on 
the east by the Allegbaniea, and stretching 
westerly an unknown and indefinite ex- 
tent to the Spanish dominions and the 
then unexplored wilds of the interior. 
By the treaty of 1763, which made tlie 
MisBissippi the boundary between the 
English and French colonies, the name 
was limited to the part of the valley west 
of the river, but still of an unsettled extent 
westward. This region was purchased 
of France by the U. States, by which it 
has been explored, and formed into the 
states of Louisiana and Missouri and the 
territoriesof Arkansas and Missouri. We 
shall here give a general account of the 
progress of discovery in this great region, 
and of its history, referring, fbr local details, 
to the separate heads jbove mentioned. 
The Spaniards were the first to colonize, 
if not to discover, Florida, the western 
limits of which were by no means accu- 
rately fixed ; and De Soto (q. v.) was 
probably the first white man who saw the 
Mississippi, which he crossed in one of 
hk expeditions, not &r fi^m the influx of 
the Red river. In 1673^ a French miS" 

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flionarj, Marqaede (q. ▼•)» with JoKettay a 
citizen of Qiidiec, croawd the oountiy 

^m lake Michigan to the Mimiwwppi, 
wfaieh they descended to the mouth or the 
Aikan a a fc Q oo Reeualda Foyagei (Paris, 
1681), publiBfaed by Therenot, ae a sup- 
plement to his collection. — Six yean later, 
be la Salle (q. v.), commander of a ibfton 
lake Ontsrio, set out to explore the coun- 
OT, having in company iiLther Hennepin, 
lliey jpaaaed the winter on the Illinois, and 
LaSiuIe returned to Canada to procure 
supplies, leavinff the missionaiy with 
ordera to ascend the Misaisaippi to its 
sources. In the spring of 1680, Henne- 
pin accordingly descended to the mouth 
of the river, ioUowed up its course to the 
falls of Sl Anthony^ and, on his return to 
France, published an account of his trav- 
els, in which he called the region Lftuina- 
no, in honor of Louis XIV. (See Henne- 
pin.) The first attempts at the coloniza- 
tion of this region were not made till 1699, 
when an exp^tion sailed fix>m Rocbeibrt, 
under the command of Lemoine d'lbber- 
ville, a Canadian naval officer of reputa- 
tion, who was the first to enter tlje Missis- 
sippi by sea, and who laid the foundation 
or the first colony at Biloxi. The Span- 
iaids, who had not lone before established 
a settlement at Pensacola, protested against 
the occupation of this country, which 
they claimed to be included within the 
limits of Mexico, by the French, but were 
not able to prevent their occupying a new 
poet on Mobile river, in 1702. The 
French had kept up a communication be- 
tween their colonies in Canada and Lou- 
isiana, and had been active in exploring 
the country, principally on the river and 
to the esst of it In 1713, a census of the 
latter colony gave a population of 400. 
In the year 17152, Antome de Crozat, who 
had amassed a formne of 40,000,000 livres 
in the India trade, purehased a grant of 
this country, with the exclusive right of 
commerce for 16 years. Disappointed in 
his speculations, Crozat gave up the grant 
in 1717, and the Mississippi commercial 
company obtained it. A new government 
was formed, consisting of a governor, in- 
tendant and royal council, and grants of 
land were made to individuals. New Or- 
leans was founded, the cultivation of to- 
bacco was introduced, and minere were 
sent to work the mines near St Louis; 
but, in 1731, the company gave up the 
country to the crown. The early hostili- 
tite of the French with the Spanish and . 
English colonistB, and with the different na- 
tive tribes, it is not onr intention to relate. 
(See JVbfeftez.) The struggle of tly 

Fvench and Ktwdish power io Nmdi 
America, finom 1^4, is a aabieGt of more 
interest The French had scattered them- 
selves over the more centnd parts of the 
beautiful valley of the MiasisappL Kaa- 
kaskia, Cahokia, Ymcennes^ St Oeoevievei 
the postof AikansBS, Nachitoches on Red 
river, Natchez on die Mississippi, were 
rallying-points of the rural populadon in 
this immense region, who had adopted, 
in some degree, the mannen of the In- 
dian huntera, while New Orleans and 
Mobile had become places of considerable 
commerce. The French claimed all the 
country west of the Alleghaniea, and had 
established a chain of communicationt 
from New Orieans to Quebec, which they^ 
meditated to sirenethen by a line of fbrU- 
fied posts. The JGnglish, who claimed 
the country from the Atlantic to the St 
Lawrence, found themselves thus exposed 
to be shut in upon the eastern slope of the 
Alleghanies. The French occupied and 
fortified the important position at the head 
of the Ohio, to which tney gave the name 
of fort da Qtieme. The English geueni 
Braddock failed in his attack on this poet, 
but the war terminated in the complete 
humiliation of France, who, by the peace 
of 1763, was obliged to cede Canada, and 
all her possessions east of the Mississippi, 
to England. The preceding year (Novem- 
ber, 1/62), she had ceded all her posses- 
sions west of that river, with the island of 
Orieans, to Spain, and the name of Louu- 
iama now became limited to this pert of the 
valley. In the war of the American rev- 
olution, Spain ccmquered Florida fix>m the 
English, and, by the peace of 1783, that 
province was ceded to the Spaniards, while 
aU the country between Florida and the 
St Lawrence, and the ocean and the Mis- 
sisBippi, was acknowledged as an indepen- 
dent state. (See t/nOeS SiaUsy Keniuehf^ 
Tamesseej (mo, &c.) The navigation of 
the Mississippi soon became a source of 
difficulty between Spain and the U. States. 
After much delay, the treaty of 1795 was 
concluded between the two powers, by 
which a line of boundaiy was agreed on, 
and the free navigation of the river secur- 
ed to the U. States. In 1798, the Spanish 
posts, to die north of 3P, were evacuated, 
but Spanish ships committed depreda- 
tions on the American commerce, and re- 
fused to allow the navigation of the Mia* 
sissippi, and the right of deposit at New 
Orieans, which had been secured by trea- 
tiesL A force veas accordingly prepared 
on the Ohio, by the government of the 
U. States, in 1799, intended to descend the 
MiBsiBBippi and seize New Orleans. A 

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chanse of adminiscntioii was followed by 
tiie dMbimdmg of these troops, but repre- 
sentBtions were made to Spain agamst the 
TiolatioD of the treaty, with a demand of 
redress, which was answered by the 
deGlai;ation that Louisiana had been ceded 
to France. The French force destined 
ibr the occupation of the country was 
blockaded in the Dutch ports by the Eng- 
lish, and the first consul ceded Louisiana 
I lotbeU.Statesforthe sum of $15,000,000, 
by a tieanr dated April 13, 1803. (See 
the secret history of this treaty in the Hu- 
leire de la Louinaney by Bam-Marbois, 
Paris, 1829.) The countir passed peace- 
ablv into d^e possession of the U. States, 
and measures were immediately taken ibr 
organizing its government, and examining 
its unknown regions. It was divided into 
the territorial governments of Orleans, 
which, in 1812, was admitted into the 
Union as an independent state under the 
name of Louisiana (see Louisiana^ State 
of\ and of Louisiana, afterwards changed 
to JURswovri, (See Misscwi StaUy and 
Missouri Thritory.) The first national 
expedition was planned by president Jef- 
fersoUf and placed under the command of 
captain Lewis (q.y.)and lieutenant Clarke 
(afterwards governor of Missouri), with 
instructions to ascend the Missouri, cross 
the Rocky mountains, and descend, by the 
Columbia, to the Pacific ocean. They 
began the longest river voyage since the 
time of Orellana, May 14, 1804. Havmg 
wintered at fort Mandan, they continued 
their ▼oyace next spring, and, ailer a 
coune otiSiOO miles, arrived at the foun- 
tain head of the Missouri. FiHy days 
were occupied in crossing the mountains 
by a difiicult road ; but shorter and more 
easy passages have since been discovered. 
Descending die Columbia to its mouth, 
they reached the Pacific ocean, at a dis- 
tance of 4134 miles from their starting- 
point. They returned by a somewhat 
shorter route of 3550 miles, having t)eeu 
the fiffst who had crossed tlie North 
American continent, from the Mississippi 
to the Pacific. (See Lewis and Clarke's 
Expedition to the Sources of the Missouri^ 
Philadelphia, 1814.) About the same time, 
lieutenant (afterwards major) Pike was 
sent to eimlore the sources of the Missis- 
0ip(», and, on his return from that expe- 
dition, to survey the country lying between 
the Rocky mountains and the AUssissipfH, 
and examine the sources of the Arkansas 
and Red rivers. Having arrived at the 
bead of the former, and sufiered much 
fiom cold and hunser, on account of the 
elovatod ntuation oftfae country, he reach- 

ed a large river, which he auppoeed to be 
the Red river, but which proved to be the 
Del Norte. He had unconsciously entered 
the Spanish territories with his party, 
when they were arrested by Spanish sol- 
diers, and carried, almost without clothing, 
to Santa F^, but were afterwards set at 
hberty, and returned to Nachitoches. ( See 
I^e's JE^pediifitm to (^ Sources of^ Mii- 
sissippij Philadelphia, 1810.) In 1819, the 
federal government organized a new ex- 
pedition, of a military and scientific na- 
ture, to examine more carefully,' with a 
view to colonization and defensive estab- 
lishments, the country east of the Rocky 
mountains. It was commanded by major 
Long, and a narrative of it has been writ- 
ten by doctor James, botanist to the expe- 
dition. The party embarked at fittsbuiv, 
in a steam-boat, and reached the moutli 
'of the Platte in the middle of September. 
Haviuff passed the winter on the banks of 
that river, they resumed their route in 
June, 1820, and crossed the great sandy 
desert which extends, in a gentle slofie, 
neariy 400 miles, to the base of the Rocky 
mountains, and neariy 500 miles finom 
north to south. Its surface is flurowed 
by ravines, several hundred feet deep, in 
which are a few stunted trees. On the 
elevated surface of the desert, not a tree 
is to be seen ; but it is thickly set vrith the 
spiny cactus, or prickly pear. Proceeding 
southwardly, they descended the Arkan- 
sas, and returned with large collectioDs of 
skins of rare anunals, some thousand pre- 
seiyed insects, and an herbal of 400 or 500 
' new plants. (See Jkcount of an Eamedi- 
Hon to the Rocky Mountains, PhiladeJphio, 
1828.) Another expedition, under general 
(now governor) Cass, proceeded to explore 
the British frontiers about the sources of 
the Mississippi. Schoolcraft was the his- 
torian of this expedition. (TVaoela to the 
SoiArces of the Miseissippij in 1820, Albany, 
182J.) To complete the survejr of tho 
frontier, major Long was sent, in 1823, 
with Mr. Keating, to ascend the St. Peter's, 
a considerable river which falls into tlie 
Mississippi. They traced the river to its 
source (375 miles), and, proceedinff noith- 
ward, reached the Red nver, whicn flows 
into lake Winnipec. (See JVomrfwe of tt« 
Second ExpedUion to St. Petals JRtrer, 
Lake Jfimi^pec, &c., hy ffUliam H. Keai- 
tfuf.) This completed the general survey 
of this immense region. Its northern 
boundary was setded by the convention 
of 1818 with Great Britain, on a Hoe 
dravm in 4SP fix>m the lake of the Woods 
to the Rockv mountains: the southeni, by 
the treaty of 1819 with Spaioi is fiom the 

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Sabine lirer, in aS^ N., to the Red rhrer ; 
then along that river to lOO** W., thence 
directly north to the Afkansas, which it 
foUowB to 4SP Na, and thence, in that par- 
allel, to the South sea. The statea of 
Louiaiana and Miflsouri, and the tenitoiy 
of the Arkansas (q. v,), have already been 
set oE, and are occupied with a thin, but 
active and rapidly inereasiug population. 
The great mineral and vegetable wealth of 
this vast region, and its almost unparallel- 
ed dualities of communication, open a wide 
prospect to the prosperous, free and happy 
communities that are springing up in its 
bosom. The territory west of .the Rocky 
mountains, which seems to belong to the U. 
States rather by priority of discovery than 
as a part of the Louisiana purchase, will be 
described underthe head of Oregon. Beside 
the works already mentioned, consult Char- 
levoix's Descriptumde laJ>/o%a>eUe France ; 
Je^rson's Accovmi of Louiiiana ; Stod- 
dard'b Sketches of L&umana; and Flint's in- 
teresting work, Qeographf and Htatary of 
the Misnstippi VaJJUy (Clnciniuiti, 1828.) 

Idndsiaiui; one of the U. States, form- 
ed in 1812. It is bounded north by Ar- 
kansas territory, east by the state of Mis- 
sisnppi and the gulf of Mexico. The 
eastern boundary line is formed by the 
river Mississippi, from lat 33^ to aP N. ; 
thence, by the parallel of 81% to Pearl 
river; thence by that stream to its mouth. 
The eulf of Mexico forms the southern 
boundary, and Sabine river the western, 
from its mouth to lat 32? N, ; thence the 
boundary line proceeds due north to lat 
33°, thence due east to the Mississippi; 
Ion. 89° to 94° S' W.; lat 29° to 33° N. ; 
240 miles long, from north to south, and 
210 broad; square miles, 48,220, or 
31,463,000 acres: population, in 1820, 
153,407; slaves, 09,064 : in 1830,214,69a 
The principal rivers are the Mississipp], 
Red, Ouachitta, Black, Tensaw, Sabine, 
Calcasiu, Mermentau, Vermilion, Atchaf- 
alaya, Teche, Pearl, Amite and Iberville. 
The lamst lakes are Pontchartrain, Mau- 
repas, Bon;ne, Ghetimaches, Mermentau, 
Calca^u, Sabine, Bistineau, Bodcau and 
Ocittahoola. All the southern part of this 
state is a vast alluvial tract of low cham- 
paign country, extending from lake Borgne 
to Sabine river, and from the gulf of Mex- 
ico to Baton Rouge and Red river; about 
250 miles long, and from 70 to 140 wide. 
This extensive tract is intersected by nu- 
merous rivers, bays, creeks and lakes, 
dividing the country into a great number 
of iaiande. The country abmit the Belize 
is one continued swamp, destitute of trees, 
and emend with a species of coarw reeds, 

fifom lour to fiv« feet high. Nothing 
be more dreaiy than a proneet from 
ship's mast, while posainff this io 

A large extent of country in this 

state is annually overflowed by the ] 
sippi. According to Mr. Darby, the aye- 
ragB width of overflowed lands above Red 
river, fixnn lat 31° to 33^ N., may be as- 
sumed at 20 miles, equal to 2770 square 
miles. Below lat 31° to the efflux of the 
Lafourche, about 80 miles in extent, the 
inundation is about 40 miles in width, 
equal to 3200 square nules. All the coun- 
try below the efflux of the Lafourche is 
liable to be inundated, equal to 2370 square 
miles. From this calculation, it appears 
that 8340 square miles are liable to be in- 
undated by the overflowing of the Misas- 
sippi ; and if to this be added 2550 squaro 
miles for the inundated lands on Red riv- 
er, the whole surface of the state liable to 
inundation, will amount to 10,890 square 
nules. Of this extent, not one half is ac- 
tually covered annually vrith water. The 
immediate banks of all the streams aro 
seldom, and many of them never, inundat- 
ed ; and they anonl strips of rich, tiUable 
land, fit)m a mile to a mile and a half 
wide. The country between the Missis- 
sippi, Iberville and rearl rivers is an im- 
portant part of the state. The southern 
half is a level country, yet highly product- 
ive in cotton, sugar, rice, com and indigo. 
The northern part presents an undulating 
sOrflice, covered with a heavy growth of 
timber, consisting of white, red and jel- 
low oak, hickory, black walnut, sassanns, 
magnolia and poplar. The district of 
New Feliciana has been considered, by 
some, as the garden of Louisiana. The 
south-western part of the state, comprising 
the districts of Opelousas and Attakapas, 
consists moedy of extensive prairies. 
Some of tiiese prairies are detached, but 
the lines of woods between them are gen- 
erally very iuutow, and they may be con- 
sidered as' forming one immense meadow. 
A large portion of these tracts are barren, 
but some parts, particularly that bordering 
on the Tcche, are very fertile, and contain 
flourishing settlements. It has been esti- 
mated, that the prairie lands in the state, 
including the swamps along the gulf of 
Mexico, constitute one fifUi of its whole 
surfiuse. The country on both ades of 
Red river, from its mouth to the limits of 
the state, is intersected with lakes, which 
are more than 40 in number, and all com- 
municate with the river. The bottoms on 
the river are finom one to ten miles wide, 
and of a very fertile soil. The timber on 
the bottoms is wiUow, ootton-wood, hon 

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«^4ocaiti nswiMw and bu^eve; on the 
ndi upluiai^ ranyCiieiiiiiber, aflo, hickoiy, 
nuilbeny, bbck walnut, with abundance 
of grap^-iFinea; upon the second-rate, or 
nndy uplanda, whhe, pitch and yeliow 
piAeai azkd ▼arioua kinds of oak. — ^The cli- 
mate of Louisiana is as cold as that of the 
Atlantic states about two degrees further 
north. The orange ceases at about 90°, 
the sugar-cane at 3P. Sugar and rice 
are the staples of the state in general south 
of 30°, ana cotton north of that parallel ; 
the tatter, however, is extensively culci- 
valed in every part of the state. Amoug 
the fruits are the apple in the northern 
parts, the peach, and several species of 
^ (^ ▼•)» the orange, the pomegruiate 
and grape. The olive-tree is found, and 
the Provencals, who were setded in Lou- 
isiana, affinned that the oil was as good 
as that of their native country. Indigo 
was formerly much cultivated, but has 
been, of late, in a great measure abandon- 
ed. The rice is remarkably good, and 
vielda abundandy. Some attendon has 
lately been paid to the culdvation of the 
tea plant; and the finest tobacco is raised, 
but is not so profitable as suflar and cot- 
ton. The kinds of cotton cmtivated are 
Louisiana, ffreen seed, or Tennessee, and, 
recendy, Mexican cotton. The amount 
of sugar made in 1828 was 87,965 hhds. ; 
of molasses, 39,874 hhds.: in 1829, die 
sugar made was 48,238 hhds. ; and, as there 
are 40 gallons of molasses to each hogs- 
head of sugar, the hogsheads of molasses 
must have been somewhat less than half 
as numerous. The tobacco exported, firom 
Oct. 1, 1827, to Oct. 1, 1830, was, for die 
first 12 mondis, 35,111 hhds. ; for the sec- 
ond, 25,491 ; for die diird, 28,028. The 
balea of couon exported in the same peri- 
ods wet« 304,848, 267,949, 351,890. The 
total of exuorts of the state, in 1829, was 
112,386,060. The value ofimportB, for die 
Hune time, was $6,857,209 -, amount of ton- 
nage, 51,903, of which 17,000 was steam- 
boat tonnage. The arrivals at the port of 
New Orleuis, firom Oct 1, 1829, to Oct 1, 
1830, were 286 ships, 445 brig8,366 scboon- 
eiB, 33 sloops, 7788team-boat8,— total, 1898. 
(For an account of the canals, see Inland 
Abwotion.) The U. States granted the 
Mate 46,060 acres of land lor a college, and 
one thirty-sixth of each township, or 
873,000 acres, fiir schools. There are col- 
l^ns at New Orleans and Jackson. In 
\Wy the l^nslature made a grant to each 
parish of $UfiSH to every voter, to be i^ 
plied to the education of the poor ; m 
cooseauence of which nearly $40,000 are 
•onuaUy applied lor this purpoae. The 

Catholw is the pradominant relicioii of 
Louisiana: there are a few BaptisCi and 
MethodistsL According to returns fixr 
1828, the milida amoimted to 12,^4 men. 
The principal towns in the state are New 
Orieans (q. v.), Donaldson or Donaldson- 
ville (the seat of ffovenunent]^ Nachito- 
ches, Alexandria, Baton Rouge, Opelou- 
sas, Galveztown, &c. The consatuUon 
differs litde finom those of die other states 
(see Conttihdioni); but the law is not the 
common law which prevails in the rest 
of the country, except so &r as its provis- 
ions have bleen introduced by statute. 
The civil law, which prevailed under the 
French dominion, has been retained in its 
principal features. (See, below, Loiiit- 
lono. Code of.) The present white inhab- 
itants of Louisiana are descendants of 
the Spaniards, French and Ansio-Amer- 
icans, or emigrants fix)m the other states, 
or fix>m the Spsnish colonies. The char- 
acter of such a mixed population, scattereil 
over a great extent of country, roust, of 
course, he various. The English lan- 
guage and the Anglo-American institu- 
tions are, however, assuming the predom- 
inance. The eariy histoiy of the state 
will be found in the precedmff article. In 
1812, the territory of Orleans, naving been 
found to contain the requisite number of 
inhabitants, was admitted into the Union, 
under the name of Jjouuiana. Jan. 8, 
1815, the attack of the English on New 
Orleans was repulsed by general Jackson. 
(See JVho Orleans.) 

Louisiana^ Code of. Most of the U. 
States, even those which were formerly 
colonies of France and Spain, have adopt 
ed the common law of England, as the 
basis of their municipal law. The stato 
of Louisiana, however, has steadily ad- 
hered to the civil jurisprudence which 
it derived firom the continent of Europe, 
though, in criminal matters, the English 
jurisprudence has been followed. The 
custom of Paris, which the colonists 
brought with them, as the law of the new 
colony, was first reduced to writing in 
France in 1510, and enlarged and amend- 
ed in 1580. The deficiencies of the cus- 
tomaiT law, both in the mother country 
and the colony, were supplied by refer- 
ence to the Roman jurisprudence. Lou- 
isiana was ceded by France to Spain in 
1762, and was taken possession of by this 
latter power in 1769^ when the Spanish 
law was introduced. The neat body of 
this law, called the SieU Partidas^ was 
compiled as early as 1263. The Reeopi- 
htdon de CasHUoj published in 1567, was 
intended to clear up the confusion of th« 

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pravious eoda% bat it )eav«s the authorinr 
of the Partidiu generally unimpaired. 
The cenion of Louisiana to the U* States 
necesBariljT lotrodaced the trial by jury iu 
a modified form, and the writ of hcieat 
cornuij which were unknown to the pre- 
exiating laws. The legislative council of 
the territoiy of Orleans borrowed laigely 
from the common law, but princi[Mlly 
those forms of proceedings necessaiy to 
confer efficient powers on the courts or- 
flnnized under the authori^ of the Union. 
But, in the adjudication of suits between 
individuals, the Spanish jurisprudence 
was die sole guide, except in commercial 
questions. In 1806, the legislative coun- 
cil ordered two able jurists to i»epare a 
civil code for the use of the territory, on 
the groundwork of the civil laws which 
governed the territory. It was reported 
in 1806, and adopted, but was not allowed 
to supersede the previous laws, except as 
fiir as those laws were inconsistent with 
its provisions.* The "Digest of the Civil 
Coae now iu Force in the Territory of Or- 
leans," as it was called, though termed a 
code, is, in fact, little more thein a synop- 
sis of the jurisprudence of Spain. It con- 
tinued in operation for 14 years, without 
any material innovation. In 1822, Messrs. 
Derbigny, Livingston and Moreau Uslet 
were selected by the legislature to revise 
and amend the civil code, and to add to it 
such of the laws still in force as were not 
included therein. They were authorized 
to add a system of commercial law, and a 
code of practice. The code which they 
prepared, havios been adopted, was pro- 
mulgated in 1824, under the title of the 
"Civil Code of the State of Louisiana;" 
and the lesislature resolved, tliat, " from 
and afler tne promulgation of this code, 
the Spanish, Roman and French laws, 
which were in force when Louisiana was 
ceded to the U. States, and the acts of 
the legislative council of the legislature of 
* *he territory of Orleans, and of the legis- 
.ature of the state of Louisiana, be, and 
hereby are, repealed in every case for 
which it has been specially provided in 
this code." It would seem that where the 
code is silent ou any subject, any preex- 
isting law on that subject, whether of 
Freucb or Spanish ori^n, or of native 
growth, would be considered as still in 
force. The new code, independently of 
the great changes which it has introduced, 
isViuch more full and explicit in the doc- 

* Id 1819, a law was passed to encourage and 
authorize the traaslation of such parts of the Par- 
tida* as were conceived' to have the force of law 
ui ihe state, aod suck a irandatiou was made. 

trinal parts than the former digest . The 
theory of obligations, particularly, deserves 
to be mentioned, as comprising, in a con- 
densed and eveu elegant form, the most 
satisiactoiy enunciation of geaml princi- 
ples. The jurisconsults appear to hare 
profited much by the great work of Toul- 
lier, entitied Le i>^ol^cimZ /Vonfoit. The 
code contains 3552 articles, numbered 
fiom the beginning for convenience of 
reference. The most striking and mate- 
rial changes introduced by the new code, 
relate to the rules of succession, and the 
enlarged liberty of disposing of property 
by lost will, by curtaihng the ^citaxms 
which must be reserved for forced heirs. 
The new order of succession confomia to 
that established in France by the Code 
Napoleon, and will be found to be copied 
almost precisely from the 118th novel of 
Justinian, from which the Spanish rules 
of descent had deviated in some essential 
particulars. — ^The legislature of Louisiana 
provided also for the formation of a penal 
code, by an act passed in 1820,. and in- 
trusted the charge of preparing it to Mr. 
Edward Livingston. A plan of a penal 
code was accordingly drawn up by him, 
and presented to tiie legislature in 1822. 
The manuscript copy of the part of the 
code which had been prepared, was de- 
stroyed by ^re in 1824, and Mr. Living- 
ston has been since engaged in repairing 
the loss, and completing the code. 

Louisville ; a city of Kentucky, on the 
Ohio, opposite to the rapids or &lls of 
that river, on a plain elevated about 70 
feet above tiie level of the river; Ion. 85** 
30^ W. ; lat 38° 3' N. The soil is rather 
sandy, with a substratum of rich clay, 
fix)m which very good bricks are made. 
The town is regularly laid out : eight broad 
and straight streets, parallel \vith the river, 
are intersected by 18 others, at right an- 
gles, running from the river to the south- 
em boundary of the city, which is about 
three miles long, with an average width 
of upwards of one mile. The population, 
bv the census of 1830, was estimated at 
about 10,500 : a most rapid increase has 
taken place, and the numbers are now 
(June, 1831) estimated at 13,000 to 14,000. 
The public buildings in Louisville are a 
court-house, gaol, ten houses of pubhc 
worship, a poor-bouse, city school and 
marine hospital, all in good taste. The 
private buildings are mosUy of brick, 
without much ornament; the warehouses, 
particulariy those which have been erect- 
ed within one or two years, are very ex- 
tensive. Louisville is the most conBiner- 
cial city in the west, ocMnmaiMfmy the 

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of a great extent of countiy. 
ItexpoitB tobacco, whiskey, cotton bag- 
sing and bating, hemp, flour, pork, bacon, 
hri, and many other productions of the 
country. Its imports are various an4 ex- 
temive, the easy circumstances of the 
people whom it supplies creating a large 
demand for foreign articles of comfort and 
luxury. The commerce is carried on by 
upwBjrds of 300 steam-boats, measuring 
from 50 to 500 tons each, some of which are 
daily arriving from or departing for all parts 
of the immense valley of the Missisrappi. 
The aiiivals during the last year exceeded 
1500, and the departures were about the 
same number ; this is exclusive of keel and 
flat boats, which must have amounted to 
at least that ^number. Louisville is the 
peat commercial depot for the country 
bordering on the Ohio and its tributary 
waters^ and the Mississippi above Natch- 
ez, the country lying near to the great 
lakes resorting to this city for many arti- 
cles of trade. A bridge over the Ohio is 
contemplated to be built at this place, 
which vrili ffive great facilities to the in-» 
tercouise wita the state of Indiana ; and a 
ndl-road is about being commenced, to 
connect the trade of I^xington and the 
rich counties of the centre of Kentucky 
with its commercial mart The public 
building most worthy of note is the ma- 
rine hospital, erected from funds granted 
by the state. It cost about $40,000. It 
is supported by annual grants from the 
general marine hospital fund of the U. 
States, and* from a tax on auction sales 
within the city : this institution annually 
alleviates the distresses of hundreds of 
sick and infirm boatmen and decayed sea- 
men. The city school was estabushed in 
1890. The building is of brick, and is 
three stories high : in each story is a sepa- 
rate school, chiefly on the monitorial plan. 
It will accommodate about 600 children, 
and now contiuns about 400. There are 
several excellent private schools. A 
branch of the bank of the U. States was 
established in 1817. Louisville has also 
an insurance-office, three daily papers, 
and a weekly price-current. There are. 
50 licensed hacks and about 150 drays and 
carts. Mail-coaches daily arrive from the 
ereat roads, east, west, north and south. 
Mamifactures are yet in their infancy. 
There is one manufactory of cotton, and 
one of woollen, three iron fbunderies, and 
a steam-engine factory, tanneries, &c. 
Hats, saddles, shoes, &c., are made. The 
LouisviUe and Portland canal is about two 
miles in length ; it is intended for steam- 
boats of the largest class, and to overcome 

a ffdl of 34 feet, occanoDed by an irregular 
ledge of lime-rock, through which the en* 
tire bed of the canal is excavated, a part 
of it to the depth of 13 feet, overlaid with 
earth. There is one guard and three hfl 
locks combined, all of which have their 
foundation on the rock. There are two 
bridges ; one of stone, 240 feet long, with 
an elevation of 68 feet to the top of th» 
parapet wall, and three arches, the centre 
one of which is semi-elUptical, vritib a 
transverse diameter of 66, and a semi- 
conjugate diameter of 22 feet; the two 
side arches are segments of 40 feet span ; 
the other is a pivot bridge, built over the 
head of the guard lock, and is of wood, 
100 feet long, with a span of 52 feet, in- 
tended to open, in time of high virater, as 
boats are passing through the canaL The 
guard lock is 1S@ feet long in the clear, 
with semicircular heads of 26 feet in di- 
ameter; is 50 feet wide, and 42 feet high. 
The solid contents of this lock are 
equal to those of 15 common locks, such 
as are built on the Ohio and New York 
canals. The lift locks are of the same 
width with the guard lock, 20 feet high, 
and 183 feet long in the clear. The en- 
tire length of the walls, from the head of 
the guard lock to the end of the outlet 
lock, is 921 feet There are three culverts 
to drain off the water from the adjacent 
lands, the mason work of which, when 
added to the locks and bridge, gives the 
whole amount of mason woik 41,989 
perches, equal to about 30 common canal 
locks. The cross section of the canal is 
200 feet at the top of the banks, 50 feet at 
the bottom, and 42 feet high, having a 
capacity equal to that of 25 common caimls. 
The Louisville and Portland canal was 
completed and put in partial operation on 
the first of January, 1831, finom which 
time up to June 1 of the same year, 505 
boats of different descriptions passed its 
locks. A bank of mud at its mouth, which 
could not be removed last winter from the 
too sudden rise of the water, will be re- 
moved ^t the ensuing period of low water, 
when the canal can be navigated at all 
times, by all such vessels as navigate the 
Ohio. The Ohio, when the water is 
lowest, is not more than two feet deep 
in many places above and below the falls, 
and rises 36 feet perpendicular above the 
falls opposite to the city ; and 60 feet per- 
pendicular rises have oeen known at the 
foot of the falls. An appropriation of 
$150,000, by the U. States, was made last 
winter, by which the low places in the 
river are to be improveil so as to give four 
feet of water, in low water^ from its mouth 

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to Pitttbuig. Thif impffovemeiit wiU 
much ftcifilBte the intercoune with Lou- 
krilfe. Louisville has been allowed by 
traTeUen and stzangen to be one of the 
matest thoroughfiures in the Union. At 
feast 50,000 paasengen airive here an- 
nually from below, and it is reasonable to 
conclude that half that number pass 
through it descending. Great bodies of 
epiignuits from the east and north pass 
through it ; and it is not uncommon, in the 
autumn, to see the streets filled, for days 
together, with continued processions of 
moversj as they are called, going to the 
^ great west" In former yean, Louis- 
▼me had the character of beinff unhealthy ; 
but, since the introduction of steam-boat 
navigation, and the improved methods of 
living, no town of its size in the U. States 
has been more healthy: the year 1822, so 
fetal to the health of the whole valley of 
the Mississippi, is the last in which any 
thing like general sicknesa has been known 
in this city. The city government con- 
sists of a mayor and city council, chosen 
annually, by the vwa voce vote of all rea- . 
dents, in their respective wards. 

Louse {pediniusy These disaffreear 
ble and unseemly insects belong to the or- 
der parasUa (Latr.), and are characteiized 
by having six feet formed for walking, a 
mouth fuinished with a proboscis, anten- 
nae as long as the thorax, and the ab- 
domen depressed, and formed of several 
segments. Almost every species of ani- 
mal is frequented by its peculiar louse, 
sometimes by several kinds : even man is 
subjected to their attacks. They breed 
with amazing rapidity, several generations 
occulting in a short period. Certain cir- 
cumstances appear to be exceedingly fa- 
vorable to their increase ; as infimcy, and 
that state of the system giving rise to 
phthmasis, or the lousy disease. The hu- 
man race is infested by several specif 
among which are the P. kumanus corporis, 
or b<My louse, principally occurring in 
adults who neg[lect cleanliness ; and the ^. 
humanua capitis, or common louse, most 
frequent in children. Cleanliness is the 
best antidote against these disgusting in- 
trudera. The lousy disease, though now 
of very rare occunence, appeara to have 
been by no means unfrequent among the 
ancients. Herod, Antiochus, Callisthenes, 
Sylla, and many others, are said to have 
perished from this disorder. Some na- 
tions consider them as a gastronomic lux- 
ury, toad, at one time, they were used in 
medicine. Those of our readere who vrish 
for fUll information on these disagreeable, 
paraaitesi will frkid vmgh details respecu 

ing them in liie worioi of ^h*^, Swsnif 
mman and Buonanni, who seam to hftTe 
studied their habits and mannen with 
great assiduity. 

Loi7THERBouRe|OrLi7THxnBim% Phil- 
ip James ; a landscape painter of eminenoe» 
bom at Strasburg, in 1740. He studied 
under Tischbein, and afterwards under 
Casanova, and displayed creat talents in 
the delineation of battles, hunting-piecesy 
&c. After having been admitted a mem- 
ber of the academy of painting at PaoiB^ 
where he was first settled, he removed, in 
1771, to London, where he was employed 
in the decorati<nis of the opeia-hoiise, and 
also at Druiy-lane theatre. He subee- 
quentiv contrived an exhibition, called the 
Eidophusikonj somewhat on the nlan of 
the Diorama, which, however, did not 
prove a very profitable speculation. In 
1782, he was nominated a royal academi- 
cian ; and, as a landscape pamter, he poe- 
sessed deserved celebri^. He also paint- 
ed some historical pictures, as the Victoiy 
of Lord Howe, ana the Siege of Valen- 
ciennes. His character vna eccentric, 
and he was so far infiituated with the rev- 
eries of animal magnetism, as to have ac- 
companied the impostor Cagllostro (q. t.) 
to Switaserland. He return^ to England, 
and died near London, in 1813. 

LouvAiir (Dutch, Loeven, Lenwtn)^ fbr- 
meriy the capital of one of the four dis- 
tricts of the duchy of Brabant; more lately 
of a circle in the province of South Bra- 
bant, kingdom of the Netherlands; at pfee- 
ent belonging to Belnum. Louvain is 
situated on the river Dyle, and a canal 
leading firom this river to the Rupel, five 
leagues E. N. E. firom Brussels ; lat 5QP 
59'a6"N.;lon.4'»41'54"E. Tbereare 
seven churches, five convents, a magnifi- 
cent hospital, 4000 houses, and 35^400 in- 
habitants. Jfohn IV, duke of Brabant, 
founded the universi^ in 1496, to which 
belonged four colleges, a considerabte 
libraiy, a botanical garden, and an anatom^ 
ical theatre. In the sixteenth centuiy,it 
contained 6000 students. Havinff become 
extinct during the French revolution, it 
was restored as a lyceum (q. v.), and, Oct. 
6, 1817, again formally reestabhshed. The 
number of students is 580. In 1835, a 
philosophical college for Catholic cler- 
gymen was fbundra, with the intention 
of raising the standard of learning among 
the candidates for holy orden ; but the cler- 
gy were so much a|^iinst it, that in 1890, 
when a Catholic minister was appointed 
for the afiairs of Bekium, the philosoph- 
ical college was abolished. Louvain has 
great^ oontribmed lo nouritii that ifiiiit 

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of oppQMto^ iniuch the Catholio Belgiaiui 
hare maiufeBted towards the {[ovemment 
of the Netheiiondfl^ and of which the sep- 
antkm of Belgium has been the coose- 
quenoe. In thehegbiiing of the fourteenth 
centuiy, when the city had 200,000 mhab- 
itants, the woollen manufiictures support- 
ed 100,000 workmen, many of wnom, 
after the insuirection of 1378, emigrated 
to. England, and founded the English 
woollen manufactures. The most im- 
portant article of industiy is beer, of which 
150,000 casks are exported annual)^. 
There are from 10 to Ix lace manu&cto- 
lies. The commerce in com and hops is 
considerable. During the late revolution, 
the inhabitants embraced with ardor the 
cause of independence, and repelled with 
courage (Oct. 23, 1830) the attacks of the 

LouvEL, Pierre Louis, the asBaRBin of 
the duke of Berry, son of a Catholic mer- 
cer, was bom at Versailles in 1783, and 
senred as saddler in the royal stables. 
From his youth upwards, he was of a 
gloomy and reserved dispoeidon, and im- 
patient of contradiction, but industrious 
and temperate. He often clianged his 
master, and oftener his residence. From 
aU circumstances, it. is evident that he was 
fanatical and eccentric He hated the 
Bourtjons, and wished to extirpate the 
family, the duke of Beny in particular, 
because he was expected to continue the 
line. Feb. 13, 1820, about 11 o'clock in 
the evening, when the prince was con- 
ducting his wife from the opera to the 
carriage, Louvel pressed towards him, 
seized him by the left shoulder, and stab- 
bed him with a knife in his right side. 
Upon the first cry of the prince, the sol- 
diers of the guards pursued the mur- 
derer, who was apprehended and con- 
duct^ into the guard-room of the opera- 
house. He was examined in the presence 
of the xninister Decazes, and immediately 
avowedj that, rax years previous, he had 
formed the resolution of delivering France 
from the Bourbons, whom be considered 
the worst enemies of the countiy ; that, 
after the duke of Berrv, he had intended 
to murder the rest, and, finally, the king. 
His trial was conducted by the chamber 
of peers. The investigations continued 
three months, and 1520i0 wimesses were 
examined, in order to discover accom- 
plices. At length Bellart, the attomey- 
genenJ, declare in the indictment (May 
m that none had been discovered, J une 
5, Louvel, between his two counsel, was 
pkced at the hw of the chaml)er of peers, 
sitting as a court of justice. The chan- 

eellor IVAmbngry pNtidtml of liie cham- 
ber, examined hun. Louyel declared that 
no personal offence bad induced him to 
commit the murder, but only an exaspera- 
tion, created by the presence of the fbreigit 
troops, as early as 1814 ; that, in . order to 
distract his thoughts, he had travelled, and 
visited the island of Elba, but, in that 
place, had no conference with Napolecb 
or his attendants; that, after Napoleon's 
return firom Elba, he was taken mto ser- 
vice as saddler in the imperial stables, and, 
hence, had obtained this station in the 
royal stables. No political party, no indi- 
vidual, had persuaded him to conunit this 
act. He had read no nevrapapers nor 
pampiflets. He admitted that Lis deed 
was a horrible crime ; but stated that he had 
determined to sacrifice himself for France. 
Louvel's defenders alleged a monomania^ 
or an insanity consisting in a fixed idea, 
and appealed, to the dymff request of the 
prince for the pardon of his murderer. 
Louvel then read his defence. The hiffh 
court of justice condemned him to deau. 
After a long delay, he admitted the visit 
of a clergyman, but, on the day of his ex- 
ecution ^uly 7, 1820), paid no attention 
to his words, directing his eyes over the 
multitude, which wimessed bis execution 
in silence. — See Maurice M^jan^ IKaL du 
Proc^4 de LouveL OMOMtn, &c. (3 vols., 
Paris, 1820). 

LouvE&TURE. (See ToustauU-Linwer' 

LouvsT DE CouvRAT, John Baptist; a 
French advocate, distinguished as an actor 
in the revolution. At the commencement of 
the political commotions, he joined the pop- 
ular party, and displayed a decided aver- 
sion to royalty and nobility. He publish- 
ed a romance, entitied EmUie de Vamwnty 
oti U Divorce nkuaaxrt (1791), in support 
of the prevalent opinions relative to mar- 
riage, and spoke at the bar of the national 
assembly in fitvor of a decree of accusa- 
tion against the emigrant princes. In 
1792, he was chosen a deputy to the con- 
vention, when he attached hunself to the 
party of the Girondists, and voted for the 
death of Louis XVI, witii a proviso, that 
execution should be delayed till after the 
acceptance of the constitution by the peo- 
ple. He was denounced by the terrorists, 
and included in an order of arrest issued 
June 2, 1794. Having escaped from the 
capital, he retired to Caen, with several of 
his colleagues, and employed himself in 
writing against the Jacobins. He was de- 
clared an outlaw; on which he fled to 
Brittany, and thence to the department of 
the Garonne* At length he separated 

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from his companioDS, and returned to 
Pan& where he kept himeelf concealed 
till after the fall of RobeapieRe. He sub- 
sequently publiahed an account of his ad- 
ventures nuring the time of his |>roBcrip- 
tion, entitled SToHces mtr PHUtoire d U 
R6cU dt me8 P^nZt— a work written in a 
romantic style, which has been translated 
into English and other languages. Louvet 
recoveied his seat in the convention in 
March, 1795^ and he occupied the presi- 
dency in June following. He was after- 
wards a member of the council of five hun- 
dred, which he quitted in May, 1797, and 
died at Paris, Aug;ust 25 of that year. He 
]s chiefly known in literature as the au- 
thor of a licentious novel — La Vie du Chev- 
dlitr FavJUas, 

Louvois, Francis Michel Letellier, 
marquis of^ minister of war to Louis XIV, 
son of the chancellor Letellier, bom at 
Paris in 1641, was earl^ made a royal 
counsellor through the mfluence of his 
fiither. He displayed so little inclination 
for business, and so great a love of pleas- 
ure, that his &ther Uireateued to deprive 
him of the reversion of the secretariship 
in the war department, which had been 
conferred on him at the early age of 13. 
From this moment younj^ Louvois aban- 
doned his habits of dissipation, and de- 
voted himself to business. After 1666, 
he had th^ whole management of the 
ministry of war, and soon exercised a des- 
potic control over his master and over the 
army. His extensive knowledge, his de- 
cision, activity, industiy and talents, ren- 
dered him an able minister ; but he cannot 
aspire to the praise of a great statesman. 
He was too regardless of the rights of 
human nature; too lavish of the blood 
and treasure of France ; too much of a 
despot, to deserve that honorable appella- 
tion. His reforms in the organization of 
the army ; his manner of conducting the 
wars of his ambitious master, if they were 
not rather his own ; and, above all, his 
successes, render bis administration bril- 
liant.— See Audouin's Htstoin de VAd- 
mimttration de la Churre (Paris, 1811.) — 
But, jusdy appreciated, Louvois must be 
cousidered as the evil ffeniusof the showy 
but disastrous reign of Louis XIV. While 
the kinff was flattered with the idea of 
havinff lormed the young minister, and of 
directing his government in person, eveiy 
thing was, in fact, done by Louvois^ and 
according to his views. The generals 
were all required to communicate imme- 
diatelv with him; and, althoush Turenne 
would not submit to this order, yet the 
king showed all his letters to his mmister. 

and ansvrered them aocordmg to his sug- 
gestions. ' Bold and grasping schemes, 
which could be executed only b^ the un- 
wearied activity and industry of Louvois, 
were proposed bv him for the purpose of 
rendering himself necessary to Louis, who, 
he was conscious, disliked him personally. 
Hence, notwithstanding the solemn renun- 
ciations of all claims to Franche-Comt^ 
and the Spanish Netherlands (see Louis 
XIVy and Fhmee), war was undertaken 
(1667 and 1669)to get possession of them. 
The war of 1672, a^inst Holland, was 
begun at the instiganon of Louvois, and 
would have been finished much sooner, 
had he not, contrary to the wishes of 
Cond^ and Tureime, insisted upon occu- 
pying the fortresses, and thus given the 
Dutch time to open their sluices. The 
victories of Turenne (q. y,), in 1674 and 
1675, were gained b^ a disobedience of 
the orders of the minister of war ; but the 
desolation of the Palatinate was com- 
manded by him. The system of r^iimoit, 
as it is called (see Lows XIV), was now 
adopted, and Louvois took possession of 
Strasburg, in the time of peace (1680). 
On the death of Colbert (1683), of whom 
be had been the enemy, his influence 
became still greater, and one of its most 
fatal effects wbs the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes (1685X the dragwrnades, 
and the consequent flight of so many 
peaceful and industrious Calvinists. Lou- 
vois was now superintendent of the royal 
buildings, and, on occaaon df a dispute 
vrith the king about the size of a window, 
in which the latter had spoken severely to 
him, **The king," said the minister, ** be- 
gins to meddle with every thing; we 
must give him somiething to do ; he shall 
have a war;" and a pretext was soon 
found. The system of reunion had united 
the European powers in the league of 
Augsburg ; ana it was determined to 
seize on Philipsbur^, one of the bulwarks 
of Germany. This was done vrith. so 
much secrecy as to prevent the place 
being relieved. The French arms were 
successful, but disgraced liy the horrid 
burnings and devastations committed by 
the direction of Louvois. The Palatinate 
viras reduced to a wilderness in mid- winter 
(1689). The war was conducted with 
great ability by Louvois ; but his arrogance 
had long rendered him odious to DduIs. 
The king's dislike had been increased by 
the crud devastations of the Palatinate, 
and when the minister proposed to him to 
complete the desolation by the burning of 
Treves, he refbsed his consent Louvois 
replied, that, to spare his majesty^ con- 

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, he hid alMdy deepatdied a coa- 
h Olden to that eflfeeL Lomi^fiUed 
tfitb indiniatloiiy was prev6iited fioni strik- 
mg Ids nmualer only Of the intsiftraiiee of 
de Maiotenoii. 8000 after, on 
[ himaelf at the royal council, he 
I, or ftncied he diaooYered, in 
the couniBDance and wmda of the hong, 
mailcB of sererity, and was obliged by 
fidntneai to retire to his hdtel, where he 
died within half an hour. Whaterer may 
be our fedings at the airogance, cruelty 
and despotisni of LouYois, we cannot de- 
ny him the merit of having organized the 
bnDiant victories of the reign of Lou]& 

LouTRB ; the old royal palace at Pari& 
on the north bank of the Seine, a splendia 
quadrangular edifice, with a court in the 
centre, completed by Napoleon. The ori- 
gin of its name^ and the time of the erec- 
tion of the oldest part of it, are unknown. 
We cidy know tnat Philip Augustus,, in 
1214, biult a fixt and a state prison in this 
place; that Charies V, during the yean 
ld64r--80, added some embelnahments to 
the building, and brou^t his tibrary and 
his treasury thither; and that Francis I, 
in 1588, erected that part of the pakce 
whidi is now called the old Lowrt, 
Henry IV laid the foundation of the 
splendid gaOery which connects the Lou- 
vre, on the south side, with the Tuileries ; 
Louis Xin erected the centre ; and Louis 
XIV, according to the plan of the phyri- 
cisn Perranlt, the elegant fi^e towards 
te east, toffether with the colonnade of the 
Louvre, vniich, even now, is the most 
perfect woric of architecture in France. 
At a later period, Louis XIV chose the 
palace built Iw him at Versailles for his 
residence. Alter Napoleon had taken 
poss es sion of the Tuileries, he began a 
second gallery, opposite to the former, by 
which the two palaces would have been 
made to form a great whole, with a lane 
quadrangular court in the centre; oiiry 
600 foet of it were completed at the time 
of his abdication, and it has not since been 
continued. Since the revolution, the col- 
lection of antiquities has been ke^ in the 
k>wer floor of the Louvre. Here, also, 
the exhibitions of national industry take 
place, and the academies hold their ses- 
sionSi — 2V Aaoe iheprmUgtqfihe Lowortj 
formerly meant, in France, a permission 
to drive, with a coach, into the courts of 
all the royal palaces. At first, this was 
die prerogative of the princes only ; but, 
in lo07, when a duke, under the pretence 
of indMOsition, rode into the Louvre, 
Henry IV gavto him (and, in 1609, the 
dnke of SuQy also) permisBion constantly 

to do so. At last, during the minoriQr of 
the king Louis XIII, all the high officen 
of the crown, and dukea^ obtained tLis 
privilege fiom Bfarr of Medici. 

LovAT (Simon Frazer), commonly call- 
ed knd; a Scottish statesman, bora in 
1667. He was educated in France, 
among the Jesuits, and, returning to his 
native country, he entered into the army, 
and, in 1693, he was a captain in the regi- 
ment of Tullibardine. After having com- 
mitted some acts of violence in taking 
possession of his hereditary estate, he fled 
to France, and gained the confidence ot 
the oM pretender, which be made use o^ 
on his return to Scotland, in order to ruin 
his personal enemies. He again went to 
France, where he was imprisoned in the 
Bastile. and was liberated only on condi- 
tion of taking religious orders, in pursu- 
ance of whidi engagement he is said to 
have become a Jesuit In 1715^ he a sec- 
ond time betrayed the pretender, and he 
was rewarded by the government of 
George I with the title of Lovat, and a 
pension. He now led a quiet lifo, uniting 
m his own person the contradictory char- 
acters of a Catholic priest and a father of 
a fimiily, a colonel and a Jesuit, a Hano- 
verian lord, and a Jacobite laird. Not- 
witiifltandiny the fiivois he had received, 
he engaged m the rebellion id 1745 ; and, 
after having displayed bis usual craft and 
audacitv, he was finally seized, tried, con- 
demned, and executed in April, 1747, at 
the age of 80. Notwithstanoing his age, 
infirmities, and a conscience supposed to 
be not wholly void of oflence, he died, 
says Smollett, like a Roman, exclaiming, 
Ihikt d decorum pro patria moru A vol- 
ume of autobiographical memoirB^ by this 
resdess and imprincipled politician, was 
published in 1797 (8vo.). 

Lovk-Feast. (See »^g(qt€.) 

Lovelace, Richard, a poet of the seven- 
teenth century, was bom about 1618, and 
educated at Oxford. On leaving Oxford, 
he repaired to court, entered tbe army 
and became a captain. He expended the 
whole of his estate in the support of the 
royal cause, and, after entenng into the 
French service, in 1648, returned to Eng- 
land, and was imprisoned until the kinrs 
death, when he was set at liberty. His 
condition was, at this time, veiy destitute, 
and strongly contrasted with Anthonj 
Wood's gav description of his handsome 
person and splenmd appearance in the 
outset of li^ He died m great poverty, 
ia an obscure alley, in 1658. His poems, 
which are light and elegant, but occasion- 
ally involved and ftntutic, are published 

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under Ae dtie of Luoaifa, under which noted forlbe extent of kiwuier power, ifit 

name be coinplimeDted MisB Lucy Sach- manuftcturiDg efttdiiiBhinenti^ and the ra- 

•vereU, a young bdjr to whom he was atr- pidity of its jnrowth ; situated at the iunc- 

tached, who, on a fiibe report of his death, tion of the Conconl and MenimacK riv- 

married another perron. Colonel Loto- ers; bounded by the fimner on the eaat, 

lace, who, for spirit and gallantry, has and the latter on the north ; Indian name, 

been compared to sir Philip Sidney, also fVamaait ; the seat of a tribe of prtofVig 

wrote two plays, the Scholar, a coinedy, Indians, at the breaking out of Philip^ 

and the Soldier, a tragedy. war, in 1675 ; incoroorated in 1826 ; oam- 

Lover's Lsap; the name of a cltfl^ 144 ed from Francis C. LoweU, of Boston, 

feet high, in the island of Leucadia (q. v.).. who was distinffuished by his succeisful 

Low Countries. (See Netherlands.) efforts in introducliQg the cotton maou« 

Low Dutch and High Dutch ; used facture into the U. States. The hydiuuUc 

improperly for Dutch and (hrman. The power of Lowell is produced bv a canal, 

two languages are quite distinct, so that a completed in 1823, 1^ mile in length, 60 

German and a Dutchman cannot under- feet wide, and carrying 8 feet in depth of 

standeachotherany better than a French- water. A portion of the waters of the 

man and a German. In fact, the Dutch Merrimack is forced through this canal by 

language resembles the Enfflish more a dam at the head of Pawtucket falls, and 

than it does the German, so mat a Ger- is distributed in various directiona, by 

nlan underetands it much easier, if he has channels branching off from the main 

a knowledge of English. The reason is, canal, and discharging into the Concord 

that both, Dutch and English, are main- and Merrimack rivers. The entire fall is 

Iv derived from the Low German. The 90 feet, and the volume of water which 

frequent confusion of the terms DuUh the canal is capaUe of canying, is esti- 

and Oerman probably arises from the mated at 1250 cubic feet per second, fui^ 

circumstance, that the proper name of nishing 50 mill powers of 25 cubic feet 

German is Devttrhy and that of Germa-' per second each. In some instances, the 

ny, Devtgchkmdj and that the Germans whole power is used at one €»peration, ap- 

and Dutch were originally considered as plied to wheels of 30 feet diameter ; but 

one nation by the inhabitantB of England, more frequendv the power is divided into 

(See Dutch, and Loto GemuuL) two distinct falb of 13 and 17 feet each. 

Low Water; the lowest point to which The water power is hekl and disposed of 

the tide ebbs. (See the article THde,) by a company, holding a large amount of 

Lowell; 25 miles N. W. fifom Boston; real estate, with a capital of $600,000* 

Mmt^actunng LJaUishments now in OptraHon, 

Name. Capiul. No. of Milk.. Manufaeture. 

Merrimack co., $1,500,000, 5, with bleachmg and print works. . printed calicoes. 
HamUton co., . . 800,000, 3, with bleaching and print works, j ^^[[""iu^^^^^ 

Appleton CO, .. 500,000, 2 P ""sh:^^ "' 

Lowell CO,. . . . 400,000, 2 j°««~ ^^?^ ^^t- 

Woollen factory, i^^tl^^^cT^' 

Nhe Works J erecting by Companies iMiefc hme heen orgmnzed, 

Suffolk CO, . . . 450,000, 2 mills, coarse cottons. , 

Tremont mills, . 500,000, 2 cottons. 

Lawrence co, . 1,200,000, 4 . printed cottons. 

The quantity of cotton manufactured at dertaken as soon as surveys are com- 

Lowell, in 1831, is estimated at 17,000 pleted. 

bales, of 300 pounds each. Population, L6weivdal, Ulrich Frederic Wolde- 

b^ the censt^ of 1830, 6477 ; chdrches, 8 ; mar, count of, great grandson of Frederic 

VIZ. Congregation^ 3, Episcopal 1, Baptist III, king of Denociark, bom 1700, at 

1, Methodist 1, Universalist 1, Roman Hamburg, began his military career in 

Catholic 1 ; 2 banks. A charter for a Poland (1713), became captain in 1714, 

rail-road from Boston to Lowell was and entered the Danish service, as a vol- 

mnted in 1830 ; the capital for which, nnteer, during the war vrith Sweden, hi 

$600,000, has been subscribed, to be ua- 1716, her served in Hungary, and distiii- 

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at tbe battle of Peter> 
wvdeiii, and at the sieges of Temeswar' 
and Beimde. He next took part in the 
wan in Sardinia and Sicily, and was pres- 
ent at all the battles from 1718 to 172L 
Dtiiio^ peace, be studied ffuonery and en- 
ginemig, and was made field-marBhal 
and inspector-general of the Saxon in- 
iantiy in the service of Augustus, king 
of Pohmd. The death of this monarch 
(1733J gave him an opportunity of dis- 
tingunhing himself by his valiant defence 
of Cracow. Having entered the service 
of the empress of Russia, she was so well 
satisfied with his conduct in the Crimea 
aod Ukraine, that she appointed him com- 
mander of her forces. In 1743, he was 
made lieutenant-general in the French 
service, and, at the sieges of Menin, 
Ypres and Friburg, was conspicuous for 
his courage and skjIL In 1745, he com- 
maoded the corps of reserve at the battle 
of Fontenoy, in which he took an hon- 
orable share. Afler having taken many 
strong places in Flanders, he obtained 
poeaesBBon of Beisen-op-Zoom, by storm, 
September 16, 1747. This place, tiU then, 
bad been considered impregnable, and 
was occupied by a strong ganison, aud 
covered by a formidable anny. The fol- 
lowii^ day, he received the staff of mar- 
shal. He died 1755. L6wendal was 

people in moat parts of North or Lower 
Germanv, and man^ of the educated rank 
use it when they wish to be very fiuniliar, 
or when the^ address people of the classes 
before meouoned. In some lesal forms, 
it has maintained itself; thus the Ham- 
burg oath of citizenship is in Low Ger- 
man. Recently, more attention has been 
directed to this interesting dialect It is 
not, as is sometimes supposed, a corrupted 
language, but a distinct dialect, as much 
so as the high German, though circum- 
stances have caused the latter to become 
the language of literature and the edu- 
cated classes. fSee the division (krman 
Language^ in the article GermoTty ; also 
DiaUcL) It is difficult to decide which 
of the two dialects. High and Low Ger- 
man, is the more ancient Probably, in 
very remote times, soon afler the firat 
Asiatic tribes had entered Germany, two 
chief dialects were formed — a softer and 
a harsher — whilst one of the Asiatic no- 
madic tribes went northward, and the 
other inclined to the south, alonff the 
Danube. Diversities of climate, sou and 
way of living, may soon have exerted an 
important influence on tlie dialects of the 
tribes. The rough and woody moun- 
tains of the south of Germany, and the 
warlike occupations of the dwellere on 
the banks of the Danube, gave roughness 

thoroughly acquainted with eucineering, . and sharpness to the speech of this re- 
geography and tactics, and spoke Latin, ~~~ — •-t^-^ -i-- — j -»-?- — 

German, English, Italian, Russian and 
French, with fluency. With these ac- 
complishments, he combined modesty 
' and amiableness of disposition, though a 
devotee of pleasure, like the marshal 
Saxe, his most intimate friend, whom ho 
also resembled in his application to mili- 
tanr studies. 

Lower Ekfire (Bas Empire) ; a term 
^|i4ied to the Roman empire during the 
period of its decline. From the establish- 
meat of the seat of government at Byzan- 
tium (Constantinoplei and the division of 
the empire into the Eastern and Western, 
the former is often called the Byzantine 

gion, whilst the open aud plain country 
of the north produced muder manners 
and a softer language. Yet an entire sep- 
aration of these two dialects could not 
take place as lonff as the tribes speaking 
them led a nomadic life ; and, even after 
they had formed permanent settlements, 
much similarity must have remained for 
a considerable time. Hence we find, in 
the most ancient reconls of the German 
language, a constant mixture of both the 
chi<^f dialects. (See the article Anglo- 
Saxon.) The time of their separation is 
not to ue fixed with certainty. So much, 
however, is clear, that both dialects, for a 
long time, were mixed, and, after their to- 

•«o ivniRsr m uim;u voucu uio j^ifiujuvnc ivug uiii«?, nro*c iuja.\;u, ouu, (mi^^i »<««•» w- 

(q. v.] empire, and, after the restoration of tal separation, existed for a long time iii- 
the Western or Ladn empire, under Char- dependendy of each other — the harsher di- 
lemagne, the Gnek empire. Lebeau^s elect in the southern part of Germany, in 
Hi^ovre du Bas Empirt begins with the Austria, Bavaria, Franconia, Suabia, on the 
fpim of Constantino. Gibbon's Decline Upper Rhine, and in part of Unper Sax- 
sad Fall of the Roman Empire embraces ony ; the smoother in the north of G^^ 

the whole period. 

Low German (m German, PlaUdeidschy 
Mtderdadsdi, MedarM&chntch ; since the 
oxteenth century, also Sasaisdi) is that soft- 
er German dialect, which was formeriy 
spoken over a great part of Germany, and 
^ven now is the language of the coouoon 


many. Lower Saxonv, Westphalia, on the 
Lower Rhine, and m all Belgium. The 
long and extended dominion of the Low 
German dialect is proved i>y the number 
of idioms derived from it Of these the 
most important are, Lthe Angjo-Saxon 
(q. v«) ; li the Norman ; 3. the Dutch, ao 

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called mee die durteentfacentaiy; 4. the 
Icekndic ; 5. tbe Norwegian ; 6L the 
Swedish ; 7. the Low Saxon, as spoken 
at present That the High German at- 
tained«»neTeitheleai, at an eariy period, a 
somewhat superior standing, was chiefly 
owing to the circumstance, tibat the higher 
intellectual cultivation of Qennanv must 
be dated from the period of the Hohen- 
staufen (q. v.) or Suabian emperors, and 
with them, consequently, the Hiffh Ger- 
man sained the ascendency. When, on 
the other hand, in the latter part of the 
twelfth centuiy, at the time of the emi- 
gration from Holland into Germany, the 
Low (German had become enriched from 
the Belgian dialect of the emigrants, and 
the Hansa produced so much activity in 
the North, Low German also became, 
for some time, a literary language, and af- 
fords works of much repute, particularly 
the incomparable Renard the Fox. (q. v.] 
But Lutfaer^s tFanslation of the Bible gave 
predominance to the High German, and 
a natural consequence was, that, whilst 
this became tbe exclusive language of lit- 
erature, Low German was checked in its 
developement, and was obliged to give way 
to its rival in courts, churches, schools, 
and the circles of the well educated. In 
a few parts of the country, on]y, it main- 
tained its ground in works both of a spirit- 
ual and secular character, down to the 
beginninf^ of the sixteenth century, as in 
Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Westphalia. As 
the lanffua^ of the people, Low Ger- 
man stul exists, but in a great number of 
different dialects, which, in several re- 
spects, differ considerably. A supercilious 
(usparagement of this dialect, as if it were 
a mere corruption of the High German, 
has led many German scholars to neglect 
it entirely ; and they have thus fidlen into 
etymological and other mistakes, from ig- 
norance of this essential branch of their 
lanffuage. Leibnitz recommended the 
study of it as a means of enriching, cor- 
recting and explaining the High German ; 
and, of late, the scholars of Germany have 
begun to turn their attention to tliis idiom. 
The study of it is essential even to the 
English etymologist, to enable him prop- 
erly to understand his own lansuage, as 
fiur as it is of Teutonic origin. J. H. Voss 
made the attempt to revive this dialect, by 
several excellent poetical compositions in 
it The most has been done, however, by 
Charles F. A. Scheller, who has lately 
published a series of Low German works, 
or such as are conducive to a knowledge 
of Low German literature ; amonff them 
an edition of Renard the Fox ; dso the 

SkSgl-Bik der SUid Anouuyft, as a 
plement to O. G. LBSbmHi Sariaiarti^ 
rum Brwumgentwm (Brunswick, 1889) ; 
Der LaUn Dodrindl (Branswick, 1835) ; 
BiUhtrkunde dor Satiisch-Medardtuiidiem 
Spraehe (Uterature of the Sassic-Low 
German Language) (Brunswick, 1826). In 
the preface to the Laien DodrinM, Mr. 
Scheller speaks of having made use of 
nearly 2000 Sassic writings, for a diction- 
aiy of this dialect, which he was prepar- 
ing. The Versuch einu Enmish-Mider-' 
M&chgisehen WorUrbuchs (5 vols., Bremen, 
1771) ; the HoUlein Idioticon of Schtitzel ; 
the GtsekickU der ^leder-SachMclien 
Sprache von Johann Friedrieh August KSn- 
aming (Magdeburg,1800); the Versitehei$ter 
piaUdeutschm SprachUhre mit besondertr 
BerUcksichtigung der Mecklenbiur^chen 
Mundart von J, Mus/eus (New Strehtz and 
New Brandenburg, 1829), deserve mention. 

Lowlands; a term applied to tlie south 
parts of Scotland, in coutnulistinctton to 
the Highlands^ which comprise tlie north- 
em and western parts, (See HighlandBf 
and Scotland.) 

Lo WRY, Wilson, F. R. S., a modem Eng- 
lish engraver of eminence, was bom in 
January, 1762. After studying medicine 
for some years, he devoted himself to en- 
graving. He is the inventor of a ruling 
machine, posBessing the property of ruling 
successive lines, either equidistant or in 
just nadation, from the greatest required 
vridth to the nearest possible approxima- 
tion ; also of one capable of drawing lines 
to a point, and of forming concentric cir- 
cle& In 1798, he first introduced the use 
of diamond points for etching — an inven- 
tion highly important, on account of the 
equality of tone produced by them, as 
well OS of their durability. Many other 
useful improvements in ensraving were 
also discovered by him, and he was the 
first person who succeeded in what is 
technically termed " biting steel in" well. 
Messrs. Longman's edition of doctor 
Rees's Cyclopeedia, commenced in 1800, 
for nearly 20 years occupied a considera- 
ble portion of his time. He also labored 
for Wilkins's VUruoiuSy and Mcigna Gr<t- 
cta, Nicholson's Architectural Dictionaiy, 
and, lastly, the EncychptJBdia Metropoli' 
tanOj on which he was emploved till his 
last illness. He died June 23,1824. His 
ehrf-eTceuore is conendered to be an engrav- 
ing from the Doric portico at Athens, in 
Nicholson's Architecture^ He was elected 
a fellow of the royal society in 1812: 

LowTH, Robert, a distinguished 
lidi prelate, was bora at Buriton, in 171I 
He received his education at Winchefltar 

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Rbooiy wfaeaee he was elected, in 179Q,tD 
New coU^i^ Oxford, of which he was 
eboean a fellow id 1734, and, in 1741, was 
efeeted profeasor of poetry in the univer- 
flity of Oxford. In 1753^ he published his 
Ik soara Poesi Hebr€Borum PraltcHones 
Aettdemic€R (4to.), which has been trans- 
bded into English, French and German. 
The beat edition is that of Leipsic, 1815, 
with notes by Michaelis Rosenmiiller, 
&C. In 1754, he received the degree of 
D. D. from the university of Oxford, by 
diploma, and, in 1755, went to Ireland, as 
chaplain to the marquis of Hartington, 
appointed lord lieutenant, who nominated 
mm bishop of Limerick, which prefer- 
ment he exchanged for a prebend of Dur- 
ham, and the rectory of Sedgefield. In 
1758, was published bis Life of William 
of Wykeham (8vo.), which, in 1762, was 
followed by a Short Introduction to the 
English Grammar. In 1756, a misun- 
deistanding took place between doctors 
Lowth and Warfourton,the latter of whom 
took ofieuce at. certain passages in the 
Pridectiones, concerning the b^k of Job, 
which he believed to be aimed at the the- 
oiy of his Divine Legation of Moses. 
Warburton, in an Appendix conceming 
the Book of Job, added to the 2d edition 
of his Divine Legation, indulged in the 
acrimony by which be was distinguished, 
and thereby produced a reply from doctor 
LowUi, in a Letter to the Right Reverend 
the ^thor of the Divine Legation of Mo- 
ses, which has become memorable at once 
for the ability and severity of its criticism. 
The ultimate silence of the Warburtoni- 
ans gave the victory to their antagopists. 
In 1766, doctor Lowth was appointed 
bishop of St. David's, whence, in a few 
months aflerwards, he was transhited to 
the see of Oxford. In 1777, he succeed- 
ed to the diocese of London, and the next 
year published the last of bis literaiy la- 
bors — Isaiah, a New Translation, with a 
preliminary dissertation and notes. Rosen- 
miiller says he understands and expresses 
the Hebrew poet better than any other 
writer. On the death of arciibishop 
Comwallis, the primacy was offered to 
doctor Lowth, but he declined that digni- 
ty, in consequence of his age and fiunily 
afflictions. He died November 3, 1787, 
aged 77. 

LoxoDROMic Curve, or Spibai. ; the 
path of a ship, when her course is directed 
GODstantly towards the same point of the 
compass, thereby cutting all the meridians 
at the same angle. (See Bhumb Lme.) 

LoTOLAf h^iatius (or, in Spanish, Inigo) 
di^ a saint ofthe Ronuui Catholic churait 

founder of the locietj of Jemitis was bom 
in 1491, in the castle of Loyola, in the 
Spanish province Guipuscoa, the youngest 
or the 11 children of a Spanish nobleman. 
Ignatius spent his youth at the court of 
Ferdinand V (sumamed the Catholic'), kinc 
of Arragon. Till his 29th year, he served 
in the army, was distinguished for braveiy, 
gallantry and vanity, and made indifiereiit 
verses. At the siege of Pampeluna by the 
French, he was wounded m both lees, 
one of which, being crooked after the 
cure, he caused it to be broken again, for 
the purpose of having it made straight 
During the siege, he had shown great 
valor and firmness, and, when the com- 
mander wished to surrender, in conse- 
quence of want of provisions, he alone 
opposed iL As soon as the soldiers saw 
him fall, they surrendered. During his 
sickness, Ignatius beguiled his time with 
books, and, as there were no romances in 
the house, he read a Spanish translation 
ofthe life ofthe Savior, by Landolphus, a 
Carthusian, and a volume ofthe Lives of 
the Saints. His imagination was highly 
excited by these books. What others had 
done, as was recorded in those biogra- 
phies, he thought he mi^ht do also, as he 
afterwards said himselfT He determined 
to live a life of abstinence, penitence and 
holiness. The Virgin, he thought, i^ 
peared to him, with me holy Infant in her 
arms, both regarding him with looks of 
benign complacency and encouragement. 
His brother Martin Garcia observed the 
change which had taken place in him, and 
endeavored to dissuade him ftom his pur- 
pose, entreating him to remember his 
illustrious birth, and the reputation which 
he had already obtained ; but Ignatius was 
firm. Leaving his brother at a sisters 
house, in Onate, he proceeded to Navar- 
retta, where he collected some debts, and, 
having paid his servants and all his cred 
itors, gave the rest for the restoration of 
the picture of the Virgin, and proceeded 
alone, upon his mule, to Montserrat A 
Moor overtook him, who, in their conver- 
sation, uttered an opinion il^pectins the 
Virgin, which appeared to Ignatius olas- 

E heinous, and, while the Moor, luckily ft>r 
imself, pricked forward, Loyola delib 
crated whether it was not his duty to fol- 
low and stab him.. The Moor had gone 
to a village off the road, and Ignatius let 
his mule choose his own wa^, with the 
mtention of killing the infidel, if the mule 
should cany him to the village; but it 
was not so ordered, and he arrived at 
Montsenat Here he consecrated his arms 
to the Vupn^dedanrf bioMdf hor M^ 

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aad proceeded to the hospital at Manresa, 
a small place not fiur mm Montsemt, 
where he fiuted ri^rouriy, scourged him- 
self neither cut his naib nor combed iiis 
hair, and prayed seven hours a day. He 
begged his bread, bread and water being 
his only food, and, eating very sparingly, 
he gave what remained to others. In the 
condition to which he was thus reduced, 
▼isions haunted him, and tempted hhn. 
Recollections arose of his birth and breed- 
ing, his former station, his former habits 
oi life, — ^these compared with his present 
situation, in a hospital, in filth and in rags, 
the companion of beggars ! This tempta- 
tion he at once quell^ and punished, by 
drawing closer to the beggar at his side, 
and courting more famiuarity with him. 
He then shrunk fit)m the prospect of liv- 
ing in this painful, and, as he could not but 
feel it to oe, beastly life, till the three- 
score and ten years of mortal existence 
should be numbered : Could he bear this ? 
The question, he thought, came from Sa- 
tan : to Satan he repli^ triumphantly, by 
asking him if it was in his power to ensure 
life to him for a single hour; and he 
comforted and streugSiened himself by 
comparing the longest span of human life 
to eternity. It is affirmed that, at this 
time, he was entranced from one Sunday 
to another, lying, all that while, so appar- 
eatl^r lifeless, that certain pious persons 
would have had him buried, if others had 
not thought it necessaiy first to ascertain 
whether ne were dead, and, in so doins, 
felt a faint pulsation at the heart lie 
awoke from this ecstasy, as from a sweet 
sleep, sighing forth the name of Jesus. 
Oriandini says it is a pious and probable 
conjecture, that, as great mysteries were 
revealed to Paul, when he was wrapt into 
the third heaven, so, durinjo[ these seven 
days, the form and constituuon of the so- 
ciety, which he was to found, were mani- 
fested to Ignatius. It is pretended that he 
retired fix)m Manresa to a cave in a rock, 
not &r fit)m that city. The cave was 
dark, and not unlike a sepulchre, but, fer 
this incommodiousness, as well as for its 
solitude, and the beauty of the narrow 
vale, where thorns and brushwood con- 
cealed it, the more agreeable to him. Hav- 
ing remained some ten months at Manresa, 
a city which, his bio^phers say, he un- 
doubtedly regards with peculiar favor in 
heaven, as the cradle of his Christian 
in&ne^, and the school of his first evan- 
gelical discipline, he determined upon 
going to Jerusalem, leas for the desire of 
seeinff those places which had been hal- 
1 by the presence of our Lord than 


in the hope of ecmvertmg Mme ci tiM 
infidels, who were masters of the holy 
land, or of gaining the nahn of marQridoD\ 
in the attempt, for of^ this he was most 
ambitious. A dangerous passage of five 
days brouffht him to Gaeta, from whence 
he proceeded to Rome on foot This was 
a tMiinful and perilous journey. It was 
seldom that he was admitted into a town, 
or under a roo^ for fear of the plague, his 
appearance being that of a tnan who, if 
not stricken with the disease, had recently 
recovered from it ; and, for the most part, 
he was fein to he down, at night, in a 
porcb, or in the open air. He reached 
Rome, however, where there was either 
not the same alarm, or not the same vigi- 
lance. At Venice, he begged his bread, 
and slept on the sround, till a wealthy 
Spanianl, recognismg him for a countiy- 
man, took him to his house, and after- 
wards introduced him to the doge, from 
whom be obtained a free passage to Cy- 
prus. From Jaffii, he proceeded, vrith 
other pilgrims, to Jerusalem, in the usual 
manner; and, when they alighted from 
their asses, on the spot where the friara 
were waiting with the cross to receive 
them, and when they had the first sight 
of the holy city, all were sensible of what 
the^ deemed an emotion of supernatural 
delight. He now began his return to 
SpaiD, more unprovided even than he had 
lefl iL No difficulty occurred in repress- 
ing to Cyprus. He had obtained a good 
character from his fellow-pilgrims, and 
they, having taken their passage from that 
island in a lar^ Venetian ship, besought 
the captain to give him a passage, as one 
for whose holy conversaUon tliey could 
vouch. The Venetian captain was no 
believer in such holiness, and he replied, 
that a saint could not possibly want a ship 
to convey him across the sea, when he 
might walk upon the watea*, as so many 
others had done. The master of a smaller 
vessel was more compassionate ; and this, 
though so much less sea-worthy than the 
other tiiat none of the other pilgrims em- 
barked in her, reached Italy safely, after a 
perilous voyage, while the other viras 
virrecked. He had been warned of the 
danger to which he would be exposed, in 
travelliog from Ferrara to Genoa, where 
the French and Spanish armies were in 
the field, by both which he must pass, 
with the likelihood of being apprehended 
as a spy by both. Some Spanish soldiera, 
into whose company he fell, pointed out 
another route. But I^atius liked to put 
himself in the way of tribulation ; the more 
sufiferingy the greater merit, and, oodm 

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^[iHDtl^, the more contentment; and he 
WIS contented accorduiffly, when, ui)on 
attempting to enter a walled town, which 
was in poeBeemon of the Spaniards, he was 
seized and aearched as a spy. The jour- 
oey to Jenisalem, notwithstanding all the 
hardships which he endured in it, had so 
gmdv improved bis health, that he 
tbottgbt the relaxation of austerity in his 
courae of life, which bad been enjoined 
him as a duty, had ceased to be allowable, 
having now ceased to be necessary. He 
did not, indeed, resume his former mode 
of apnarel, in its full wretchedness ; but he 
cbd nimself as meanly as he could, and 
cut the soles of his shoes in such a man- 
ner as to let the ffravel in, and also to pre- 
pare for himself a further refinement of 
discomfort, for the fiagnients oi* sole 
which he had left, were soon worn away, 
while the upper-leather remained, and 
thus he contrived to walk, in winter, with 
his bare feet on the eartli, and yet no one 
suspected that he was thus meritoriously 
afihcting himself. In 1534, he returned 
to Barcelona, and began to study gram- 
mar. After a residence of two years, he 
went to the tmiversity of Alcala, where he 
iound some adherents; but the inquisi- 
tion imprisoned him for his conduct, which 
appeared strange, and rendered him sus- 
pected of witchcraft. He was not delivered 
from the prison of the holy office until 
1528, when he went to Paris to continue 
his studies, the subjects of which, indeed, 
were only works of an ascetic character. 
Here he became acquainted with several 
Spaniards and Frenchmen, who were af- 
terwards noted as his followers; as Lainez, 
Salmeron, Bovadillo, Rodriguez, Pierre 
Favre, and others. (See Lainez, and Jts- 
mis.) They conceived the plan of an or- 
der for the conversion of heathens and 
sinners, and, on Ascension day, in 1534, 
they united for this great work in the sub- 
terranean chapel of the abbey of Mont- 
martre. Some of these men had not yet 
finished their theological studies, and, un- 
til this should take place, Ignatius returned 
to Spain. They then met again in 1536, 
at Venice, whence they proceeded to 
Rome, and received the confirmation of 
their society from pope Paul III. They 
took the triple vow of chastity, obedience 
and poverty, in the presence of the papal 
nuncio Veralli at Venice, (For the histo- 
ly of the order, and its final abolition in 
most countries, see article Jesuits,^ The 
accoimt of the origin of its name, given by 
Lainez, adopted by the society, and re- 
corded by them upon a marble tablet, is, 
tbiit Ignatius^ losmg his bodily sensesisaw 

himself sunoimded with the fbll i p l eader 
of heaven ; saw the Father beholding him 
with an aspect ftill of love, the Son near- 
ixn|^ his cross, and pointing to the marln 
ofliis passion ; heard the Father earnestly 
recommend him to the Son ; saw himsehT 
benignantly accepted by die Son, and 
heaiS these words from the lips of the 
Son, Ego vobisRomttpropUiusero. There- 
fore it was, according to Lainez, that he 
gave his order the name of the Society ^ 
Jtaus, In 1541, Ignatius was chosen gen- 
eral of the society ; but Lainez, his suc- 
cessor, must be considered, even from the 
commencement, as the person who gave 
to the order the organization, by which it 
has astonished the world, though Ignatius, 
by his ardent zeal, may have given it a 
great impulse. Ignatius continued his ab- 
stinence and penances during life. Even 
when general, he used to perform the 
meanest labors in his church in Rome, 
instructed littie children, though not mas* 
ter of the Italian, and collect^ alms for 
die Jews and public women, for whose 
conversion he displayed great zeal. He 
died July 28, 1556, exhau^ed by fatigues. 
Forty-three years after, he was declared 
htataa bv Paul V, and Gregory XV can- 
onized him. His feast in die Catholic 
church falls upon Jul^ 31. There are 
two works of Loyola, his Constitution of 
the Order, in Spanish, praised bv cardinal 
Richelieu as a masterpiece ; and his Spirit- 
ual Exercises, also in Spanish (Rome, 
1548), — a work, the first plan of which was 
drawn up in the hospital at Manresa. It 
has been oflen translated. Among his 
biographers, we may mention Mafiei, 
Bouhours and Ribadeneira. Of the mira- 
cles attributed to him, at a later period, his 
contemporary Ribadeneira says nothing, 
as Bayle remarked. 

Lubber, a contemptuous name, given 
by sailors to those who know not the duty 
of a seaman. 

Lubber'8'Hole is the vacant space be- 
tween the head of a lower mast and the 
edge of the top. It is so termed from a 
supposition that a lubber, not caring to 
trust himself up the futtock shrouds, will 
prefer that way of getting into the top. 

LuBECK, formerly die chief of the Han- 
seatic towns, at present one of the four free 
cities of the German confederacy, officially 
styled the ''republic and free Hanseatio 
city of Lfibeck,** was founded by Adolphua 
II, count of Hobtem-Schaumhurg, in 1144, 
who, 10 years afterwards, ceded it to 
Heniy the Uon, duke of Saxony. Henry 
made it a free port for the northern na- 
tional granted it municipal privUegei^ 

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which were confimied hy several empe- 
roiB, and cave it the celebrated LCibeck 
code, which was afterwards adorned by 
many German cities. In 1226, it became 
a free city of the empire, and was afler- 
wanls at Uie head of Uie Hanseatic union 
(see Hania); its fleet commanded the 
Baltic ; Gtistavus Vasa found refuge with- 
in its walls from Christian II; and its 
Toice decided the afiairs of tlie kingdoms 
of the North. Liibeck contains ^000 in- 
habitants, and is beautifully simated on an 
island between the Trave and the Wack- 
enitz, on a slight elevation. The ram- 
parts now serve as a promenade. The 
nouses are substantially Duilt, of stone, but 
old-&shioned. Since 1530, the Lutheran 
doctrines have prevailed. Ldbeck was for- 
merly a bishop's see, and the cathedral 
contains many tombs and inonuments of 
antiquitv. The church of St Mary is re- 
markable for the beautiful altar by Quel- 
lino, for its astronomical clock, and the 
allegorical paintings, called the Dauce of 
Death. There are also a Calviuistic and 
a Catholic church. The charitable insu- 
tutions are in an excellent condition, as is 
also the gymnasium of seven classes. A 
drawing-school for mechanics, a commer- 
cial institute, a society for the promotion 
of industry, and other societies and insti- 
tutions, prove the public spirit of tlie citi- 
zens. Liibeck, which, by its situation, is 
connected with^ the North sea and the 
Baltic, has an important carrying trade 
between Germany and the countries on 
tlie Baltic, and carries on a considerable 
commerce in wine, leather, flax and coi-n. 
It maintains important banking operations 
with Hamburg, Rostock, Cofienhageu and 
Petersburg. There are also two insur- 
ance companies and an exchange; and 
about 7Q--80 ships are owned by the citi- 
zens. In 1817, above 900 ships arrived at 
Liibeck ; yet commerce and business have 
much declined. By the Stecknitz, which 
falls mto the Trave above the town, and 
which is connected, by. the Dolwenau, 
with the Elbe, the latter river is acces- 
sible from Liibeck, and much of tlie mer- 
chandise from the Baltic passes by Lubeck 
fer Hamburg. Liibeck has sugar-reiine- 
ries, tobacco, leather, starch-works, gold 
and silver lace, hat, cotton and woollen 
manu&ctures, &c. The territory of the 
lown, consisting of Bergedorf and the 
Vieriands (which belong to Liibeck in com- 
mon with Hamburg), is 116 square miles 
with 18,000 inhabitants. To this territory 
belongs the small town of Travemiinde, 
4tunt^ at the mouth of the IVave, with a 
harbor and baths. When the constitution 

of the empire was abolished, in 1806, Lii- 
beck, though disconnected fhrni the rest <^ 
Germany, remained a free Hanseatic city. 
After the batUe of Liibeck (Nov. 6, 1806),. 
Bliicher finished his retreat by the capimla- 
don of Ratkau. 9500 Prussians and 1500 
Swedes were taken prisoners, and Liibeck 
was pillaged. In 1810, it formed a part of 
the French department of the mouths of the 
Elbe. By the consress of Vienna, Liibeck 
was again declared a free city. The gov- 
ernment consists of four burgomasten 
and 16 counsellors. The bodv of citizens 
is divided into 12 guilds, each of which 
has one vote. The revenue is about 
400,000 guilders ; the debt, 3,000,000. In 
the German diet, Liibeck has one vote, with 
the three other free cities ; and in the ple- 
num, one vote. The contingent is 406 men. 
Liibeck is the seat of the supreme court of 
appeal of the feur free cities. In 1827, a 
convention of friendship, navigation and 
commerce was concluded between the 
U. States and the republics and free Han- 
seatic cities of Liibeck, Bremen and Ham- 
burg, on the principles of reciprocity, 
(•^m. Annual RegitUr^ iv.) 

LucA Giordano (also called Lucti Fh 
Presto). (See Giordano.) 

LucANUs, Marcus Annceus; a Roman 
poet, bora at Corduba, in Spain, about 
A. D. 38. His father, a Roman knight, 
was the youngest brother of the philoso- 
pher Seneca. Lucan went to Rome 
when a child, where he was instructed by 
the ablest masters in philosophy, gram- 
mar and rhetoric. Seneca introduced 
him into public life. He obtained the 
dignity of a questor before he was of lawful 
affe, and entered the college of augurs. 
Having obtained some celebrity by several 
poems, he excited the jealousy of Nero, 
who aspired to the reputation of a great 
poet The latter, on a certain occasion, 
had recited a poem upon the history of 
Niobe, before a numerous assembly, and 
obtained great applause, when Lucan ven- 
tured to enter the lists as his rival, with a 
poem upon Orpheus, and the auditors 
adjudged him the superiority. From 
that time, Nero looked upon Lucan with 
hatred, forbade him to make his appear- 
ance in pubhc, and spoke of his works 
with derision and contempt This in- 
duced Lucan to conspire against him» 
with severar distinguished persona, of 
whom Piso was the head, llie plot waa 
discovered, and Lucan, who, according to 
the assertion of an old grammarian, wns 
so unnatural as to inform against his own 
mother as accessary, was condemned to 
death. He chose the death of hit uncle. 

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aDd had Ida ytSam opened. He died in 
the S7th year of his age. Of hie poems, 
only his Phanadia has come down to us, 
in whidi he nanates the events of the 
civil war between CaBsar and Pompev. 
The poem is unfinished, and is frequently 
disfigured with luuslmesB and obscurity 
in the expression, rhetorical bombast, and 
exaggerated figures ; but these defects are, 
at l^sst in part, compensated by a noble- 
ness of sentiment and a love of freedom, 
which run tbrough the whole woric, and 
some passages are truly poeticaL The best 
editions are the Variorum (Leyden, 1658, 
8vo.), Oudendorp's (Leyden, 1728, 2 vols., 
4X0.}, Buimann's (Leyden, 1740, 4to.), 
and Weder's, with the notes of fientley 
and Orotius (Leipsic, 1819, 2 vols.) Lu- 
can has been translated into Engush by 
LvcATAs. (See Bahanuu,) 
LaccA ; a city and duchy in Italy, origi- 
nally a colony of the Romans, which, on 
the fall of the Lombard kingdom (774), 
waa addedf by Charlemagne, to his territo- 
ries, and annexed by Otho I (the Great) 
to his German dommions. During the 
middle ages, it was repeatedly sold by its 
masters, on account of the liberal princi- 
ples of its citizens. Louis of Bavaria 
appointed the brave Castruccio Castra- 
cani duke of Lucca, but this dignity be- 
came extinct at lus death. After many 
chanaes of its tyrants, having been sold 
to Florence, Lucca finally obtained its 
fireedom, in 1370, of the emperor Gbarles 
IV, for 200,000 guilders. Though of- 
ten at war with Florence, it maintained 
its independence until the time of Napo- 
leon, under the government of a gonfalo- 
mart and a council The French obliged 
it to adopt a new constitution, and, in 
1797, it was united witb Piombino, and 
aiven to Bacciocxhi, brother-in-law of 
Napoleon, as a principality. In 1815, the 
Austrians took possession of it, and, by an 
act of the congress of Vienna, it was 
granted to the Infiiuta Maria Louisa, 
daughter of king Charles IV of Spain, 
and widow of the king of Etruria, with 
the title of a duchy, and with complete 
sovereignty. To the revenue of the 
ooQDUy (700,000 guilders), an annuitv 
of 500,000 francs was added, which 
Austria and Tuscany bound themselves to 
pay. In case of the extinction of the 
fimiily of the Infimta, or its transference to 
any other throne, the duchy of Lucca is to 
be anited to Tuscany. JMaria Louisa 
accepted the government in 1818, after 
tbe leveraion of Parma (q. v.) was secorsd 
tohflr. TheduahyofJAioM(413aq4iiai« 

mile^ 197/MX) inhalntants) is bounded by 
the Mediterranean, Modena and Tuscany, 
and, although the soil is not universally 
fertile, the people are in good condition. 
The Apennines stretch along its bounda- 
ries ; in other parts it is well ctdtivated. 
The Serchio is not navigable, and is only 
used for floating down wood. It forma 
the beautiful Val di Serchio. The pro- 
ductions are com (not sufficient to supply 
the inhabitantB), great ouantities of nuit, 
as olives, chesmuts, almonds, oranges, 
lemons, fias and mulberries. It also 
yields good wine ; olives form the richest 
agricultural produce ; the oil of Lucca is 
the best of Italy. The cultivation of silk, 
and the raising of catde, are also lucrative. 
The legislative power of the duke is 
limited by a senate, which he annually 
assembles. Lucca, the capital, and ducal 
residence (with 18,000 inhabitants, on the 
river Serchio, in a fertile plain, encom- 
passed by bills, which are covered with 
olive trees, and, at the summits, with oak 
and fir trees), is surrounded with ramparts 
planted with trees, and forming a beau- 
tiful walk. The streets are generally 
crooked and narrow; the churches and 

E' " s buildings, plain. The cathedral is 
but in a bad style ; the palace is old, 
rithout beauty. The Accadtmia degii 
Chcuri, founded in 1584, was reoi|;anized 
in 1805, under the tide Aecademta LuC' 
dusina di Scienze, Lettert ed Arti, by prince 
Bacciocchi. Here is also a university 
with an observatory. It i? the see of an 
arehbishop, and contiuns two large wool- 
len, and conaderable silk manufactories. 
The inhabitants carry on a trade in oil and 
silk, and are actively en^piged in agricul- 
ture. The beautiful environs of the town 
are adorned with country seats. In the 
vicinity are a mineral bath and the harbor 
of Viareggio. 

LuccHEsiNi, Girolamo, marquis of, for- 
merly Prussian minister of state, descended 
from a patrician family of Lucca, where 
he was oom in 1752, was introduced by 
the abb^ Fontana to Frederic II, about 
1778, who took him into his service as 
librarian, with the tide of a cbamberlain. 
Luccheani, the Uterarv friend of Frederic 
II, first received a diplomatic appoint 
ment under his successor, being sent to 
Warsaw, where, at the opening of the 
council of state, in 1788, he exerted him- 
self with great acdvity, encouraged the 
advocates of independence aaainst Russia, 
and, in March, 1790, brou^t about an 
alliance between Prussia and Poland. In 
1791, he waa present at the congress of 
Reicheidiiach, ia tfaa capaci^ of a pfenipo* 

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tentiaiy, lor effecting, in oon^aDction wilb 
the English and Dutch miniBkera, a peace 
between the Tuika and the emperor. In 
July, 1799; he went once more to War- 
saw, where he was compelled, by existiog 
circumstances, to break the alliance that 
he himself had signed. In January, 1793, 
the king appointed him his ambassador to 
Vienna; he, however, accoinpanied the 
king during the greater part of that cam- 
paign. In March, 1797, he was recalled 
m>m Vienna, and, in September, J1802, 
was sent, as ambassador extraordinary, to 
Paris, and afterwards visited Napoleon at 
Milan. The breaking out of the war 
between Prussia and f^nce, in October, 
1806, was unjustly ascribed to his instiga- 
tion. He accompanied the king to the 
battle of Jena, then signed an armistice 
with NaiN>leon at Cnarlottenburg, of 
which, however, the kiog did not ap- 
prove ; in consequence of which, as he 
believed himself to have lost the favor of 
the king, he took his dismission, in order 
to, return to Lucca. He was afterwards 
chamberlain to Napoleon's sister, the 
princess of Lucca, and accompanied her 
to Paris on the occasion of her brother's 
second marriajB|e. Count S^gur, in his 
Tableau histonque etpaiitiqtLt de VEvaropty 
JffSBea the foilowinf judgment on nis 
robsh mission: **No man was better 
adapted for the post than he. His ac- 
tiviw left no opportunity unimproved. 
Vigilant in accomplishing his object, and 
rapid in choosing the best means, the 
marquis of Lucchesini combined the qual- 
ities of an experienced courtier with 
the practical knowledge of a statesman. 
Learned without pedantry, his |reat mem- 
oiy supplied him useful facts for the pur- 
poses of business, as well as interesting 
anecdotes for conversation. His intimacy 
with Frederic II procured him a great 
influence ; his powers of insinuation ena- 
bled him to penetrate into the interior of 
all characters ; his sagacity easily removed 
the veil from all mysteries ; and his zeal 
and activity, which gave him an open 
and frank appearance, concealed his real 
views, and persuaded the Poles that he 
was as ardently engaged for the promo- 
don of their welfare as his own." His 
work concerning the confederacv of the 
Rhine, SuUe Came e gli Effetii diOa Con- 
federaxione RmanOf etc. (Italy, 1819), was 
published at Rome, and in a Grerman 
translation also, by Von Halem, at Leipsic 
(3 vols., 1821). Inthe Mi ddla KAccad. 
ijucches. di Sderae^ Lettere ed ArH, I 
(Lucca, 1821), he contributed a paper on 
the history of Frederic IL He died at 

FkMnnoe^ Oct. 1% 1835. He 
be coofi>unded with the marquis Ceaare 
Lucchesini, counsellor of state in Lucca, 
whose Delt lUiutnaume deUe Lmgut on- 
tidk€ e modeme e prmcwalmenU ddP 
MaliamOf vrocurata net Secoto XVIII dagP 
BaUam (Lucca, 1819, 2 vols.), is a contin- 
uation of the work of Denina. He has 
also published Fragments for the Lite- 
raiy History of Lucca. 

Lucerne (Ltizem) ; a canton of Swit- 
zerland (q. v.), bounded N. by Aarau and 
Zu|^ E. by Schweitz, and S. and W. 
by Berne ; superficial area, 800 square 
miles ; population, 105,600 Catholics. The 
elevation of the country is great, but it 
contains no very lofty sununits; mount 
Pilate, 7100 feet high, is the principal 
The soil is senerally fruitful, and more 
com is produced than is consumed in 
the canton. Great numbers of cattle are 
raised, and cheese is therefore among the 
chief exports. The people are of German 
origin, and in a vexy comfortable condi- 
tion. Lucerne joined the Swiss confede- 
racy in 1332; its constitution is repre- 
sentative, but founded on aristocratic 
principles. The sovereign power resides 
m the hvndnd, a senate elected for life 
by the richer citizens. Two presidents 
{ackuUheissen) exercise the executive pow- 
er ahemately for a year. Lucerne was 
one of the 11 cantons in which funda- 
mental chanses in the cantonal constitu- 
tions were demanded by the people in 
October, 1830. An account of the move- 
ments at that time will be feund in the 
article SuntzeriaruL — Lucerne, the capital, 
is on the lake of Lucerne and the river 
Reuss. It contains 6700 inhabitants, and 
is, alternately with Berne and Zurich, the 
seat of a papid nuncio. The cathedral 
contains one of the finest organs in Eu- 
rope. General Pfyfter's topographical 
model of a large part of Switzerland, in 
relief, is to be seen here; and. in the 
vicinity is a lion, sculptured in relief 
on a rock (1820), to commemorate the 
massacre of the Swiss guards, in the 
Tufleries. The lake of Lucerne is a 
portion of the large lake of Vierwald- 

Lucia, St., or St. Ajcousie ; one of the 
Caribbee islands, in the West Ini^es, be- 
longing to Great Britain ; 27 miles long, 
and 12 broad ; seven leagues south of 
Martinico ; Ion. 6P W. ; lat 13^ 37' N. 
This idand exhibits a variety of hills^ and, 
among othm. two that are remarkably 
round and high, said to be volcanoes. At 
the bottom of these are plains, finely 
waterod witii riven^ and veiy feitiW« 

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The air, by the diipoflition of tbe hilk, 
whieh admit the trade-whids into the 
vbud, 18 veiy healthy. The soil produces 
timber, cocoa nod fa&dc, and is well 
adapted for the cultiTolioo of sugar and 
cofiSse. It is provided with many bays 
and harbora^ the chief of which, called 
JaUU CcBTtnagty is accounted the best in 
all the Caribbeea. Populadon in 1809; 
16,640 ; whites, 1290 ; people of color, 
1660; slaves, 13,690: m 1810, 20,00a 
The town of Carenage contains 5000 or 
6000 inhabitants, and Castres 9000 or 

LucTAif, a Greek autlior, distinguished 
for his ingenuity and wit, was bora in 
Samosata, the capital of Comagene, on 
tbe Euphrates, during the reign of Trajan. 
He was of humble origin, and was placed, 
while young, with his uncle, to study 
statuaiy; but being unsuccessful in his 
first attempts, he went to Antiocli, and 
devoted himself to literature and forensic 
riietoric He soon, however, confined 
himself to the latter, and travelled in sev- 
eral countries (among others, Greece, Ita- 
Iv, Spain and Gaul) as a rhetorician. In 
tlie reign of Marcus Aurellus, he was 
made procurator of the province of Egypt, 
and died in the reign of Commodus, 80 
or 90 yeara old. The works of Lucian, 
of which manv have come down to us, 
are narrative, rhetorical, critical and satir- 
ical, mosdy in the form of dialogues. 
Tbe most popular are those in which he 
ridicnles with great wit the popular my- 
thology and the philosophical sects, par- 
ticularly his Dialogues of tlie Gods, and 
of the Dead. They have given him the 
character of being the wittiest of the an- 
cient writers. He seems not to belong to 
any system himself, but he attacks im- 
posture and superstition freely and boldly 
wherever be finds them. The Epicureans, 
who, in this respect, agree with him, are 
therefore treated with more forbearance. 
The Christian religion, of which, howev- 
er, he knew little, and that only through 
tbe medium of nnrsticism, was an object 
of his ridicule. In his sarcasm, he not 
unfirequendy oversteps the bounds of 
truth, sometimes repeats calumnies against 
elevated characters, and occasionally, ac- 
cording to the notions of our time, offends 
against decency, though, in general, he 
shows himself a friend of morality. The 
best editions of his works are by Bourdo- 
let (Peris, 1615, fol.), iy Hemsterhuis and 
Rei^ (Amsterdam, 17^ 4 vols., 4to.), and 
the l»pont (10 vols., 8vo.). Among the 
translations axe those (^ Spence, 
rand Frank]]]!. 

LvcisN BoiTAPAmTi. (See Affv Mi^ 
end of this volume.) 

LtTcirsK (%U-&earer ,* with the Greeks^ 
phMphanu) ; a son of Jupiter and Aurora. 
As leader of the stars, his office, in com- 
mon vrith the Hours, was to take care of 
the steeds and chariot of the sun ; and he 
is represented riding on a white horse, as 
the precursor of his mother ; therefore the 
morning star. He is also the evening 
star (Huptrui\ and in this character has 
a dark-colored horse. For this reascMi, 
riding horses (duvUorii) were consecrated 
to him, and the Romans gave him the 
name of DttuJUor^ It has lone been 
known, that tbe evening and monunff star 
are one and the same, viz. the beautiful and 
bright planet Venus. — ^The name of Lucifer 
is also given to the prince of darkness, an 
allegorical explanation of the fiithere of the 
church makinff a passage of Isaiah (ix, 23V 
in which the kmg of B&ylon is compared 
with the morning star, refer to the evil 

LuciLius, Caius Ennius, a Roman 
knight, grand uncle to Pompey the Great 
on the maternal side, bom at Suessa (B.C. 
149), served his first campaign against 
Numantia, under Scipio Amcanus, with 
whom he was very intimate. He is con- 
sidered the inventor of tbe Roman satire, 
because he first gave it the form under 
which this kind of poetry was carried to 
perfection by Persius, Horace and Juve- 
nal His satires were superior, indeed, to 
the rude productions of an Ennius and 
Pacuvius, but he, in turn, was surpassed 
by those who followed him. Horace com- 
pares him to a river which carries along 
precious dust mixed with much useless 
rubbisli. Of 30 satires which he wrote, 
only some fragments have been preserved 
in various editions, of which those of Dou- 
sa (Leyden, 1597, 4to. ; Amsterdam, 1661, 
4to. ; and Padua, 1735} ore esteemed the 
best In his lifetime, these satires had an 
uncommon popularity. He died at Naples 
about 103 B. C.— There was also another 
Lucilius, who wrote a didactic poem,^Z«Cna, 
edited by Corallus (Le Clerc), Amster- 
dam, 1803. 

Luciif A, a surname of Juno (according 
to some, of Diana ; according to others, 
the name of a daughter of Jupiter and 
Juno), is derived eitiier from Ivcus (grove, 
because her temple stood in a grove), or 
Ivx (hght, because children are brought to 
light at birth), or fix>m lueeo (I shine, as 
denoting the moon). Her festival waa 
celebrated March 1, on which occasion 
the inatrons assembled in her templOi 
adonied it with flowera, and imploiea a 

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happy and hnre poaterit^y fecundity and 
au easy delivery. (See imma.] 

LucKiTER, Nicholas; a baron of the 
German empire, bom at Campen in Ba- 
varia, who became a general in the French 
army. In the leven years* war, having 
displayed considerable talents as a com- 
mander of hussars, he was, on the occur- 
rence of peace, invited to enter into the 
service of France, in which he obtained 
the rank of lieutenant-general. In 1789, 
he sided with the revolutionary party, and, 
from the beginnlbg of 1791, be held vari- 
ous military employments. His age, ex- 
perience and reputation occasioned his 
beinf placed in situations to which his 
abiliues were • unequal. In December, 
1791, he received the bdton of marshal ; 
and a few montlis afler, he was appointed 
generalissimo of the French armies. After 
having made his appearance at Paris, 
where he enjoyed a short-lived popularity, 
and showed a disposition to support the 
king's constitutional authority, he went to 
take the command of his army at Stras- 
burg. After August 10, 1793, he lost the 
chief command. He went to Paris to jus- 
tify himself before the national conven- 
tioD, in January, 1793, and was ordered to 
retire wherever lie thought proper. Hav- 
ing some time afler demanded payment 
of a pension due to him, he was arrested 
and put to death. 

LucKNOw; a city of Bengal, capital of 
a drear of the same name, in Oude, situ- 
ated on the Goomty ; 95 miles N. N. VV. 
of Allahabad, and 215 S. £. of Delhi; 
Ion. 80° SS' E. ; lat 26° 24' N. ; popula- 
tion, in 1800, estimated at upwonls of 
300,000 ; since that time it is thought to 
have diminished ; it was formerly esti- 
mated as high as 500,000. It is a very 
ancient city, and the residence of the gov- 
ernors or nabobs of Oude. It is by do 
means a handsome town, the streets being 
very irregular and narrow ; some of the 
houses of brick, but most of them mud 
walls, covered widi tiles. Tlie situation 
is bad, and the soil is a white sand, which, 
in hot weather, is driven about by the 
wind, and pervades eveiy thing. The 
gilt domes or the mosques and the mauso- 
feum of Azoph ud Dowleh give it a gay 
appearance at a distance. In the vicinitv 
m the city stand the houses of the British 
resident and other European inhabitants. 
The Goomty is navigable for middling- 
aized vessels at all seasons. 

Lu^oN, or LU90NIA; the principal of 
^ the Philippine islands, in the Eastern seas, 
.belon^ng to Spain, sometimes called Ma^ 
om Us capital ; between lat. 13° and 

19° N.; km. 120^ to I94<> E. ; about 400 
miles from north to south, and (torn dO to 
120 in breadth ; square miles, about 65,000. 
The country is generally mountainous, an 
elevated ridge extending the whole length. 
There are several volcanoes^ and earth- 
quakes are frequent, and sometimes de- 
structive; those of 1650, 1754 and 1824, 
are still remembered with terror. The cli- 
mate is moist, but temperate for the lati- 
tude, and the soil fertile. Cotton, indigo, 
sugar, tobacco, coffee, and other tropical 
produce, grow in great abundance ; also 
the richest fruits of the East and West 
Indies. There are 40 different sorts of 
palm-trees, excellent cocoas and cassia, 
wild cinnamon, wild nutmegs, ebony, san- 
dal-wood, and excellent timber for ship- 
building. Gold is found upon the moun- 
tains, and is washed down by niina. Cat- 
tie abound ; civet cats are common, and 
auibeiigris is Uirown upon the coasts in 
great quantities. The commeree is con- 
feiderable ; the principal exports are indi- 
co, coffee, pepper, rice, sugar and pearl& 
In 1627, or 81 vessels engaged in this 
trade, 29 were Spanish and 21 American. 
The population is 1,376,000, and is com- 
posed of Spaniards, who are few, aborigi- 
nal blacks, Malays, Metis and Creolesi 
The negroes are chiefly in tHe interior, 
and are in a veiy barbarous state. The 
Malays, among whom the principal tribe 
is the TajRilB, are in part independent, and 
in part subject to the Spaniards. Brave, 
active, gay and industrious, when not ru- 
ined by the tyranny of the Europeans, 
they are rendered by oppression cniel and 
rapacious. Lu^on was discovered by 
Magellan, in 1521, and conquered by the 
Spaniards in 1571. (See Pkiiippines.) 

LucRETiA ; a Roman lady of dtstin- 
cuished virtue, whose ill treatment by 
Sexuis Tarquin led to the destruction of 
the kingdom, and the formation of the re- 
public of Rome. She was the vnfe of 
Collatinus, a near relation of Tarquin, 
king of Rome. Sextus Tarquinius, who 
contrived to become a guest in the ab- 
sence of her husband, whose kinsman he 
was, found means to reach her chamber 
in the middle of the night, and threatened, 
unless she gratified his desires, to stab her, 
kill a slave, and place him by her side, and 
then swear that he had slain them both in 
the act of adultery. The fear of infamy 
succeeded. • She afterwards summoned 
her husband, fiUher and kindred, and, after 
acquainting them with the whole transac- 
tion, drew a dagger, and stabbed henelf 
to the heart. (See BriUuSf Luehu Junim.) 

LuCRSTiua, Titus Cani% a Ronwii 

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knifi^ prolMblf bom 95 R C^ is sup- 
posed to have studied the Epicurean phi- 
losophy at Athene He is said to have 
been made insane by a philtre, and, in his 
hicid intenrals, to have produced several 
worka^ but to have committed suicide in 
his 44th year. We poesesa, of his composi- 
tion, a didactic poem, in six books,l>e/2erufii 
MMtitrOi in which he exhibits the prin- 
ciples of the Epicurean philosophy with 
an original imagination, and in forcible 
language. The unpoetical subject of the 
poem must, of itself make it, on the 
whole, a failure ; but parts, notwithstand- 
inp^, such as the description of human 
misery, the force of the passions, the ter- 
rible pestilence of Greece, &c^ demon- 
strate that Lucretius was possessed of great 
. poetical talents. By reason of his anti- 
quated terms^ and the new meanings 
which he gave to words, Quinctilian him- 
self regarded his poem as veiy hard to be 
understood. The principal editions are 
those of Creech (Oxford, 1695 ; London, 
1717; Basle, 1770, &c.), of Havercamp 
(Leyden, 17S^ 2 vols., 4to.), and of Wake- 
field (London, 1796, 3 vols^ 4to.). A 
raaateriy German translation, in the metre 
of the original, has been executed by 
Knebel (Leipsic, 1821, 4to.). The Italian 
version oy Marchetti, and the French by 
Ponserville, are also good. The poem has 
also been translated into English by Creech, 
by Busby and by Good. Good's transla- 
tion is accompanied by the text of Wake- 
field, and by elaborate annotations. 

LncuLLus, Lucius Licinius; the con- 
queror of Mithridates. Being chosen 
<n£Ztf evndis, at the same time with his 
brother Marcus Licinius, he manifested, in 
the Manian war, abilitv and courage. In 
the civil wars of Syua and Marius, he 
sided with tlie former. In the year of 
the city 679^ he was appointed consul and 
commander of the army which was to 
proceed to Cilicia agamst Mithridates. 
Having already served against Mithridates 
with an inferior command durine his 
questorship, he was acquainted wim this 
coimtry. He first sought to restore the 
ancient discipline, which the Roman sol- 
diers had foi^tten among the voluptuous 
Asiatics. Mithridates hiul already made 
a victorious beginning of the campaign 
by a naval battle with the consul Aureliiis 
Cotta, the colleague of Lucullus. Lucul- 
lus was therefore compeUed to hasten the 
attack of his land forces. But when he 
approQched the army of Mithridates, and 
ascertained its strength, he deemed it ju- 
dick>us to avoid a decisive batde,and con- 
tented himself with cutting off the king's 

communications. Mithridates now ad- 
vanced with a considerable force to be- 
8iej;e the city of Cyzicum, the key of 
Asia, then in the possession of the Ro- 
mans. LucuUus, however, defeated his rear- 
guard on their march thither, and com* 
C3lled the king to give up his attempt 
ucuUus now advanced to the coasts of 
the Hellespont, prepared a fleet, and van- 
ouished the squadron of Mithridates near 
the island of Lemnos. This victory ena- 
bled him to drive all the other squadrons 
of Mithridates from the Archipelago. 
The generals of Lucullus subdued, mean- 
while, all Bithynia and Paphlagonia. Lu- 
cullus, again at the head uf his army, con- 
3uered various cities of Pontus, and, al- 
louffh overcome by Mithridates in a bat- 
tle, he soon acquired such advantages, 
that he finally broke up the hostile army, 
and Mithridates himself sought protection 
in Armenia. Lucullus now changed 
Pontus into a Roman province. Tigranes 
refusing to surrender Mithridates to the 
Romans, Lucullus marched against Ar- 
menia, and vanquished Tigranes. Mithri- 
dates, however, contend^ with various 
fortune, till Lucullus was prevented from 
continuing the war against nim effectuaBy, 
by the mutiny of his soldieni, who accus- 
ed him, perhaps not unjustly, of avarice 
and covetousness. In Rome, the dissatis- 
fection of the soldiers towards Lucullus 
was found well-grounded ; he was de- 
prived of the chief command and recalled. 
He was received, however, by the patri- 
cians, with eveiy mark of r^pect, and ob- 
tained a splendid triumph. From this 
tune, Lucullus remained a private individ- 
ual, spending in profuse voluptuousness 
the immense riches which he had brought 
with him from Asia, without, however, 
abandoning the more noble and serious 
occupations of a cultivated mind. During 
his residence as questor in Macedonia, 
and as general in the Mithridatic wars, he 
had become intimate with the most dis« 
tinguished philosopheis. His principal 
instructer was the academician AntiochuSi 
who accompanied him in some of his 
campaigns. Lucullus was therefore most 
interested in die Platonic system. Afler 
his return, he pursued the study of philos- 
ophy, induced many scholare to come to 
Rome, and allowed them free access to his 
house. He also founded, bv means of 
Tyrannion, whom he had taken prisoner 
in the Mithridatic war, an extensive libra- 
ry, which was fi^ee to every one, and of 
which Cicero made' diligent use. His 
example, also, induced other distinguished 
Romans to draw learned men to Rome al 

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their ezpeiMe. ' At kat, he 10 leid to have 
lost his reaeon in oonsequenoe of a philtre, 
adminiatered by his fifeedmao CaUisthenea, 
80 that it was neceasBry to place him un- 
der the guacdianahip of his brother. He 
soon aft^ died, in his 66th or 68th year. 
Lucuilus first transplanted the cherry-tree 
to Rome from Cerasus, in Pontus; 680 
yean after the building of the city. 

Luddites ; a name given, some years 
since, in England, to the rioters who de- 
stroyed the machinery in the manufactur- 
ing towns. They were so called from 
one of their leaders, named Ludd. 

LuDEN, Henry, was bora at Lockstadt, 
in the duchy of Bremen, in 1780 ; studi&d 
at G6tttngeD ; In 1806, was made extraor- 
dinary professor of philosophy at Jena, 
and, in 1810, professor of history. Besides 
numerous historical, philosophical and po- 
litical treatises in periodical publications, he 
has written the lives of Thomasius, Grotius, 
and sir W. Temple, and other valuable 
works, among which are Ansichte des 
RheMundes (1806); Mgemdnt Ge- 
achiehie der Vwker und Staaten des JSUer^ 
tkuma (3d edition, 1824); ^Ugemeine Gt- 
schichte der VMhar und Suiaten dea MUelal' 
tors (1821); and Gesch. derDeutsehm VU- 
ker (3d vol., 1827). In his Nemesis, or 
Political and Historical Journal, he attack- 
ed the statements of Kotzebue, in his 
*^ secret, dangerous, and, in part, unfounded 
report." He superintended the publica- 
tion of the duke of Saxe-Weimar's Trav- 
els in the U. States. 

Ludlow, Edmund, a distinguished 
leader of the republican party in the civil 
wars of Charles I, the eldest son of sir 
Henry Ludlow, was bora about 1602, at 
Maiden Bradley, in the county of VVUts, 
and received his education at Oxford, 
whence he removed to the Temple, in or- 
der to study the law. He served with 
distinction in the parliamentary army, and 
when "the self-denying ordinance** took 
place, he remained out of any ostensible 
situation, until chosen member for Wilt- 
shire, in the place of his fiither. At this 
time, the machinations of Cromwell be- 
coming visible, he was opposed by Ludlow 
with firmness and openness. Witli a view 
of establishing a republic, he joined the ar- 
my against the narliament^ when the latter 
voted the king's concessionB a basis for 
treaty, and was also one of Cliarles'a 
judges. With a view of removing him, 
Cromwell caused him to be nominated 
(general of horse in Ireland, where he 
joined the army under Ireton, and acted 
vrith great vigor and abili^. When 
Cramwell was declared proteotor, Lud- 

low used all his inflaence with the army 
against him, on which account he was 
recalled, and put under arrest Although 
he refiised to enter into any engagement 
not to act against the goverament, he was 
at length allowed to so to London, where, 
in a conversation with Cromwell himself^ 
he avowed his republican principles, and, 
refusing all security or en^Bgement for 
submission, he retired into E^x, where 
he remained until the death of the pro- 
tector. When Richard Cromwell sup 
ceeded, he joined the army party at Wal 
lingford-house, aud was instrumental in 
the restoration of the long parliament, in 
wiiich he took his seat. The restoration 
was now rapidly approachuig, and, find- 
ing the republicans unable to resist it, he 
Tjuitted the country, and proceeded to Ge- 
neva, whence he afterwards, with many 
more fugitives of the party, took refuge at 
Lausanne, where IJsle was a<«assinated 
by some English royalists. Similar at- 
tempts were made on the lives of Ludlow 
and others ; but bis caution, and the vigi- 
lance of the magistracy of Berae, protect- 
ed him, and he passed the remainder of 
his life at Vevay, with the exception of a 
brief visit to England after the revolution, 
from which he was driven by a motion in 
parliament for his apprehension, by sir 
Edward Seymour, the leader of the tory 
party. He closed his life in exile, in 1G93, 
being then in his 73d year. , Ludlow was 
one of the purest and most honorable 
charocters on the republican side, without 
any fanaticism or hypocrisy. His Me- 
moirs contain many particulars in relation 
to the general history of the times: they 
are written in a manly, unaffected style, 
and are replete with valuable matter. 

LcFF ; the order of the helmsman to 
put the tiller towards the lee-skle of tlie 
ship, in order to make the ship sail nearer 
the direction of the wind. '^ 

LuGDUTvuH ; the Latin name of several 
cities; L a colony of the Romans, also 
called LagdunuSy the present L1/0T19 (q. v.), 
though not on precisely the same spoL 
2. Lugdunum BaUojorum (Lugd. BaL); a 
city in Gallia Bel^ca, at a later period, in 
the middle ages, odled Leitliis ; at present, 
Leydm (q. v.); hence, on the title-page 
of clashes, Lugduni Batavorttmj many of 
which are very fine editions. 3. Lugdu- 
num; a city of the Convenae, in Gallia 
Aquitania, most probably the present Sl 
Beitrand. 4. Lugdunenaia (Gallia) was 
the name given, in the time of Augustus, to 
a part of Ctesar's Gallia Celtica. There 
were Lugdunenaia Prma^ afterwards Lu- 
mmaia ; Lugdumniia SecundOf afterwarda 

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_, , Litgdrnfomi 7Mi% after- 
wards 7>NMiney iwiiMe,.^iy<m and Britta* 
ty ; Li^g)rfimeiMu Qicaria, or jSntomO} com- 
praiiig put of Champagne, south of the 
Jfaroe, Uie aouthera part of Ide de Fraocey 
Chartnun, Perche and Orieamuiu» 

Ln«oER ; a vessel carrying three masts, 
with a runiung bowsprit, upon which she 
sets lug-sails, and sometimes has tep-«ai]s 
adapted to them. 

Luo-Saii. ; a quadrUateral sail bent up- 
on a yard, which han^ obliquely to the 
mast, at one third of its length. These 
are more particularly used in the frorco- 
longasj navigated by the Spaniards in the 

Luke ; author of one of the Gospels^ 
which 18 distinguished for fullness, accu- 
racy, and traces of extensive information ; 
also of the Acts of the Aposdes, in which 
he gives a methodical account of th» ori- 
gin of the Ghrisuan church, and, particu- 
larly, of the travels of the apostle PauL 
Though theae two books were designed 
merely for bis friend Theophilus, they 
Koon attained a canonical authority, and 
were publicly read in the churches. Con- 
cerning the circumstances of the life of 
this evangelist, nothing certain is known, 
except that he was a Jew by birth, was a 
contemporary o^ the aposdes, and could 
have heard accounts or the life of Jesus 
trom the mouths of eye-wimesses, and 
was for several years a companiou of the 
apostle Paul, in his travels ; so that, in the 
Acts of the Aposdes, he relates what he 
himselfbad seen and participated in. The 
conjecture that he was a physician is more 
probable than the tradition which makes 
him a painter, and which attributes to hun 
an old picture of Christ, preserved at 
Rome. On account of this latter tradi- 
tion, however, he is the patron saint of 
painters, and a celebrated academy of 
these artists, at Rome^ bears his name. 

Luke of Lktdeii, one of the founders 
of modem painting in the North, stands 
by the side of Dtor, Holbein and Kra- 
oach, at the head of the old German 
school, though, striedy, he does not be- 
loug to Germany. He was bom at Ley* 
den, 1494, and enioyed, in early life, the 
iDstruction of his mther, Hugo Jacob, and 
afterwards that of Cornelius £ngelbrecht» 
sen, an eminent painter, and scholar of 
Van Eyfc. At the early a^ of nine, he 
began to engrave, and, in his twelfth year, 
astonished all judges, by a painting, in 
water-colors^ of St Hubert. In his 15th 
year, he prtiduced several pieces, compos- 
ed and engraved by himself, among which 
ifae Trial of St* Anthony, arid the Conver- 

vou viifc 13 

rion of St Patd, IB VQgttd to < 
characteristic expression, drapeiy, and 
management of the nrnver, are iiKMlels, 
After this, he ezecutea many paintiny in 
oil, water-cokNTs, and on glass ; likewist a 
multitude of enmvings, which spread his 
ftune widely. Be fornied a fiiendly inti- 
macy with the celebrated John of Alabusa 
and Albert Durer, who visited him in 
Leyden. His unremitted application in- 
jured his health ; and his anxious fiiends 
persuaded him to travel through the Neth- 
erlands. But his hypochondria was not 
removed. He i magined himself poisoned 
by envious painters, and hardly left his 
bed for almost six yeara; during which 
time be labored uninterruptedly, and rose 
to the highest rank in his art He died in 
1533, m his 40di year. This artist is ex- 
cellent in almost all parts of his art, thouch 
he could not entirely divest himself of tne 
taste which characterized the childhood 
of painting. His designs are striking, in- 
genious and varied ; his grouping judi- 
cious and natural ; character appean in all 
^lis figures, particularly in the heads, thouffli 
this character cannot be called noble. 
The situations and attitudes of his figures 
are veiy various, which is the more re* 
markable, from the great number of per- 
sons often found m his paintincs. Hisdraw- 
ing is correct, yet not ideal, out fashioned 
after the models of the country in which he 
lived. His drapery is, indeed, mostly ar- 
ranged with troth, but without taste, heavy, 
and deformed by many small folds. 
His coloring is pleasing and natural, but 
the aerial perspective is neglected; and 
there is a certain harshness, not to be mis- 
taken, peculiar to that rieriod of the art 
Notwithstanding his high finish, he paint- 
ed easily. His engravings and wood-cutH 
bear evidence of a most careful and 
steady management of the graver. They 
are very rare, and highly prized, particu- 
larly those in which he selected the same 
subject with Albert Diirer, in order to 
compete with him. The friends often 
shared their ideas and compositions; but 
Luke ranks below Diirer. The fullest 
and most beautiful collection of engravings 
by this master, is in the library at Vien-> 
na. His paintings are scattered about in 
many galleries ; the principal in Leyden* 
Vienna, Dresden, Munich, and in the Tiv- 
buna at Florence. 

LiTixT, Raymoiid, adistinguisbed scho* 
bstic of the tlurteenth cenuiry, author of 
the method called ,^ LuUumOf taught 
throughout Europe^ during the fouiteentfa, 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, was bom 
in Miu^'i^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ having besA 

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attached tti die gi^ ooort of James 1 of 
Amgon, be became filled with pioua 
fteliogfl^ and, at about the age of 30, retir- 
ed to a solitude, and, for the purpose of 
eotiTertiag infidels,, began the study of 
theokMnr. Encouraged by visions, he un- 
dertook the task by studying the E^astem 
languages, and invented his new method, 
or Ar9 dtmonatraivoa VeritaHay for the pur- 
pose of proving that the mysteries of niith 
were not contrary to reason. He then visited 
Rome and France, in the schools of which 
he taught ; and, while at Montpellier, com- 
posed his ^8 incentwa Veritatia, in wBich 
he developes and simplifies his method. 
Passing over into Africa, for the purpose 
of convincing the Mohammedan doctors 
•f the truth of Christianity, he narrowly 
escaped with his life ; and, on his return 
to Europe, wrote his Tabula freneralisj a 
sort of key to his fortner works, and, in 
1298, obtained from Philip tlie Fair a pro- 
fessorship at Paris. From this period 
dates the establishment of his doctrine in 
Europe. His ^rs expottUiva and Arbor 
SeienHiB are his other principal works on 
this subject. A secona visit to Africa, for 
the purpose of converting the disciples of 
Averroes, resulted in his banishment from 
that re^on ; but he returned a third time, 
and was stoned to death, about 1315. 
The Lullian method was taught and com- 
mi*nted on for several centuries in Europe. 
The principal commentators are Leffevre- 
d'Etaples, Alstedius, Sehonde, &c. (See 
Deeerando, IKstoire comparee des SysUmea 
de Pkilosophie,) 

LuLLV, Jean Baptists; bom at Flor- 
ence, of obscure parents, in 1634. As a 
child, he exhibited a passionate fondness 
for music. The chevalier Guise, who had 
been commissioned by Mile, de Montpen- 
sier to send her an Italian page, struck 
with his talent, engaged him, and despatch- 
ed him to Paris in his lOUi year. The 
lady, however, was so litde pleased by bis 
appearance, that she sent him into her 
kitchen, where he remained some time in 
the humble capacity of an under-scullion. 
His musical talent l)ecoming accidentally 
known to a gentleman about the court, his 
rppresentations procured him to be placed 
under a master. He now rose rapidly, till 
he obtained the appointment of musician 
to the court. His performance soon at- 
tracted the notice of the king, by whose 
direction, a new band, called kspetita Vt- 
oUmSj was formed, and Lully placed at the 
head of it, in 1660; about which period, 
he composed the music to the then fiivor- 
He amusements of the court, called baUeta^ 
consisting of dancing, intermixed with 

■oging and reckstife. In 1€7Q» Lully 
was made joint-director of the French 
opera, estabushed the precedinff year, on 
the plan of that at Venice, which situatioQ 
he filled till his decease, in 1687. Lully « 
contributed much to the improvement of 
French music, and is said to have been 
the inventor of the overture. 

Lumbago (from lumbua, the loin); a 
rheumatic affection of the muscles about 
the loins. (See RhewnaHam,) 

Lumpers ; laborers employed to load 
and unload a merchant ship when in 

LuMP-FiSH {cydopterua, Lin.). These 
fish are very remarkahle for the manner in 
which their ventral fins are arranged. 
They are united by a membrane so as to 
form a kind of oval and concave disk. 
By means of this apparatus, these fish are 
enaV d to adhere with great force to any 
6ul)6Uince to which they apply themselves. 
This has been proved by placing one of 
them in a bucket of water, when it fixed 
itself so firmly, that, on taking the i\>h by 
the tail, the whole vessel and its contents 
were hfled from the groimd, although it 
held some gallons. {Brit. Zoology.) The 
largest of the genus is the C luwpua : this 
is about nine inches Ion?, and sometimes 
weighs seven pounds. The back is arch- 
ed*and sharp, of a blackish color, varie- 
gated with brown. The l)ody is covered 
^vith sharp, black tubercles ; and on each 
side, there are three rows of large, bony 
scales, and another on the back. The 
great resort of this species is in the north - 
em seas, about tlie coast of Greenland. 
Great numbei's of them are devoured by 
the seals, who swallow all but the skins, 
Quantities of which, thus emptied, are seen 
noatinff about in the spring months, wbeu 
these fish approach the land for the pur- 
pose of spawning. It is said that the spotR 
where the seals carry on their deprecia- 
tions can be readily distinguished by the 
smoothness of the water. Crontz says 
that the inhabitants of the barren tracts of 
Greenland, who are obliged to depend, for 
the greatest part of their subsistence, ou 
fish, eagerly avail themselves of the arri- 
val of th is species. The roe is remarkably 
large : when boiled, it forms an exceed- 
ingly gross and oily food, of which the 
Greenlanders are very fond. The flesh is 
sofl and insipid. 

Lump-lac. (See Coccua^ end of tlie 

Luna (the moon), amone the Greeks, 
Selene, was the daughter of Hjrperion and 
Terra (G8Ba),and was the same, according 
to some my thologists, as Diana, (q. ▼.) She 

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was worshipped by the ancient inhabitants 
of the earth with many superstitious forms 
and ceremonies. It was supposed that 
magicians and encbanteia, particularly 
tbooB of Thessaly, had an uncontrollable 
power over the moon, and that thev could 
diaw her down from heaven at pleasure, 

Sr tlie mere force of their incantations, 
er eclipaes, according to their opinions, 
proceeded firom thence, and, on that ac- 
count, it was usual to beat drums and 
cymbals, to ease her labors, and to render 
the power of magic less efiectuaL (See 

Lunar Caustic. (See NUraU of Sil- 

Lunar Year. (See Year.) 
Lunatics, in medicine. (See MenUd 
lAaiatics, in law. (See JSTon Compo8.) 
Lund, or Lunden ; a town in Sweden, 
province of Skonen, and government of 
Malniohus, 5 miles from me Baltic ; Ion. 
13P E.; lat. 55° 44' N.; [wpulalion, 3224. 
It is a bishop's see, and contains a uuiver- 
Bity, founded in 1068, by Charles IX, 
which has 15 professors, a botanic garden, 
an anatomical theatre, a cabinet of curios- 
ities, an observatoiy, and a library of 
40,000 volu mes. The number of students, 
in 1627, was 631. 

LuNEBURo; formerly a principality of 
Lower Saxonv, at present a province of 
Hanover, with 4325 square miles, and 
264,000 inhabitants. The Elbe forms its 
boundary on tlie north and north-east. 
Luneburg is a vast plain of sand, interrupt- 
ed here and there by deep moors and for- 
ests of pine. The' marshes on the rivers 
are, however, wonderfully pi-oductive, but 
they are better fitted for pasture, and the 
euluvation of garden vegetables, than for 
tillage. The rivers of the province all 
flow into tlie Elbe or the Weser, the high- 
land which divides the basins of those two 
rivers being tlie great Luneburg heath. 
The dikes, which protect the country from 
the inimdatious of tlie Elbe, are enor- 
mously expensive. About seven tenths 
of the whole province are incapable of 
cultivation, and com is not produced in 
quantities sufficient to supply the inhabit- 
ants. Flax is extensively raised, and the 
cattle are numerous and of a good de- 
scription. Bees are kept on the heaths, 
and the fisheries in the rivers are impor- 
tant. Salt, wool, linen, beeswax and 
wooden-wares, are the chief exports. 
The great commercial road from llam- 
buig to Hanover and Brunswick, runs 
thrMwh tfie wovince, and the towns of 
Lunmug and Ceile cany on a oop»dei»- 

Me commisBion business. Lunebuiv was 
originally an allodial estate of the house 
of Brunswick, and gave its name to one 
of the branches of the family. (See Bntiu- 
tDick.}--Lunehurgj the capital of the prov- 
ince, is an old town, with about 11,300 
inhabitants, situated on the Ilmeiiau, 
which is navigable to this place for small 
vessels. The Kalkberg is a curious gyp- 
seous rock, 118 feet high, on which are 
remains of ancient fortifications, and in 
the quarries of which is found the rare 
mineral boracite. The salt springs are 
capable of yielding 2000 tons of salt a 
week. The transit trade between Hanover 
and Brunsvnck is extensive, a large num- 
ber of horses being brought to Lunebunr 
annually, and is estimated at 15,000,000 
rix dollars. 

Lunette, in the art of fortification ; a 
very vague expression, which, in its origi- 
nal signification, probal)ly comprised every 
detached work built in the form of an an- 
gle, and consisting of but two faces. It 
was aflerwards used in a more limited 
sense, to denote, 1. Small, ffenerally ir- 
regular, works, with or vntnout flanks, 
that are placed in the principal ditch, be- 
fore the ravelins, or other out-woriis, for 
tlie purpose of covering such places of the 
chief rampart, as may be seen from the 
open field, or of defending from the side 
such points as, through a mistake in the 
original plan of the fortifications, were 
left unprotected, the guns from the bas- 
tions not being Mb to reach them. 2. Ad- 
vanced works on or before the glacis, 
sometimes constructed hi the form of an 
an^le, sometimes in the form of a bastion. 
This kind of lunettes, skilfully disposed 
on the weak fronts of a place, and arrang- 
ed in one or two lines, so as to flank one 
another, may check the approach of the 
enemy for a considerable time, by obliging 
him to make his trenches at a greater dis- 
tance than he would otherwise have done, 
and subjecting him to losses in the capture 
of each lunette. Particular attention must 
be paid to dispose them in such a manner 
as to render it imposmble for the enemy to 
attack two lunettes at the same time. 

Luneville ; an open city of Lorraine, 
depmtment of the Meurthe, in a firuitfiii 
plain, with a casUe, 3 churches, and 12^8^ 
mhabitants. In 1785, Stanislaus Lecz^ 
ski, king of Poland, to whom Lorraine 
and Bar had been granled, resided hers. 
Lat 48° 3y N.J km. 6° SO' E* 

LunemlUf Peace ^; concluded Feb. 9, 
1801, between Austria (also in the naiiMi 
of the QennaD empire) and the French 
lepublic, i^ioii the iWBiaf the pctoa of 

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Canpo-Formio. (<!•▼•} -Belgium and the 
left bank of the Rhuie were ceded to 
Fnnoe ; Milan and Mantua to the Ciaalpioe 
(q. ▼.) r^Hjblic ; Venice, and the country 
as ftr aa the Adige, Istria and Dalmatia, 
te Austria. The princes on the left bonk 
of the Rhine were to be indenuiified by 
territories within the empire. Auistria 
ceded the Frickthal, and the suip of land 
between Basle and Zurzach, to France, 
who, in 1802, inve thein to Switzerland. 
Austria ceded Brisgau to the duke of Mo- 
dena, and consented to the erection of tlie 
kingdom of Etruria, for which the grond- 
duke of TuBca^ was to be indemnified 
in Germany. The valley of the Rhine 
formed the boundary of France. The 
naTigation of the river waa declared fre^ 
and remained so until 1804, when toll 
was imposed for the complete indemnifi- 
cation of several members of the empire. 
LuNos ; the organs of respiration m the 
mammalia (man, quadrupecfs, and the ce- 
taceous animals), birds and reptiles. The 
lungs are situated in the chest, and are 
<hvided into two parts, called lobu. They 
are enveloped in a delicate and transparent 
membnne,derived from the pleura,through 
which they have the appearance of net- 
work, and are connected with the spioe by 
the pleura, with the neck by the windpipe, 
and with the heart by the roots or the 
pulmonary artery and veins. In their 
specific gravity, they are the lightest of all 
the animal organs, even when exhausted 
of air ; hence their name of lights. To 
the touch, they are soft, spongy and elos^ 
tic In their internal structure, they are 
composed of an infinite number of mem- 
branous, celled blood-vessels, nerves and 
lymphatics, all connected by cellular sub- 
stance. The cells communicate with each 
other, but have no communication with 
the cellular substance : small tubes arise 
ih>m them, which are finally united into 
one large tube fix>m each lobe ; and these 
two at length join to form the windpi})e. 
The blood-vessels called the pulmonary 
vessels are destined to distribute the blood 
through the cells, for the purpose of sub- 
jecting it to the action of the air fsee 
Mm^ and Heart) ; while the bronchial 
vessels are intended to supply the blood 
which nourishes the lungSr (For the ac* 
tion of these organs in respiration, see 
RemraHon.) The cetacea (whales, seals, 
&C.) breathe by lungs, and are therefore 
obliged to ascend, at intervals, to the sur- 
ftce of the water, to obtain a supply of at- 
mospheric air. The respiratory onfice, in 
these animak^ is not situated at the ex- 
<rMDi^ of the nouty but on the top of the 

head. In birds^ the lungs are smaller tfum 
in quadrupeds^ but they have air diatrib 
uted throughout their muscular system 
and in the cavities of the bones. — ^The 
lungs afford a means of ascertaining 
whether a new-bom child, which is found 
dead, was or was not living, when bom, — 
a question often of great importance in 
forensic medicine. The lungs of the ui- 
fimt are placed in water, to see whetlier 
they will swim or sink. Before birth, the 
lungs are dark red, contracted into a small 
place within the cavity of the breast, firm, 
and specifically heavier than water. They 
thereiore sink in water, whether they aiv 
entire or cut into pieces ; and when cut, 
no air-bubbles come forth, either in or out 
of the water, nor does much blood ap- 
pear. But if the babe has lived after 
birth, and therefore breathed, air has en* 
tered the lungs, has thus enlarged the cav- 
ity of the chest, and the lungs themselves 
are expanded, appear of a loose, spongy 
texture, of a pale red color, cover the heart, 
and fill the chest They then swim in wa- 
ter, as well in connexion with the heart as 
without it, as well entire as in pieces. If cut, 
a peculiar sound is audible ; air proceeds 
fit)m them, and rises, if they are pressed 
under water, in small bubbles. From the 
incisions in the lungs, red, and, generally, 
foamy blood issues. Against this test, it 
has been objected — 1. that air may be 
found in the lungs, though the in&nt 
never breathed. This could happen, how* 
ever, only {a) fix)m air having bcMin blown 
into them ; but, in this case, the chest of 
the infant is no^mched, very little blood is 
to be found in the lungs, and it is not 
bright red nor foamy : (6} from putre- 
faction ; but, in this case, tne other parts 
of the body would also be affected by pu- 
trefaction: the lungs are not expanded, 
pale-red air-bubbles show themselves only 
on the surface, and not in tiie interior 
substance, unless the highest degree of pu- 
trefaction has taken place. 2. It is said 
that the child may have breathed, and 
therefore lived, without air being found in 
the lungs. This is not proved, and is at 
variance with the received ideas of the 
manifestation of life. 3. That part of the 
lungs may swim, another ma^sink. This 
can happen only with lungs m a diseased 
state, and would only prove an attempt of 
the infant to breathe, without the possi- 
bility of living. 4 That a child may have 
lived without breathinff ; but this state of 
apparent death cannot be called life : life 
cannot be supposed without breath. If 
all precautions are taken, all attending 
ciicuiiifUiices ooDsideredt tba exteniiu 

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appeaniMse of the infimt well observed, 
and the fltate of the other iDtestineB exam- 
ined, the fiireji^uig test may be considered 
as sufficient for the decision of the Ques- 
tion, whether a child has lived after birth 
or noL Another kind of test by means 
of the lungs has been proposed, which is 
ibuuded on the proportion of the weight 
of the whole body to a liing which nas 
breathed, and one which has not; and 
still another, which rests on the circum- 
ference of the chest before and after 
breathing has commenced; but both ore 
more complicated, troublesome, and less 
oertain than the former one. 

LuPEKCALiA ; a yearly festival observed 
at Rome, tlie 15th of February, iu Jionor 
of tlie god Pan, sumamed Lupercus (&om 
litpu9y wolf, and arceo^ to diive away), the 
defender finom wolves. It was usual first to 
sacrifice two goats and a dog, and to touch, 
with the bloody knife, the foreheads of 
two iUustrious youths, who always were 
obliged to smile while they were touched. 
The blood was wiped away with soft 
wool dipped in milk. After this, the skins 
of tiie victims were cut into thongs, with 
which whips were mmie for the youllis. 
With these whips tlie youths ran about 
the streets, all naked except the middle, 
and whipped those they met. Women, 
in particular, were fond of receiving the 
Wjcs, as it was believed that they remov- 
ed barrenness, and eased the pains of 
child-birth. This excursion iu the streets 
of Rome was performed by naked youths, 
because Pan is always repi'esented naked, 
and a goat was sacrificed because tliat 
deity was supposed to have the feet of 
goats. A dog was added as necessary for 
the shepherd. The priests which officiat- 
ed at the Lupercalia were called Luperci, 
Lupine ; a genus of leguminous plants, 
containing about 30 species, which are her- 
baceous or frutesceut, bearing petiolate and 
usually digitate leaves, and lar^, handsome 
flowere, which are disposed m a tenninul 
raceme. The lupinusperennis grows wi K I in 
sandy places, from Cfanada to Florida, and 
bears beautiful blue flowers. It has been 
cultivated in Europe for more than 150 
years. We have eight other species, and 
probably more, in North Amerira, several 
of which are only found westward of the 
Rocky moimtains. Two of our southern 
species are remarkable for having simple 

LoFULirr, M. Planche first ascertained 
that the three active ingredients of the 
hop, viz. the oil, nesn and bitter principle, 
reside in the brilliant yellow grains scat- 
tered over Uie calicinal scales of the conea, 

which serve as their eoTekm. Doctor 
Ives of New York, and MM. Paven and 
Chevalier, have since confirmed this posi- 
tion. Tins matter, when insulated, is of a 
golden yellow color, in little grains, with- 
out consistence, which attach themselves 
to the fingers, and render them rough. It 
has a penetrating aromatic odor : 200 parts 
of it afforded, 1. water ; 2. essential oil ; 
3. carbonic acid; 4. suhacetate of am- 
monia ; 5. traces of osmazome ; 6. traces 
of futiT matter ; 7. gum ; 8. malic acid ; 
9. malate of lime ; 10. bitter matter, 25 
parts ; 11. a well characterized resin, 105 
parts ; 12. silica, 8 parts ; 13^ traces of car- 
l)onate, muriate and sulphate of potash ; 

14. carbonate and phosphate or lime ; 

15. oxide of iron and traces of sulphur. 
The bitter matter, introduced into the 
stomach, destroys appetite. 

LusATiA (in German, LcnuUz) ; aa ex^^ 
tensive country, bordering on Bohemia to 
the south, Meissen to the west, Branden- 
burg to the north, and Sileda to the east* 
It was formerly a mareraviate, and was 
divided into Upper and Lower Lusatia, 
with a superficial area of 4250 square 
miles, the population of which is about 
500,000. With the excepdon of the circle 
of Kottbus, which had &llen into tlie 
hands of the house of Brandenburg in 
1550, Lusatia wqp granted to the elector 
of Saxony, in 1635. In 1815, all Lower 
Lusatia Q940 square miles), with a large 
part of Upper Lusatia, was ceded to Prus- 
sia (in all 3200 square miles, with 294,700 
inhabitants), and was annexed to the ffov- 
emments of Frankfort and Liegnitz, The 
part of Upper Lusatia, which remained to 
Saxony (1050 square miles, with 195,000 
inhabitants), now forms the circle of tliat 
name, compiising the eastern part of tho 
kingdom ; chief town, Bautzen f q, v.). It 
is not very fertile, hardly supplvui^ half 
of the consumption of^ its inhabitants. 
Flax is raised in all parts, but great (quan- 
tities are imported for the use of the 
manufactures. Linen, woollen and cot- 
ton are the principal manufactures, (Sect 

LusiAD. (See Camoens.) 

Lusitama; a part of Spain, whose 
extent and situation have not been accu- 
rately defined by the ancients. Accord- 
ing to some descriptions, it extended from 
the Tagus to the sea of Calabria* Tho 
inhabitants were warlike, and the Romans 
conquered tliem with great difficulty. 
They generallv lived upon plunder, and 
were rude and unpolished in their man- 
ners. (See Spmnj a«d Portugal.) 

Lv3TRATioif *, purification ; m particular 

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the solema paiificatioD or consecration 
of the Roman people, by means of an 
expiatoiy aacrince (aaer^eiunt liutrak)^ 
which was performed after every censua. 
(See Camu.) The name mav be derived 
m>m luere, in the sense of sclvere, for, on 
this occasion, aU public taxes were paid 
by the farmers-general to the censor; or 
mm huirare (to expiate), because, after 
the censuia, an expiatory saciiiice was 
offered for the whole Roman people. The 
sacrifice consisted of a bull, a sow, and a 
sheep or ram [suovetaurUia). The ram 
was dedicated to Jupiter, the swine to 
Ceres, and the bull to Mara. This sol- 
emn act was called lustrum conden. As 
this lustration took place at the end of 
every five yeanyltutrwn came to signify a 
period of nve years. 

LusT&E. (See LustraUonJ) 

LtTTE (in Italian, liuto ; French, Ivih ; 
German, ktute^ perhaps fhom the German 
lauien, to sound) is an instrument which 
originated fix>m the ancient lyre. ((]. v.) 
Some, however, think that it was intro- 
duced into Spain by the Moors, where it 
was called laoud ; and j&om thence into 
Italy, where it received the name of /into. 
The chdy9^ or testudOf of the Romans, was 
probably a similar instrument It is a 
stringed instrument, formerlv much in 
use, anciently containii% only five rows 
of strings, but to which six, or more, 
were afterwards added. The lute con- 
sists of four parts, viz. the table ; the 
bodv, which has nine or ten sides ; the 
neck, which has as many stops or divis- 
ions ; and the head, or cross, in which the 
screws for turning it are inserted. In 
plaving this instrument, the perfonner 
strikes the strings with the fingers of the 
right hand, and regulates the sounds with 
those of the left The notes for the lute 
are generally written on six lines, and not 
on five, l* here were formerly various 
kinds in use. The lute, simply construct- 
ed, is called the lYench lute ; ^ it has two 
necks, one of which sustains the base 
notes, it is called a theorbo ; if the strings 
of the theorbo are doubled, it is called an 
(xrch'lute. The diflliculty of playing up- 
on this instnimeut, as well as that of 
tuning it, is probably the reason that it has 
gone out of use. 

Luther, Martin, one of the greatest 
men of the sixteenth century, was bom 
at Eisleben, November 10, 1483. Hans 
Luther, his father, a miner, removed with 
his fanuly to Mansfeld, in 1484, and was 
appointed to a seat in the council Mar- 
tin was educated if! the deepest req>ect 
*or religioD, and, at the age of 14, was 

sent to school at Mairdebarg ; but le- 
ceiving no assistance there, he was seut, 
in 14£)@, to Eisenach. At first he obtain- 
ed his support by singing souss at the 
doors, like many other poor scholars ; but 
he was soon taken under the care of a 
maternal relation in easy cirr.umstance& 
At school, he made rapid progress in • 
Latin and other studies ; in 1501, enter- 
ed the university of Erfun ; in 1503, re- 
ceived the degree of master, and delivered 
lectures on the physics and ethics of 
Aristode. About this time, he discovered, 
in the libranr of the university, a Latin 
Bible, aiid found, to his no smaH delight^ 
that it contained more than the excerpts in 
common use. He was destined by his 
father to the law ; but his more intimate 
acquaintance with the Bible, of which the 
clergymen of that time knew only the 
Gospels and Episdes, induced him to turn 
his attention to the study of divinity. The 
impression produced on him by the death 
of his friend Alexis, who expired at his 
side, on a journey fix)m Mansfeld to Er- 
furt, by a stroke of lightning or the blow 
of an assassin, uniting with the effect of his 
early religious education and his poverty, 
decided him to devote himself to the mo- 
nastic life. Contrary to the wishes of his 
fiither, he entered the monastery of the 
Augustines, at Erfurt, in 1505, and sub- 
mitted patiently to all the penances and 
humiliations which the superiors of the 
order imposed upon novice& But he al- 
ways regarded himself as an unprofitable 
servant. Pure and innocent as he was, he 
tortured himself with bitter reproaches,and 
was attacked by a severe fit of sickness ; 
during which, one of the elder brothers 
consoled his troubled heart, and promised 
him the forgiveness of his rans through 
faith in Jesus Christ^ This doctrine, al- 
most forgotten in the zeal of the clergy 
for good work^ as they called them, and 
in the traffic in indulgences, brought a 
new light into the soul of Luther. He 
was also encouraged by the paternal mild- 
ness of Staupitz, the provincial of the 
order, who, perceiving his extraordinary 
talents and acnuirements, delivered him 
from the meniaJ duties of the cloister, and 
pncouraged him to continue his theologi- 
cal studies. In 1507, he was consecrated 
Eriest, and, in 1508, by the influence of 
is patron, Staupitz, he was made profes- 
sor of philosophy in the new university of 
Wittenbei^. In tliis sphere of action, his 
powerful mind soon showed itself. He 
threw off* the fettera of the scholasdc ph^ 
losophy, so intimately coimected with the 
pq>al hierarchy, asaeited the rights elf 

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leasoD, and soon collected a lam number 
of diacii^cs. In 1510, he Tiaitea the court 
of pope Leo X, at Rome, on busineaB in- 
iTOBted to him by his order. This journey 
leTeaied to him the irreligion and corrupt 
tion of the clergy at Rome, and destroyed 
his reTerence for the sanctity of the pope. 
After his return, he became a ))reacner at 
Wittenberg, and, in 3512, he was made a 
doctor iu theology. As such, his oath 
bound liim/as he thought, to the fearless 
defence of the Hol^ Scriptures. His pro- 
found learning, which embraced an mti- 
mate acquaintance with the ancient clas- 
acs, the Others of the church, and the 
spirit pf the Greek and Hebrew lan- 
guages, tx^ether with the fame of his 
eloquence, soon made Luther known to 
the principal scholars, and esteemed as a 
powerful advocate of the new light 
which was breaking upon the world. 
Great, therefore, was the attention excited 
by his 95 propositions, ^ven to the worid 
October 31, 1517, and mtended to put an 
end to the sale of indulgences, by the 
Dominican Tetzel. Luther was impelled 
to this course solely by the love of truth, 
and by his indignauon against the traffic 
in indulgences, the unhappy eifects of 
which had appeared already in his con- 
gregation at Wittenberg. Ambition or 
natred of the Dominicans had no influ- 
ence in producing this measure. Hfk 
propositions were condemned as heretical 
as soon as they appeared. Hogstraaten, a 
Dominican at Colore, doctor £ck at lo- 
golstadt, and Prienas, an officer of the 
Roman court, immediately began an at- 
tack upon Luther ; but neither their in- 
vectives, nor the papal summons to Rome, 
which he did not obey, nor the mild ex- 
hortations of the cardinal Cajetan, at 
Augsburg, in 1518, and of the nuncio 
Miltitz, at Altenburg, in 1519, with allur- 
ing ofiers from the pope himself, were 
sufficient to induce him to recant. He 
replied to his opponents with boldness 
and determination, and even after his dis- 
pute with Eck at Leipsic, in 1519, he still 
maintained the invalidity of indulgences, 
and of the papal supremacy. No one an- 
Bwered him, and he appealed with justice 
from the decision of Cajetan, to the pope, 
and from the pope to a general council. 
In 1520, Luther and his niends were ex- 
communicated. His vnitings were burnt 
at Rome, Cologne and Louvain. Indig- 
nant at this open act of hostility after lus 
modest letter, in which he had showed 
himself desirous of reconciliation, de- 
clared his submission to the pope, and 
advised a rafi>niyin the church. Luther 

burned the bull of excommunication, and 
the decretals of the papal canon, at Wit- 
tenberg, December 10, 1530. fiy this act, 
he dissolved all connexion virith the pope 
and the Roman church. Frederic, the 
elector of Saxony, seemed in doubt 
whether lie should protect him. fiut the 
worthiest of the German noblemen, Hiit- 
ten, Sickingen, Schaumburg, whom he 
called upon to defend the new opinions, 
hailed him as the cluunpion of religious 
hberty, and offered him their fonresses 
and their arms. But Luther wished no 
protector but God. He refused to hsten 
to his anxious friends, who advised him 
not to brave the Roman hierarchy ; a 
spirit within urged him forward, and ho 
could not resist The people received, 
vnth amazement, the words of a monk, 
who defied at once the pope and tho 
cleivy, the emperor and the princes. For 
this ne did, when he presented himself* at 
the diet of Worms, April 4, 1521, accom- 
panied by a few friends and the imperial 
nerald, who had summoned him. He was 
met by about 2000 persons on foot and on 
horseback, at the distance of a league from 
Worms. Such was his conviction of the 
justice of his cause, that when Spalatin 
sent a messenger to warn him of his dan- 

§er, he answered, ** If there were as many 
evils in Worms as there are tiles upon 
the roofs of its houses, I would go on." 
Before the emperor, the archduke Ferdi- 
nand, 6 electors, 24 dukes, 7 mai^ves^ 
30 bishops and prelates, and many princes, 
counts, lords and ambassadors, Luther ap- 
peared, April 17, in the imperial diet, ac- 
knowledged all his writings, and, on the 
following day, made bis defence before 
the assembly, ^e concluded his speech 
of two hours in length with these words : 
" Let me then be refuted and convinced by 
the testimony of the Scriptures, or by the 
clearest arguments ; otherwise I cannot 
and will not recant ; for it is neither safe 
nor expedient to act affainst conscience. 
Here I take my stand ; I can do no other- 
wise, so help me God ! Amen." He left 
Worms, in met, a conqueror ; but it was so 
manifest that his enemies were determined 
upon his destruction, that Frederic the 
Wise conveyed him privately to the Wart- 
burg, to save his life. Neitiier the pro- 
scription of the emperor, nor the excom- 
munication of the pope, could disturb him 
in his retirement, of^ which he took ad- 
vantage to translate the New Testament 
into German. But this retirement con- 
tinued only 10 months. When informed 
of the disturbances excited by Carlstadt 
(q. v.), on the subject of images^ he could 

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no longer endure reslFunt, notwithstand- 
ing the new outlawiy which the emperor 
b^ just issued against him, at Nuremberg; 
and, at the risk of provoking the displeas- 
ure of the elector, he hastened to Witten- 
berg, through the territory of George, duke 
of Saxony, who was one of his most bit- 
ter enemies. The letter to Frederic, in 
which he justified his departure, proves, 
not I<;ss than his conduct before the diet 
at Worms, his fearless courage and the 
ffreameas of his souL The sermons which 
he delivered for eiffht successive days af- 
ter his return (in Sfarch, 15s22), to quell 
the violence of the enraged insursents in 
Wittenberg, are patterns of moderation, 
and wisdom, and {x>pular eloquence. They 
show, in a striking light, the error of those 
who consider Lumer only as a violent and 
rude fanatic. He was violent only against 
malignity, or when he thought the great 
trutlu of religion in danger. Such mo- 
tives sufficiently account for his caustic 
reply to Henry VHI, king of England, and 
the bitterness of spirit manifested in his 
controversies with Carlstadtand Erasmus. 
The latter, not without reason, he charged 
with woridliness and lukewarmness in a 
good cause. He viewed the attack of Carl- 
stadt on his doctrine of the sacrament as an 
open apostasy from the faith, and an act of 
ambit to us jealousy. Amidst these disputes 
and» attacks, his plans for a total reforma- 
tion in the church, which was. called for by 
the voice of the nation, were matured. In 
1523, at Wittenberg, he began to piuify 
the liturgy from its empty forms, and, by 
laying aside his cowl, in 1524, he gave the 
Rtgnal for tlie abolition of the monasteries, 
and the better application of the goods of 
the church. In 1525, he married Catha- 
rine von Bora, a nun, who had lefl her 
convent. Afler overcoming numerous 
difficulties, he took this important step at 
the age of 42 years, as much from princi- 
ple as inclination, with the design of rc- 
storiuff the preachers of the ^spel to their 
naturu and social riffhts and duties. Wann 
as was the zeal of Luther for a reform in 
the churcli, he was desirous of avoiding 
disorder and violence. While he went 
hand in hand with the imperial cities and 
foreign princes, both in words and actions, 
he opiK)sed, most decidedly, the violence 
of the peasantry and of the Anabaptists. 
His enemies have shown great injustice 
in implicating, bun as the author of those 
outrages which arose from the enthusiasm 
of the iffnorant, and were displeasing to 
his noble and generous mind. Luther 
prepared, from 1536 to 1529, a new 
cbureh service, coiresponding to the doc- 

trines of the goqMly undent the . 
of the elector, and with the aid of Me- 
lancthon and other members of the Sax- 
on chinch. His lai|;er and smaller cate- 
chisms, to be used m schools^ were also 
of great service. But every one must 
look with pain upon the severity and in- 
tolerance which he manifested towards 
the Swiss reformers, because their views 
differed from his ovm in regard to the 
Lord's supper. (See hordes SupptTj and 
Sacrament,) He was thus the chief cause 
of the separation which took place be- 
tween the Calvinists and the Lutherans. 
But, without his inflexible firmness, in 
matters of faith, he would have been un- 
equal to a work against which artifice and 
power had array^ all their forces. The 
rapidity vrith which the reformation f q. v.) 
advanced afler tlie confession of Augs- 
bui^, in 1590, rendered the papal bulls 
and the imperial edicts against Luther in- 
efficient But he was obliged to be con- 
tiniuUly on his guard against the cimning 
Papists, who strove to make him give up 
some of the parts of his creed ; and it 
required a firmness bordering on stern- 
ness and obstinacy to maintain the vic- 
tory which he had won. With a spirit 
incident to such a state of things, Luther 
wrote, in 15d7, the Smalcaldic articles; 
he gave a refusal to the ambassadors of 
Brandenbui^ and Anhalt, who were sent, 
in 1541, by the diet of Ratisbon, to make 
him more compliant towards the Catho- 
lics ; and, in 1545, he refused any partici- 
pation of his party in the council or Trent 
The severity which he used in the de- 
fence of bis faith, by no means diminishes 
the merit of his constancy : and an apolo- 
gy may easily be found for the frequent 
rudeness of his expressions, in the pre- 
vailing mode of speaking and thinking; 
in tlie nature of his undertaking, which 
required continual contest ; in the provo- 
cations by which he was perpetually as- 
sailed ; in his frequent sickness ; and in 
his excitable imagination. The same ex- 
citability of temperament will serve to 
explain those dreadful temptations of the 
devil, which disquieted him oflener than 
would seem compatible with his strength 
and vigor of mind ; for that age regard- 
ed the devil as a real perBonfu;e, an evil 
Principle ever active; and, if^any one 
evoted himself to the cause of God, he 
was constantly obliged to resist attacks of 
the evil one upon his virtue. He sav* 
himself, <* I was bom to fight with devib 
and factions. This is the reason that my 
books are so boisterous and stormy. It is 
my buaineBB to remoye obBtructioDs^ to 

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cot down tlioiii8|tD fill up quagmirei, and 
to open and make atnignt toe paths; but, 
if I must, neeenaiilv, harp some fiJling, 
let me rather apeak the tnith with too 
great aeverity, than once to act the hypo- 
crite and conceal the truth." Even the 
enemies of Luther are forced to confeas 
that he alwavs acted justly and honorably. 
No one can behold, without astonishment, 
his unwearied activity and zeaL The 
woik of trsuslating the Bible, which might 
well occupy a wnole life, he completed 
fiom 1521 to 1534, and thus rendered his 
name immortaL He equaUed the most 
prolific authors, in the number of his trea- 
tiaes on the most important doctrines of 
his creed. After tne year 151^ he 
preached several times every week, and, 
9t certain periods, every day ; he officiated 
at the confessbnal ana the altar; he car- 
ried on an extensive correspondence in 
liBttn and German, on various subjects, 
with men of rank, and of diatioguished 
litenuy attainments, and with his private 
fiiends ; and, notwithstanding all this 
press of occupation, he allows himself 
some houra every day for meditation and 
prayer, and was always accessible to visi- 
ters. He gave advice and assistance 
wherever it was needed; he interested 
himself for every indigent perK>n who ap- 
plied to him, and devoted himself, with 
nis whole soul, to th^ pleasures of society. 
In company, he was always lively, and 
abounded in sallies of wit and good hu- 
mor (preserved in his Tuchredem [Table- 
Talk]); he was temperate in his enjoy- 
ments. Luther was no stranger to the 
el^ant arts. His excellent hymns are 
well known. His fondness for music, too, 
was such, that, as often as circumstances 
permitted, he would relax his mind with 
singing, and playing on the flute and lute. 
But few men are equal to such excessive 
labor ; and, with a weaker constitution, such 
a constant round of action, and vicissitude 
And toil would soon have overcome the 
great reformer. Indeed, from the year 
1531, he had a painful disease (the stone, 
accompanied with vertiffo) to contend with, 
and, in several fits of sickness, was brought 
near the grave ; but be lived to the age 
of 63. Just befbre his last journey to 
Eialeben, where he was summoned by the 
counts of Mansfiekl to settle a dispute, he 
wrote, in a letter to a friend, the following 
description of his condition : ** Aged, worn 
out, weanr, spiritless, and now blind of 
one eye, I long for a little rest and (]uiet- 
neas ; yet I have as mueh to do, in wnting, 
and preaching, and actinc, as if I had 
oem written, or prMMshedi or acted* I 

am weanr of the world, and the worid la 
weary of me; the parting will be easy, like 
that of the guest leaving the inn ; I prev, 
only, that Ctod will be mcioiis to me m 
m^ last hour, and shaU quit the wotM 
without reluctance." He wrote this in 
January, 1546. On the l^th of the suc- 
ceeding February, he died at Eisleben, 
and was buried in the castle-church of 
Wittenberg. He left a wife, whom he 
tenderiy loved, and two children (two 
others having previously died] in straiten- 
ed circumstances. His wife died in 15S2. 
The male line of his posteritv became ex- 
tinct in Martin Gotdieb Luther, who was 
a counsellor at law, and died at Dr^en, 
in 1759. Against his will, his adherents 
styled themselves Lutherans ; against his 
will, they engaged in a war which broke 
out immediately after his death, and deso- 
lated Germany. As lonir as he lived, 
Luther was for peace ; and he succeeded 
in maintaining it ; he regarded it as im- 
pious to seek to estoblish the cause of God 
by force ; and in feet, during 30 years of 
his life, the principles of the reformaticm 
gained a finner roodng, and were more 
widely propagated, by his imshakea feith 
and unwearied endeavor, than by all the 
wars, and treades and councils since. Lu- 
dier's SammU. Werke (Complete Works) 
appeared in 1836, at Erlangen, in 60 vols. 
Five different collections of his writings 
were published earlier, of which the most 
complete is that by Walch (24 vols., 4to.). 
There is a life of Luther, by Schrockh, in 
his Lebensheschrieb. htriihmUr Gel. (Lives 
of distinguished Scholars), (part 1, 1790). 
— ^For further information, see the articles 
ReformaHonjimdPnfteslants. See also the 
Ijife of Luther, mth an Accovnd of (he Refer-' 
motion, by. A. Bower (London, 1813), and 
the articles on Calvin, MelancUwn, jEras- 
mus, Zvinglius ; also Robertson's CharU$ 
V, and Mosheim's Ecclenastical History, 

Lutherans ; the followers of the doc- 
trines of Luther, though the reformer 
himself, in his writings, expresses his dis- 
approbation of making his name that of 
a sect, In Spain, and some other Catho- 
lic countries, the name Lutheran is, in 
common parlance, almost svnonymous 
with herehe. In Sweden and Denmark, 
there is an established Episcopal Luther- 
an church ; this is not the case in Protes- 
tant Geimany. Bishops have latelv been 
created In Prussia (see LUurgy) ; but, as 
fer as chureh ffovemment is concerned, 
they ,are merely titukr, whatever may 
have been the intention of their establish- 
ment Th^ are, however, neither Lu- 
thenn nor CahiniBtfbiit evangelical (%.▼•). 

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The Lutherans in Germany cannot bo 
said to adhere, strictly, to aJl the doctrines 
of Luther, so great a treedom of opinion, 
on reli^ous matters, having gained ground 
in that country. As few German Calvin- 
ists adhere to predestination, few Luther- 
ans adliere to cousubstautiation, in tlie 
Lord's supper. (See Lutkar, and Re/or- 

LuTHE&!r, in architecture; a kind of 
window over the cornice in the roof of a 
building, serving to illuminate the upper 

LuTZEir, a small town in the present 
Prud»ian duchy of Saxony, to which two 
celebrated battles have given historical 
renown, containing 1900 inhabitants, and 
belonging to the government of Merse- 
burg, lies 11 miles S. W. of Leipsic 
Stratesy shows why Saxony has so often 
been 3ie field of baule between the pow- 
ers of the north-east and the powers of tlie 
south-west of Europe. How often have 
the plains of Leipsic and Liitzen, the 
neighborhood of Dresden and Bautzen, 
been the scene of conflict! The first bat- 
de of Liitzen wos fought in the 30 years' 
war, Nov. 6 (16), 1(532, between Gustavus 
Adolphus, king of Sweden, and VValleu- 
4Stein, duke of Friedland. The imperial 
troops, under the latter, ainouuted to 
40,000 men; the Swedish troops, under 
Oustavus, to 27,000, including the Saxons 
under Bernard, duke of Saxe- Weimar. 
The battle was extremely obstinate, and 
neither party was decisively victorious 
during the day, but Wallenstein began 
retrograde movements the next day. In 
liis,army, tlie famous general Pappenheim 
was mortally wounded, and soon after 
died. On the side of the Protestants, tlie 
hero of their cause, Gustavus Adolphus, 
fell. The circumstances of his death are 
uncertain ; but it is a mistake to sup|)ose that 
he fell a victim to revenge and treachery. 
His body was found, by the soldiers sent 
in search of it by Bernard, under a heap 
of dead, and so much mutilated by the 
hoofs of horKS, as to be recognised with 
difficulty. A plain stone marlus this spot, 
not far from Ltitzen, on the great road to 
Leipsic; a few ponlars and some stone 
seats surround it. His body was carried 
to Liitzen, where traces of the blood are 
still shown, in the town house. (See 
Chtstavus I, and Thirty Years' War.) A 
second batde, fought near Liitzen, May 2, 
1813, between Napoleon and the com- 
bined Russians and Prussians, was the 
first peat conflict ailer Napoleon's disas- 
leis la Russia ; and on this occasion, the 
young French and Pnmian levies fim 

measored their strength. Several reasons 
induced the allies to attack Napoleon, 
though his aony, according to the best 
calculations, was much superior in num- 
bers. The French corps hi Saxony 
amounted to about 1jO,O0O men; the 
allies had 55,000 Prussians and 30,000 
Russians beyond the Elbe. The latter 
were superior in cavalry, the French in 
artillery, and each was desirous to decide 
the battle by the species of troops in which 
his superiority consisted. Count Witt- 
genstein commanded the allied forces. 
Napoleon's troops were moving in the 
direction of Leipsic, and had already ad- 
vanced considerably, while they were still 
supposed, by the enemy, to be near L(ii- 
zen. Genera] Kleist became engaged 
in a sharp conflict with tlie French van, 
which was much superior to him in num- 
ber. The mass of the enemy was thus 
directed against tlie flank and rear of the 
allies. Between the allies and Lutzen 
lay the villages Starsiedel, Kayn, Rana, 
Gorschen, hanll^ guarded by Ney's corps, 
which was quietly^ bivouacked behind 
them. Wittgenstein took this corps for 
Napoleon's van, and ordered the attack 
accordingly. The Prussian troops took 
these villages with great promptness. It 
vras necessary that Ney should sustain 
himself until Napoleon could bring back 
his masses from the road to Leipsic. The 
possession of these villages was, therefore, 
warmly contested ; they wero token and 
retaken with equal courage and obstinacy ; 
but the successive arrival of new bodies 
of French caused some changes in Witt- 
genstein's orden ; the allied cavalry could 
not operate so eflectually as had been 
hoped, and tlie want of infantry began to 
be felt severely. Both armies displayed 
(^reat courage. The Prussian troops 
fought with a resolution corresponding to 
the ardor which had hurried them into tlie 
field, and its effect became visible on the 
French centre, which did not escape Na- 
poleon's experienced eye. " The Key of 
the position," says the duke of Rovigo, 
" was tlie village of Kava, occupied by 
Ney, and through which ran the road 
from Pegay to Liitzen. Had the fdlies 
succeeded in carrying tliis place, they 
could have advffnced to Liitzen, and thus 
have divided the French armv into two 
portions, which could only have been 
reunited on the other bank of the Saale. 
Great efforts were therefore made, by the 
French, to maintain Kaya, which was 
taken and retaken several times in the 
course of the day.*' The emperor Nimo« 
leon DOW ordeied general Drouot, \m aid- 

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de-camp, to advanoe in all haate, with €0 
pieoea of artiUeiy, aa near aa poasible to 
the enemy'a columna, and to attack him 
oUiquety, on hia left ilank ; fi>r this, the 
eoline of the Floflagreben, which had also 
been used to great effect 200 ^eara befote, 
m the battle first deacribed, afiorded an ad- 
irantngeoua position. The artillery made 
auch ravages in the enemy's columns, for 
the space of an hour, that ho could not 
resist the rigorous attack which Napoleon 
renewed on Kaya, by means of marshal 
Moruer's corps. This village was at last 
carried, as well as the others : night came 
on, and the last attempt by the Prussian 
cavalry was abortive. Thus both armies 
occupied nearly the same ground afler the 
batde as before. According to the most 
accurate and impartial accounts, there 
were abcat 69,000 of the allied troops en- 
gaged against 10^000 French. The latter 
are said to have lost 15,000 men, killed 
and wounded, among whom were five 
generals ; the Russians are said to have 
lost 2000, and the Prussians 8000. Gen- 
erals BlCicher and Schamhorst were 
wounded ; the latter died in Prague — a 
severe loss for the Prilssians. The French 
had lost Beasi^s, duke of Istiia, on the 
preceding day. The allies were obliged 
to make retrograde movements, and, owing 
to this batde. Napoleon was again master 
of Saxony and the Elbe, on May 10. 
The French say, that, had they possessed/ 
sufficient cavaliy to pursue the enemy 
briskly, the campaign might have been 
ended by this battle; the allies assert, 
that, bad they been better supplied with 
artillery, they would have remained in 
possession of the villa^s, and the most 
serious consequences might have followed 
for the Frencli. This battle hwl the best 
effect on the spirit of the Prussian troops 
and nation. It was the first in which the 
Prussian forces had measured themselves 
with die French since the disastrous cam- 
paign of 1806, and they were now con- 
vinced of their ability. to withstand their 
fonner conquerors. The result of the 
batde was, indeed, advantageous for the 
French ; but the advantage was so dearly 
bought, and the Prussians, whom the 
French troops had been taught to consid- 
er as "school boys," and uiexperienccd 
peasants, had conducted in such a manner 
as to show that campaigns like those of 
1^)4, 1806 and 1809, were no longer to be 

Lirrzo w's Free CoRPs,or Voluhteers; 
a Prussian corps, during the war of 1813 
and 1814^ which originated firom the TVi- 
l^eiuftuttd (q. ▼.)» and was commanded by 

major Lfitzow. Many young men of the 
beat fimiliea, and moat patriotic spirit^ 
joined it K6mer (q. v.) belonged to this 
corps, and celebrated it in several of his 

Luxation, in surgery, is the removal 
of a bone out of its place or articuladon, 
so as to impede or destroy its proper 
motion or ofiice; hence luxations are 
peculiar to such bones as have iuovable 

Luxembourg, Paulce op ; one of the 
most magnificent ]Milaces in Paris, built in 
imitation of the Pitti palace at Florence, 
completed in 1620, after four years labor, 
by Jacques Desbrosscs, for Mary of Med- 
ici, widow of Henry IV, on the site of the 
hotel of the duke d'Epiuay-Luxembour^, 
and successively inhabited by mademoi- 
selle de Montpensier, the duchess de 
Guise, the duchess of Brunswick, and 
mademoiselle d'Orleans. Louis XVI 
gave it to Monsieur, his brother ; during 
the revolution, it was converted into a 
prison ; it was afterwards occupied by the 
senate ; at present, the chamber of peers 
assemble there. The building is very 
spacious, and its rooms contmn beautiful 
specimens of architecture and statuary. 

Luxembourg (Hofei (/u Petit); an edi- 
fice in Paris, adjoining the garden of the 
Luxembourg palace. It was built by car- 
dinal Richeheu for his mother, and after- 
wards belonged to the uriuce de Cond^, 
During die republic, the directory was 
established here, and here it received gen- 
eral Bonaparte, on his return from Egypt, 
a few days before the 18lh of Brumaire. 
It was next occupied by the first consul^ 
during the firot six months of his consul- 
ship. Ney was confined here, and shot 
in the garden ; and, more recently, prince 
Polignac and his colleagues were confined 
here, previous to their trial. 

Luxembourg (Francis Henry de Mont- 
morenci), duke of, moTBhal of I ranee, was 
born m 1628. He was die posthumous 
son of the count de Bouteville, who was 
beheaded in the reign of Louis XIII, for 
fighdng a duel. He served, when young, 
under die prince of Cond6 ; and, in 16(s2, 
he was made a duke and peer of France ; 
and, in 1667, a lieutenant-general. In 
1672, he commanded during the invasion 
of Holland ; and, having gained the batde 
of Senef, in 1674^ he was created a mar- 
shal of France. In the war of France 
agamst England, Holland, Spain and Ger- 
many, lie won the three great batdes of 
Fleurus (July, 1, 1690), Stemkirchen and 
Neerwinden (June 29, 1693). He died 
in 1695. 

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LmoDonma ; a province of the Idiiff^ 
dom of the NetheriaadB, with the title 
of grand duchy, and, at the same tune, a 
member of the Germanic confederation, 
corapriung the duchies of Luxemburg and 
of Bouillon, bounded by Liege, the Lower 
Rhine, Namur and France. The superfi- 
cial extent is about 24D0 square miles, 
with 293,555 inhabiumts. The surfiice is 
covered with woods, mountains, and des- 
ert heaths, among which, however, are 
some pleasant valleys and fertile hills. 
The Ardennes are the chief mountains. 
The soil is stony, marshy, and not very 
productive. The Moselle -and the Ourthe 
are the principal rivers. Agriculture is 
the cliief occupation of the people, but 
potatoes form the principal food, com not 
being raised in sumcieiit quantities. The 
forests belonging to the state alone, extend 
over 117,971 hectares. Catde are abun- 
dant ; great flocks of sheep are reared on 
the plains of the Ardennes; the horses 
axe small, but celebrated for their spirit 
and activity. The iron mines are exten- 
sively wrought, and the slate quarries 
yield' lai^ quantities of roof-slates. The 
inhabitants are Walloons and Germans, 
and are in general rude, superstitious and 
ignorant. They are of the Koman Catho- 
lic religion. Till the late revolution, the 
king of the Netherlands, as crand-duke 
of Luxemburff, was a member of the 
Germanic confederation, with one vote in 
the diet and three in the oZentim, and fur- 
nished a contingent of 2256 men to the 
army of the confederacy. The Belgians 
have laid claim to Luxemburg, but, as the 
Belgic afiairs are yet undecided, we must 
refer to the article J^eiherUmds for the 
issue of the negotiations. As a province 
of the kingdom of the Netherlandis, it sent 
lour members to the lower house of the 
states-generaL The provincial estates 
consist of 60 members, named by the 
three orders, that of the nobles, that of 
the cities, and that of the country. Lux- 
emburg was erected into a duchv, by the 
German emperor, in 1354, and formed a 
part of the Austrian Netherlands. In 
1815, it was ^granted to the king of the 
Netlieiianda, by the congress of Vienna, 
as an indemnification for his cessions in 
Germany. (See JSTosmhu) Luxemburg^ 
the capital, with 11,430 innabitanta, is one 
ofthesbongest fortresses in Europe. The 
upper town is situated on an elevated 
rock, rising precipitously fi;om a plain, 
and defeiMcd by stronjf works. Five 
batteries on the neighbormff heixrhts com- 
mand all the country roun^ and particu- 
lariy the roads fiiom Treves and Thion- 

vIBe. It « one rftfaefimr great i 
reserved by the Germanic confederation, 
and gairiuwned by a large body of Gerroau 
troops. Lat 49^37' N. ; Ion. 6<'9'£.; 27 
leeffues 9. £. of Liege ; 39 S. £. of Brussels. 

Luxoa; a village of Upper Egypt, on 
the riffht bank of the Nile, containmg 
splendid ruins of Thebes, the site of which 
it occupies. (See ThAts.) 

LuTNBs, Charles d'Albert, duke de, 
&vorite and premier of Louis XIII, and 
constable of France, bom in 1578, was 
descended fiom a noble Florentine &mily 
Milberd), which had been banished from 
Florence. Having become one of tlie 
pages of Henry IV, he was the playmate 
of the dauphin, whose fiivor he soon won 
by consulting all his caprices. When 
Louis ascended the throne, he appointed 
Luynes his gnmd fidconer, and marshal 
D'Ancre, who was all-powerful at court, 
showing some jealousy of his influence 
the favorite soon efiected his disgrace 
The marshal was assassinated, and Luy 
nes obtained a grant of all his immense 
estates, and succeeded to all his places 
and charges (1617). . In 1619, his estate 
of MaUl^ was erected into a duchy, under 
the tide of Lu^iies. He next supplanted 
Mary of Medici, mother of the king, 
whom he caused to' be exiled ; and the 
whole administration was now in his 
hands. In 1^1, the dignity of constable 
of France was revived for him. Though 
the feeble king oflen complained of his 
cupidity and arrogance, thou^ the whole 
court yma intrigumg against him, and the 
nation indigiumdy odled for his disgrace, 
Luynes died in 1621, without having ex- 
perienced any visible loss of fiivor or in-' 
fluence. (See Louis XIIL) 

Ldzac, John, a distinguished philolo- 
jpan, jurist and publicist, bom at Leyden, 
in 1746. His parents were French Prot- 
estants^ who had left France to avoid re- 
ligious persecudons. Alter completing 
his studies, under Valckenaer and Ruhn- 
ken, he declined the chair of iurispru- 
dence offered him at Leyden, and tluu of 
Greek at Groninaen, and went to the 
Hague to prepare himself for the bar. In 
17?^, he returned to Leyden, to assist in 
editmg the Leyden Gazette, which was 
read by all European scholars and states- 
men at that time, on account of the valu- 
able character of its materials.* From 

* The Levden Gaxette {GateUe de Leuden) 
WBi establisMd in 1738, by the uncle and mthcr 
of John, and contains materials important to the 
historian of the American revolution. John 
Adams, while minister in Holland, pnhliihrd sev* 
eral papers ia it. 

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1775, he had almost the entire direction 
of thatjournaL His editorial' and pro- 
ferenonal labors did not prevent him nom 
the assiduous study of ancient Utersture. 
He corresponded with the most distin- 
guished personages of the time, and re- 
ceived the mo^ flattering marks of es- 
teem from Washington, Jefferson, Adams, 
tiie emperor Leopold, aiul Stanislaus, 
king of Poland. In {he midst of these 
various occupations, he accepted the 
Greek chair in the university of Leyden, 
to the regular duties of which he added 
private lectures and exercises for deserv- 
ing students. In 1795, he published an 
aildress De Socrate Cive^ accompanied 
with learned and judicious notes, and 
dedicated to John Adams, whose eldest 
son had studied under his direction. Dur- 
ing the revolutionary troubles which suc- 
ceeded in Holland, Luzac, who was no 
lew a friend of order than of liberty, was 
forbidden to continue his lectures on his- 
tory (1796), but was permitted to continue 
his instructions in Greek literature. He 
refused to accede to this arrangement, and 
was therefore entirely suspended from his 
professorial functions. On this occasion, 
Washington wrote to him, assuring him 
of his esteem, encouraging him to hope 
for justice when the ferment of the mo- 
ment should be over, and professing 
that America was under great obligations 
to the ^vritings and conduct of men like 
him. In 1802, he was restored to his 
former poet, with an increase of salary 
and powers. He continued actively en- 
gaged in his literary labors till 1807, when 
Be was killed by the explosion of a vessel 
with gimpowder aboard, in the harbor of 
Leyden. His Lectionea Atticte, a defence 
of Socrates (1809), was published by pro- 
fessor Sluiter. His colleague, professor 
Siegenbeeck, has given an account of 
Luzac, in his history of the catastrophe 
which caused his death. 

Luzerne, Anne C^sar de la, a French 
diplomatist, bom at Paris, in 1741, after 
having served in the seven years' vnir, in 
which he rose to the rank of colonel, 
abandoned the military career, resumed 
his studies, and, turning his vievra to di- 
pliimacy, was sent, in 1776, envoy ex- 
traordinary to Bavaria, and distinguished 
himself in the negotiations which took 
place in regard to the Bavarian succes- 
rion. In 1778, he was appointed to suc- 
ceed Gerard, as minister to the U. States, 
and conducted himself during five years 
hi which he remained there, with a pru- 
dence, wisdom and concern for their in 
teresia, that gained him the esteem and 

vojm viil 14 

affection of the AmerieaosL In 1780, 
when the American army was in the moe^ 
destitute condition, and the government 
without resources, he raised money on his 
own responsibility, and vrithout waiting 
for orders from his court, to relieve the 
distress. He exerted himself to raise pri- 
vate subscriptions, and placed his own 
name at the head. In 1783, he returned 
to France, having received the most flat- 
teritig expressions of esteem from con- 
gress ; and, in 17B8, was sent ambassador 
to London, where he remained till his 
death, in 1791. When the federal gov- 
ernment was organized, the secretary of 
state (Jefferson) addressed a letter to the 
chevalier De la Luzerne, by dii^ection of 
Washington, for tiie purpose of making 
an express acknowledgment of his ser- 
vices, and the sense of them entertained 
by the nation. 

Ltcanthropt (from the Greek Xwof, a 
wolf, and ivOpotnot, a man) ; as defined bv 
Cotrgrave,^a frenzie or melancholic, which 
causcth tiie patient (who thinks he is turn- 
ed woolf ) to flee all company and hide 
himself in dens and comers." Herodotus, 
with great ndtveU, tells us, that, when he 
was in Scythia, he heanl of a people 
which once a year changed themselves 
into wolves, and then resumed their origi- 
nal shape ; ^ but," adds he, ^ they cannot 
make me believe such tales, ahbough they 
not only tell them, but swear to them." 
But the lycanthropcs of the middle ages, 
or Umps-garoux, as they were called by 
the French, were sorcerers, who, during 
their wolf hood, had a most cannibal ap- 
petite for human flesh. The Germans 
call them }Vakrv\lft. Many marvellous 
stories are told by the writers of the mid- 
dle ages, of these wolf-men, or hups-ga- 
roux, and numerous authentic narratives 
remain of victims committed to the flames 
for this imaginary crime, oflen on their 
own confessions^ 

Lyceum ; an academy at Athens (q. v), 
which derived its name fit)m its situa- 
tion near the temple of Apollo, Avc<iof 
(slayer of the wolf J. In its covered 
walks, Aristotle explained his philoso- 
phy. In modem times, the name of lyce^ 
un has been given to the schools intend- 
ed to prepare young men for the uni- 
versities ; for in them the Aristotelian 
philosophy was formeriy taught in the 
scholastic form. 

Ltcia ; a maritime province of Ana 
Minor, bounded by Caria on the west, 
Pampbylia on the east, and Pisidia on the 
north. Its fertiliqr and populousneas ara 
attested by the U7 cities mentioDed l^ 

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Ke, whh A c0B g i ^B W wliioh ragulaied the 
miblie eoooeriM, anda pnadent oalM tiM 
Lyeuire/L Litde to known of the early 
hiaiorr and geognnhy of this countnr. 
(See BeaulorA EBrnmima, London. 1817.) 
LTCOPmoNy bom at Chakifl^ in Euboa. 
a Grecian gtammarian, and the author or 
ae¥wnl trajMiea) lived at Alexandria, 380 
jean B. C^ under Philadelphua, whoee 
tavor he won by the inveotkon of ana^ 
grama. He ia said to have died of a 
wound, inflicted by the arrow of an an- 
tagoniat with whom he Waa contendinff on 
the merita of the ancient poeta. Of all 
his writings, there remaina but one trar 
gedy, Coiumdra (Alexandra), which ia 
written in iambiea, and bears the maika 
of leaminff acquired by patient indusory ; 
it ia therefore veiy difficult, and filled with 
obscure allusions. It is, properly speak- 
ing, a continued soliloquy, in which Cas- 
aandra predicts the fall of Troy, and the 
ftte of all the heroea and heroines who 
shared its ruin. It affords some infonna- 
tkm of value respecting antiquities and 
mythology. A mmoiarian, named John 
Tzetzes, baa written a commentaiy upon 
it — See the edition, ewfi Cbnimentarib Jo- 
hanmi TieOzOj Cwra Jo. Potteri (Oxford, 
1607 and 1703, folio) ; also those by seems 
Reichani, with a commentaiy of Canter 
(Leipaic, 1788), by Sebostiani (Rome, 
1808), by C. 6. MiUler (Leipaic, 1811, 3 

Ltcurovs, the Spartan lawnrer, sup- 
posed to have flouririied in the latter half 
of the ninth century B. C, was, according 
to the commonly received traditions, the 
youngest son of the Spartan kins Euno- 
mus. His eldest brother, Polydectes, 
succeeded his fiither in the government, 
but died soon after, leaving the kingdom 
to Lycurgus. As the widow of Polydec- 
tes was known to be pregnant, Lycurgus 
declared that, if she bore a son, he would 
be the first to acknowledge him for his 
kinc. To convince the Lacednmouians 
of Eis sincerity, he laid aside the royal ti- 
tle, and administered the kingdom as 
guardian to the future heir. In the mean- 
while, the queen sent word to him, that, if 
he would marry her, ahe would vrithout 
delay cause the death of her child. He 
flattered her with the idea that he vrould 
comply with her wishea, until he obtained 
poesearion of the child. From the joy of 
the people at his birth, the diiki received 
the name of Chanlaui (joy of the people). 
Lycurgus, by the wisdom of hSa admmif»- 
' traiion, had already won genend esteem ; 
end his nebledlwmewatodncai now niaed 

hiaglDiTto a haif^ vHddi awoke emry 
iinatlimi in tiM minds of some of tba 
distinguished Spaitans^ with whom 
the queen conapired to revenge her dJa^K 
poiniOMDt She ansead among the pen* 
pie the opinion^ that it waa dangerous to 
aq^niat the fiiture heir of the throne to the 
man Kfho would gain moat by hia death. 
To avoid tiys auspicion, Lycurgus vras 
obhaed not only to resign the guardianahtp 
of the young kmg, but even to leave h£i 
eountiy. Whether this resolution was 
pwrdy mduced by the desire of seeing for- 
eign nations, and learning thdr mannera, 
or not, we do not know ; but, at any rate, 
he ia deacribed aa employing the time of 
hia abaence in this way. After viaating 
Crete, and admiring the wise lawa of Mi- 
noe, he went to Ionia, 'the effeminate 
and luxurious life of the inhabitants, the 
feebl^aess of their laws, which formed a 
striking contrast vrith the simplicity and 
vigor of those of Crete, made a deep 
impression upon him. Here, however, be 
is said to have become acquaiuted widi 
the poems of Homer. From hence he is 
said to have travelled into various coun- 
tries, including Egypt, India and Spain. 
But, aa we do not find in his laws any 
traces of Indian or Egyptian wisdom, this 
to be doubtful. In the meanwhile, 
the two kings, Archelaus and Charilaus, 
were esteemed neither by the people nor 
by the nobility ; and, as there were no 
laws suflcient to maintain the public tran- 
quillity, the*conliiflion passed all bouoda 
In this dangerous situation, Lycurgus was 
the onJy man finom whom heq) and deliv- 
erance c6uld be expected. The people 
Jioped fi!Om him protection asainst the 
nobke, and the kuigs believed that he 
wouki put an end to the disobedience of 
the people. More than once, ambassadors 
were aent to beg him to' come to the as- 
sistance of the state. He long resisted, 
but at last yielded to the urpent wishes 
of his follow-citizens. At his arrival in 
Sparta, he soon found that not only par- 
ticular abuses were to be suppressed, but 
that it woukl be necessary to form an 
entirely new constitution. The esteem 
v^ich his personal character, his judg- 
ment, and tne dangerous situadon of the 
stale, gave him among his fellow-citizeDs, 
encouraged him to encounter boldly all ob- 
staclea. The first step which he took was, 
to add to the kings a gemsio, or senate of 
98 persons^ venmble for their age (see 
Oerianim)^ without whose consent the 
kings wars to undertake nothing. He 
thus efibcted a osefiil balance between the 
power of the kings and the lioendousnaas 

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of ilie people. The peopk^ «t the i 
^ oMdned tfaeprinlefe of gmng tMr 

Mailed tbepnvilefe oTgrnnff tfteir 
A public afium. They had not, 
bowerer, properij epeakmgy delibentm 
pri^lemy but only the limited right of 
acoepungorof rejecdug what waspiopoe- 
edby thekingiortheaeiiate. TheSfiar- 
taoB confiMmed in general to the inedtu- 
tions of LycurgiM ; but the equal diTiaion 
of property excited amonc the rich such 
▼iotent commotionB, that tne lawgiver, to 
aaTe his life, fled towards a temple. On 
the way, he leceiTed a blow, which struck 
out one of his eyes. He merely turned 
jouttd, and showed to his pursueis his 
&ce streaming with blood. This sight 
filled all with shame and repentance ; 
they implored his pardon, and led him 
respectfully home. The person who had 
done the deed, a young man of rank, and 
of a fiery character, was given up to 1dm. 
Lycuigus pardoned him, and dismissed 
him covered with shame. After having 
dius fi>rmed a constitution for Sparta, Ly- 
cuigus endeavored to provide finr its con- 
tinuance. He made all the citizens take 
a sc^emn oath, that they would change 
nothing in the laws which he had in- 
troduced, before his return. He then went 
to Deh>hi, and asked the god whether the 
new laws were sufficient for the hapfn- 
nesB of Sparta. The answer was, <* Snar- 
ta win remain the most prosperous ot all 
states as long as it obeeares these lavra." 
He sent this answer to Lacedesmon, and 
banished himselfl He died, as it is said, of 
voluntary starvation, fivfrom his countiy ; 
according to some, at Cirrha ; according to 
othen^ at Elis or urete. According to his 
commands, his body was burnt, jSid the 
ashes thrown into the sea, lest they should 
be earned to Sparta, and the people thus 
think themselves released from their oath. 
A temple was erected in honor of him at 
Sparta, and a societ^r was instituted by his 
fiiends, which continued until the latest 
times of Sparta, and had for its object to 
eekteate the memoir of his virtues. The 
principal object of the laws of Lycurgus 
was, to introduce into his country a mi^d 
fixm of ^vemment, composed of mon- 
arehy, aristocracy and democracy, in such 
a noanner that each element was restrain- 
ed by the others. The two kings, and 
with them the'^council of Gerontes, stood 
St the head of the government, the people, 
howevery haviog an indirect influence 
upon their meesures. He divided all the 
fatfiahitants of Sparta into three, aooordiiy 
to some into six or more classes, subdi- 
TidedintoaOanbes. With this was, prob- 
ablVf ftftmift^fod the **^f!T inift fw tt?n w the 

ef jMtiee, Mid the luka of mil- 
Ai the Spitana had already 
some ptogresi m civilization, wo 
nmj well admue the resolutkm and the 
genius of Lyeurgtm^ wbo waa able to 
change not only theur civil relatkms, but 
their morals and maimen^ and to induce 
such a nation to sacrifice even the com- 
fiNTtsof life. Even his pcopositioD of the 
equal division of property, which at firtt 
was violenUy opposeo, waa still accepted 
as a law by all me citizens. At the time 
when Lycunus altered the constitution, 
there existed three clasDos — the ruling 
Spartans, the tributsry Lacediemoniana, 
and the Helot slaves. (See HMt.) 
Thou(^ it appears cruel in bun to have left 
the Helots in slavery, this waa not shock- 
ing in the eyes of tlie Greeks. They had 
no idea of the injustice of such a distinc- 
tion between men. Lycurgus sought tp 
use, in the way which he thought most ibr 
the good of the state, the bonds which na- 
ture, relationship and love fbna amonff 
n^xL He treated love only asa meanaof 
IHnoducing vigorous citizens for the state, 
and thus preserving nati<Mial indepen- 
dence. He appointed punishments fiir 
immarried men, and for those who mar- 
ried too late, or mairied persons of a Very 
tmequal age. He made it difficult for 
those who vrere newly married to meet 
their vrives, that their pasrions might thus 
remain unabated ; and he allowedf old or 
impotent men to lend their wives to vig- 
orous youtiis, and men of a sound consb- 
tution, if their wives were weak and im- 
potent, to take others. Children were not 
the property of die parentis but of the 
state. The state determined on their life 
or death, and directed their education 
vrithout regard to the parentsi To intro- 
duce temperance and moderation among 
the people, he ordered that the houses 
should be built in the most simple man- 
ner, and that aU should take their meals 
in public, affixing also sevwe penalties to 
debauchery and drunkenness. No flur- 
eigner could remain in Sparta fenger than 
was neoessary; no Spartan, except in 
times of war, could leave the countiy. 
The people were allowed to possess nei- 
ther gold nor silver; but iron was used 
for monev. The Spartans were never to 
devote themselves to the sciences, but 
only to learn the most indispensable 
brsnches of knowledge ; they were not to 
have theatres, nor to perftct theur muac; 
they could have among them neither ar- 
tists nor onton without the consent of the 
government Lyomjpis made no chaope 
m the leligiouieoiMtitutioa of Spaita; hia 

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used itp on tfie eontnury, far bis pofitiod 
nndBf and united die highest priestly dig- 
nity with the royal office. He oidefed a 
simple burial for the dead, forbade all 
public lamentations, and limited private 
mourning to 11 days. He allowed, how- 
ever, the dead to be buried in the city, 
and monuments to be erected to them in 
the temples, in order that the hope of ob- 
taining such honors after death might 
lessen the fear of losing life. With regard 
to the administration of justice, he gave 
but few laws ; but these were sufficient, if 
the other laws were obeyed. The quar- 
rels which arose were decided either by 
&e kings, or by the asKmbly of the peo- 
ple, or by the gerusia, or, more generally, 
by impardal and equitable citizens. One 
of the most remarkable institutions of 
Lycurgus, was the military education of 
the Spartan youth, which was such as to 
deitooy all sensibility to suffering, and to 
overcome the fear of death. Tlie begin- 
ning of a war was to them the beginning 
of a festival, and the camp was a place 
of recreation, for here ceased oil that strict- 
ness of hfe which was observed at home ; 
even the bodily exercises were less fre- 
quent Victory or death was their highest 
glory; eternal shame followed the cow- 
ards and those who fled. The courage 
of the Spartans was maintained, also, by 
those laws which forbade tbem to sur- 
round their city with walls, to fight oflen 
with the same enemy, to ]mrsue too far a 
routed enemy, to plunder the dead during 
batde, and also by the solemn burial of 
their heroes, the monuments to their 
memory, the fosdvals and temples in their 
honor. Nevertheless, Lycurgus did not 
intend that the Spartans should be- 
come a conquering nation, as is evident 
from his forbidding them a navy. — The 
institutions of Lycurgus have l)een blamed 
as much as they have been praised. Pla- 
to, in particular, accuses them of destroy- 
ing eveiy thing humane, and making me- 
chanical valor the highest virtue, and thinks 
that this suppression of all the feelings of 
humanity was the cause of the count- 
leas evils which fell upon Lacedsemon, 
and were prepared by her for other na- 
tions. Thucydides makes Pericles say, 
that the virtue of the Spartans is morose, 
and founded only upon fear, and that 
their education made them cruel and in- 
human.-^We have here given the com- 
monly received traditions concerning Ly- 
curgus and his institutions, which, now- 
ever, must be received with much caution* 
If there were such an individual, — ^for this 
Is doubtful,— he lived before the time of 

hiflQrical eettaiDQr; and what an called 
his Iswa^ were probably the usages and 
institutions whicn were conunon to the 
whole Doric race fix>m the earliest period. 
A very full and critical examination of the 
whole subject may be found in Miiller's 
learned work. Die Doriar^ which has beeu 
translated into English, under the title of 
the History and Antiquities of die Doric 
Race (2 vol&, 8vo., London, 1830). 

Lyaargua was also the name of an Attic 
orator of some celebrity. He was a con- 
temporary of Demosthenes, whom he sur- 
vived, and was fiunous for his integrity. 
Only one of his orations, distinguished for 
strength and dignity, has been preserved 
to us. The latest editions are those of 
Heiurich, Osaim and Becker, ull of 1821. 
Ltdia (in ancient times, Mttoma) ; a 
large and fertile country of Asia Minor. 
The louiaus inhabited the part on the coast 
of the Ionian sea. Towards the south, it 
was separated from Caria by tiie Mieon- 
der (now Meinder) ; towards the east, it 
was bounded by Phrygia, and on the 
north by Mysia. It was, in early times, a 
celebrated kingdom, divided from Persia 
by the river llalys (now Kizil Ermak). 
Cyrus conquered Crcesus (q. v.), the last 
Lydian king. The people, especially un- 
der this king, were die richest, and, per- 
haps, also, the most effeminate and luxu- 
rious in all Asia. The Lydians invent- 
ed luxurious garments, cosUy carpets, 
precious ointments, and exquisite viands ; 
and a kind of Grecian music, which was 
said to bear the character of effeminacy, 
was called the Lydian, They also laid 
out beautiful gardens. They nrst discov- 
ered the secret of communicating impo- 
tence to men, that they might use them 
to guard tiieir wives and concubines. In 
the time of Herodotus, the corruption of 
niannera among the Lydians ^vos ahiiady 
so great, that the women publicly sold 
their charms. Their example corrupt- . 
ed also the lonians. The weoldi of the 
Lydians, however, was probably, in a 
great measure, confined to the kings and 
chief men. These could fill Uieir coffera 
witii the gold washed down by the Her- 
mus (now ^-abat) and the Pactolus, and 
that obtained from the mines; and tliey 

Erocured all the necessities of life by the 
ibor of their slaves, whose services they 
requited, not with monev, but witii the pro- 
ductions of the soil. They could dius ac- 
cumulate the precious metals. Cnssus 
was richer than all his predecessors, for 
he subjected the whole coast of Farther 
Asia, apd plundered all the comnier- 
oial citiasL Although it cannot be proved 

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tbm tiM Ljrdiflni had, in 
my ooonderaUe eommeroey it caimot bo 
denied that they had, kmg before the 
CtoskBi aimlned a certam degree of dvil* 
intioD, and that the Grecian colooiea in 
Lower Asia owed to the Lydians their 
fluperioiiQr over the' mother eountiy in the 
aitt and aciencea. Among other things, 
they owed to them the inventipn of goJd 
and nlver ooina, of inna, of certain mu- 
eical inMnunenla, the art of dyeing wool 
(which was afterwards caiiied to such per- 
feoiaQ in Miletus,) also the art of melting 
and woriung ore, andf perhaps^ the fiist 
mdimentB of painting and of sculp- 
ture. At Sordis, the capital of the 
ooimtry, the Grecians, Phrygians, and 
even ihe nomadic tribes, bartered their 
goods. There was here a neat maiket 
rortlie shiYe-trade, which mmisbed the 
harems of Penria with eunuchs. Lydia 
now beftongs to the Turiuah district of 
Natolia (Anadoly). (See Claike's and 
Chandler^ TVoself.) 

Ltbiat, Thomas ; a leaned Eng^iish 
divine, mathematician and chronologer of 
the seventeenth centuiy, who composed 
several learned worlm, some of which he 
was prevented ^m publishing by his pe- 
euniaiy embarrassments, which were oc- 
easicmed by his having become security 
ftr another person's debts, and subjected 
him to imprisonment. He afterwards 
sufiered greatly for his attachment to the 
royal cause, in the civil v^ars, and died in 
obscurity and indigence, in 1646. 

Ltdus. John Laurentius, commonly 
eaHed Lyduij ftom the province in which 
he was Iwni (A. D. 490), lived at Constanti- 
nople, where he held several offices of 
trust under Jusdnian. He is principally 
known by his weak De MagistnOUnu Rev 
puUicKe BmnantEj which was printed, for 
the ftrat time, in 1812, ftxnn a manuscript, 
obtained in 1785^ by Choiseul-Gouffier, 
Frmch ambassadcM'at Constantinople. It 
was edited, with a learned commentair 
on the life and writings of Lydus, by At. 
Hase (q. v.). Niebuhr calls it a new and 
rich aource of Roman history. His other 
worifis are on the Months (in Greek), of 
which we have only fingments, and on 
Omena (in Greek), of winch some firag- 
ments only were before known, but nearly 
the whole of which is contained in tlie 
manuserqit of ChoiseuL 

Lrine-To ; the situation of a ship when 
she is retarded in her courae by ananging 
die sails in such a manner that the y coun* 
tsraet each other vrith neariy equal effect^ 
and render the Mp ahnost stationaiy with 

faioqi^tf^ by kjiBg ehher hflr 
sailorfore-lop-aatlabaekythe behn being 
]Hitck)ee down to leeward. Thisispar- 
tkulariy pnustised in a jrenenl engage- 
ment^ whien the hostile fleets are drawn 
up to battle. 

Ltkah, Phinehas, m^jor-general, bom 
at Duriuun, abont 1716, received his de- 
gree at Yale college in 1738; was chosen, 
whilst a senior sophister, one of the Bedt-- 
kian schohus ; and, in 1739, was aj^rauit- 
ed a tutor, and in that capacity passed 
three yean. He then commenced the 
studyof law ; and soon after his admittanee 
to the bar, acquired an extensive practice* 
In 1750^ he was choeen a representative 
in the assemUv of Connecticut, fiom the 
town of Suffield, and, in 1753, was elect- 
ed a member of the cotmcil, in which he 
continued until 1759. In 1755, he wan 
appointed maior-generB] and commander* 
in-chief of the Connecticut forces, and 
heU this post until the conclusion of the 
Canadian war, durixiff which he acquired 
a high reputation for military skill and 
biavery. At the battle of lake George, 
the command of the British armv devolv- 
ed upon him, in consequence of sir Wil- 
liam Johnsonii having been wounded in 
the commencement of the action. In 
1762; he commanded the American forces, 
m the expedition to Havana, in which 
he rendered important services. After- 
wards f||eneral J^yman went to England an 
agent for the company of *< military ad- 
venturers,'' composed chiefly of such as 
had served during the war, whose object 
was to obtain fi^om the government a tract 
of land on the Mississippi and Yazoo» 
where they proposed to establish a colony. 
L^man had counted upon the ftiendship 
of some of the ministiy for success in hja 
application ; but, before his anival^ they 
had been removed, and, after bein^ 
amused for several yean with illusory 
promises, he became convinced that he 
bad nothing to hope. Not Ixmf able ta 
brook the idea of returning to his native 
country in the light of an unsuccessful 
supplicant, he determined to pass the re- 
mainder of his days in Enjg;land. He 
spent 11 yeazB there, almost in a state of 
imbecility, when, in 1774, his son waa 
sent by Mrs. Lyman to beg him to return* 
This cireumstance, in conjunction with 
the grant of the tract in question about tha 
same time, roused him ftom his letbaijaf^ 
and he once more appeared in America. 
After iqwnding a short time in Connecti- 
cut, he embariced, in 1775^ for the BBssis- 
sippi, with his eklest son and a few com- 
paniomk Ifiifiunily fottcrersd himiuthn 

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Best year, bat hiB son had ^[MeTiouslj died, 
and Ub iHfe expired aooD after her arrind. 
Hk fiunily renuiDed in that countnr until 
it was invaded and conquered by the 
Spaniards in 1781 and 1782, when the 
mole colony fled to Savannah in Georgia. 
General Lyman died in Weet Florida, in 
1778, a short time after his son. Doctor 
Dwigbt remaiks, in a sketch of the history 
of tiie ftmily, that, for a considerable time, 
no American poseased a higher or more 
eztensire reputation. 

Ltmph (hfn^fha); an aqueous liquid, 
ooloriesB, insipid, and diaphanous, diffused 
tlirouffh the whole animal economy, in 
▼esseto called lymfhaiks. If allowed to 
stand. It separates uto two parts, like the 
bkxid— a serous fluid, and a solid, or clot 
The lymph serves to repair losses of 
the blood, by bringing to it various mate- 
rials from dmerent parts of the system, 
and chyle, which is mixed with the 
lymph in the thoracic duct It seems also 
to remove those elements of nutrition, 
whose place is to be supplied by others, 
and to transmit them to the surface. The 
uses and history of lymph, however, are 
yet imperfectly known. The lymphatic 
▼easels were not known till towards the 
middle of the seventeenth century. Tbey 
are small, thin, transparent, furnished with 
▼aires, like the reins, and spread through 
diflferent parts and organs. The cause of 
the circulation of the lymph is unknown, 
as there does not appear to be any im- 
pelling organ analogous to the heart It 
has been supposed that the absorbent 
power exercised at their mouths impels the 
liquid fbrwitfd, that already absori>ed being 
thus displaced by the new absorptions. 
These vessels arise in every )Nut of the 
body, and terminate in the thomcic duct 

LrifCEt/s. (See Damaidea.) 

LrifCH, Thomas, junior ; oue of the sign- 
ers of the dedamtion of independence, 
IxMn in South Carolina, August 5, 1749, 
and sent to Eton school, England, in his 
13th year. He w^ admitted a gentleman 
commoner at Cambridge university, where 
be took his degree's, and afterwanls com- 
menced his terms in the Temple. In 
177^ he returned to South Carolina, after 
an absence of eight or nine years. His 
father had warmly espoused the cause of 
colonial emancipation, and Mr. Lynch sus- 
tained him with ability. lu 1775, the 
first regiment of provincial regulars was 
raised in South Carolina, and Mr. Lynch 
was appointed to tlie command of a com- 
pany, and soon raised his quota of troop& 
His exertions, while on this duty, injured 
his health, and, when he joined liis regi- 

ment late in the year 1775, a violent i 
of the bilioos fever of the country, had i 
dnced him to an extremely fe^e 
His &tfaer having resigned his seat in coo- 
gress on account of ill health, he was 
elected to succeed him. At the period of 
his election he was but 27 yeaia of age. 
He took his seat in the congress of 17/6^ 
and his character and talents made him 
highly esteemed there. His health soon 
declined ; and, after affixing his name to 
the instrument which decliued his coun- 
try's independence, he retired from puUic 
life. A change of climate being recom- 
mended, he was induced to run the risk 
of a voya^ to Europe, and embarked, 
with his wife, about the dose of the year 
1779, for St Eustatia. He was never 
after heard from, and the shipis supposed 
to have foundered at sea. ^ 

Ltrchburo ; a town in Columbia coun- 
ty, Virginia, on the south bank of James 
river ; lat ar* 3(/ N. ; Ion. 79° 23^ W. ; 
population in 1830, 4626. It is situated 
20 miles below the sreat fails, where 
James ri^er breaks mrough the Blue 
ridge, and is one of the most flourishing 
and commercial towns in the state. It 
contains several public ware-houses, in 
which a large quantity of tobacco is an- 
nually inspected. It has also tobacco 
manufactories, tobacco stemmaries, and 
numerous establishments for trade and 
manufactures. There are in the vicinity 
mamifacturing flour mills on an extensive 
scale, and cotton and woollen manufacto- 
ries. In the neighborhood of the town 
are four mineral springs. Lynchburg was 
established in 17^3(3, and incorporated in 
18Ci). It is built mostly on the dechvity 
of a hill. The surrounding country is 
rugged, broken and mountainous, but 
abounds in fertile valleys, and is populous. 
From its siniation, it commands an exten- 
sive trade, not only with the western part 
of Virginia, but the states of North Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, Kentucky and Ohio. 
The articles brought to the market consist 
of tobacco, wheat, flour, hemp, butter, 
whiskey, cider, beef^ Uve hogs, &c Tite 
produce is conveyed in batteaux down the 
river to Richmond, which is the depot of 
all the merchandise passing from Lynch- 
burg destined to foreign markets. 
Ltndhurst, lord. (See Copley,) 
Ltn^t; a post-town in Sussex county, 
Massachusetts ; 5 miles S. W. of Salem, 9 
N. N. E. Boston ; Ion. 70° SS' W. ; lat 42« 
28^ N. : population in 1820, 4515 ; in 1830, 
6138. It is noted for the manufacture of 
shoes. About 1,500,000 p^r of women's 
shoes are made here annually. Th^na is 

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A nunenl spring in tins town, near which 
is ^ hotiw for the accommodation of tis- 
ilen. Its Indian name was Saugus, — 
i^fim headi connects the peninsula of Nsr 
hant to the main kmd. (See ^TahanL) 

Ltnx. This name has been applied to 
most of the cats with short tails: serenl 
qpecies were formeriy confounded by Lin- 
nesus under this head, and tliere is sdll much 
eonfusion respecting them. The laigest 
and most b^utifuT, the F. carvarioj is 
found in Asia and Russia. The lynx of 
Cuiope, the F. lynxy has become rare, ex- 
eept in the Pyrenees, and part of the Ap- 
ennines. This animal is about three feet 
kmg, and is veiy destructive to the smaller 
qui^rupeds. It was celebrated, among 
die ancients, as having been harnessed to 
the car of Bacchus, in his conquest of 
India. They also attributed great quick- 
ness of sight to it, and feigned that its 
urine was converted into a precious stone. 
The dun of the male is 4>otted, and is 
more valuable in winter than in summer. 
The caracal (F. caracal) is somewhat 
laiger than a fox, and derives its name 
from the black color of its ears, the word 
caracal signifying black in the Turkish 
language. There are several species of 
these animals in North America, the best 
known of which is the Northern or Can- 
ada lynx (F. Canadensis). Pennant con- 
sidered it as identical with the lynx of ^ 
the old world ; Geoffroy St. Hiloire named 
it as a distinct species, and Temniinck has 
again, under the name of F. borealisy de- 
scribed the species as the same in both 
hemispheres. It is known by the name 
of loup-ceroier, and le chatj among the 
French Canadians. It is found in great 
abundance in the districts about Hudson's 
bay, from whence seven to nine tliousand 
skins are annually exported. It is a timid 
creature, incapable of attacking the larger 
quadrupeds, but very destructive to rabbits 
and hares, on which it chiefly preys. It ' 
makes but little resistance when brought 
to bay by a hunter; for though, like a cat, 
it spits, and erects the hair on its hack, it 
is easily destroyed by a blow with a slender 
stick. It is about three feet long from the 
tip of its nose to the end of its tail, which 
is about six inches in length, with a black 
tip. Its large paws, slender loins, and 
long, but thick hind legs, with large but- 
tocks, scarcely relieved by a short, thick 
tail, give it a cluing and awkwaixl ap- 
pearance. Its gait is by bounds, straight 
forward, with the back a Uttie arched, and 
lighting on all tlie feet at once. It swims 
well, and will cross the arm of a lake of 
two miles in width, but is not swifl on 

land. Its flesh is eaten, beingftt, white, and 
somewhat resembling the rabbit in flavor. 
It breeds once a year, having two young 
tf a time. The other American 'species 
are F, rvfa and F.fasdaia, both of which 
are smaller than the preceding. The 
fonner occurs in the Atlantic states as 
well as to the north and west ; the latter 
appears to be confined to the borders of 
plams, and the woody countiy in the 
vicinity of the Pacific. From the ac- 
counts of travellers in the northern and 
western parts of this contment, it is prob- 
able that there is more than one non- 
descript animal of this ^nus, especial- 
ly in the countriesv bordenng on the Co- 
lumbia ; but, as the skins procured fit>m 
thence are carried directi^ to China, they 
seldom come under the mspection of the 

LroNNAis ; a ci-devant province in the 
eastern part of France, of which Lyons 
was tiie capital. It consisted of Lyonnais 
Proper, Beaujolais and Forez. It now 
forms the departments of the Rhone and 
the Loire. (See Department,) 

Ltonnet, Peter, a celebrated natural- 
ist, bom in 1707, at Maestricht, graduated 
at Utrecht, and was for some time a coun- 
sellor at the Hague. He afterwards be- 
came secreCaiy, and Latin and French 
interpreter to the states of Holland. This 
situation occupying but little of his time, 
he employed himself in researches into 
the natural history of insects and other 
animals, particularly such as were to be 
found in tiie vicinity of the Hague. He 
formed a valuable collection of shells, 
and was admitted into many of the prin- 
cipal scientific societies in Eiuope. His 
death took place Jan. 10, 1789. His most 
important production is entitied TraiU 
anatomiqfue de la CheniUe qui range k Bois 
de Saide (1760, 4to.}--a work no less re- 
markable for originality of design than for 
splendor of execution. Lyonnet was dis- 
tinguished for his skill as a painter and 
engraver, and he displayed much ingenu- 
ity in improving microscopes, and other 
uistruments used in makiug his observa- 

Lyons, or, properly, Lyon {Lugduntan) ; 
the second city of France, situated on the 
Rhone and Saone, 93 leagues S. E. of 
Paris, and 63 N. W. of Marseilles ; archi- 
episcopal see ; capital of the department 
of the Rhone; hcad-quartere of a military 
division; and seat of numerous adminis- 
trative and judicial authorities; lat 45^ 
4& N. ; Ion. 4^ 49' E. ; population, in- 
cluding the suburbs, in 1828, 185,723. 
Three bridges cross the Rhone, which is 

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LTON8-tLTON8» gulp OP. 

bera about 690 Ib0t wide, and oAbd oecar 
mourn great deetnictiQii by ite inu n dariofi^ 
aa waa the case particulariY in 1819 and 
1835. ' The Sa6ne, which is 480 fe^ 
md^ » croaeed by alz bridgea. The 
riven are lined with wharvea, aome of 
which are adorned with liandaome build- 
inga, thronged with boata of Tarioua de- 
soriptiona^ and reeound with tiie hum of 
numerous mills and water-ehope. The 
interior of the city preaenta the aspect of 
an old town, with narrow and dmk streets^ 
lined with houses seven or eight sumea 
high, built aohdiy of alone. The pare* 
ments are pebUeai and there are no side- 
walks. Some of the atreeca, in the mqre 
modem quarters of the citT,*are more 
apBcious and handsome. There are 59 
public amiarea, among wlueh that of Louia 
le Grand, or Bellecour, one of the moat 
magnificent in Europe, ia adorned with 
beautiful hmo-treea, and an equestrian 
statue of Louis XIY. The monastic 
grounds and aardens have been mostly 
covered with Buildings since the revolu- 
tion« Among the principal buildings are 
the splendid hdtd de tnZZe, next to that of 
Amsterdam, the finest in Europe ; the 
palace of commerce and the arts, con- 
nected with which are lecture-halls, where 
various courses of lectures are delivered ; 
the vast prefect-house, formerly a Domin- 
ican convent, with an extensive garden ; 
the principal hospital, or hdtdDieu; the 
Gothic cathedral of St John, &c. There 
are also numerous hospitals and churches, 
apaZau dtpuUet, and an extensive prison, 
llie tower of Pitmt, erected on an eleva- 
tion to the north of the city, for an obser- 
vatory, fell down in 1838, but has since 
been reconstructed. Many antiques have 
been found in the part of the city situated 
on the ancient Fhrvm Trojamiy and on the 
site of an imperial Roman palace. Med- 
als, coins, vases, statues, lachrymatories, 
&a, with remains of aqueducts, of a the- 
atre, and Roman baths, are among the 
relics of antiquity. On the hill of Four- 
vi^ree is a genend cemetery, adorned with 
trees and handsome tombs, laid out in 
1806. Lyons contains one of the finest 
libraries m France, consisting of 93,000 
volumes. Among its scientific and useful 
institutions are a royal college, medical 
and theological schools ; an academy of 
science, literature and the arts ; agricultu- 
ml, Linn«Ban, medical, law, Bible and 
other societies ; a nwid de pidiy savings- 
bank, &C. The commerce and manu&c- 
lures are extensive ; the most important 
article is silk, the manufiMStures of which 
are celebrated lor their firmneaa and 

dOc and woottaa, «i 
cotton stuA^ baaotiibl ahawli^ 
hoae, gM and aihw laosL Ue^ are 
the produeai of bar taidi»tiy. A laiga 
propoition of ail the ailk niaed in Fkanea, 
and great ^uantitiea faramted fimm Itahr, 
are wrouffht up hare. The sib raised m 
the vicimty is remai&abie lor its while- 
neas. In 1838, the number of ssiabBwh- 
menta for the manufiicture of aSk waa 
{within die walk) 7140^ and that of the 
looma, 18,839. Printing and the book 
nrade, papei^hanginA the manoAeture 
of glaas, jewels, arnfidal ifewen, keli^ 
&C., give oocapatkm to numerous bandsk. 
Lyona haa an extensive tiaasit trade of 
provisions for the southern dties^ and of 
the oil and aoap of Provence, and tile 
winea of Languedo<^ fer the nevthoni. 
Numerous and extensive warahouasa Mid 
docks facilitate the great conmiereisl ope- 
retiona of this queen of Eaalem France. 
The Lyonneae are induatrioua, pradent, 
acute, intelliaent and honeat llie time 
of the foundadon of Lyons is uncertBin. 
Augustus made it the capital of Cdtie 
Gaul, which received the name of Lugdnh- 
nenaia. In the reicn of Nero, it was 
burned to the ground. In the mtti cen- 
tury, the Burgundians made it theip capi- 
tal In the twelfib century, the aeot of 
Waldenses was founded by Peter de Vaod, 
«a merchant of Lyonsi Italten fugitivea, 
who came to seek refbge fifom t^ rage 
of parties in their countiy, in the thirteenth 
century, brought with them their arts and 
wealth. Lyons sufifered much during the 
religious ware of the sixteenth centmy, 
and was recovering from its losses when 
the revolution of the eighteenth again 
covered it with desolation. The dtiswna 
having risen against the terrorists^ in their 
municipal government, and the Jacobin 
club (May &, 1793), the convention sent 
an army of 60,000 men againaf the de- 
voted city, which, after a breve resistance 
of 63 days, was taken. CoUot dUerbou 
and Couthon erected the guillotine, en 
penrummce^ and, dissatisfied mth this 
slow method of execution, maasacred the 
citizens, in crowds, with grape-dioL 
The fortifications, and many buildingB, 
were demolished, the name of Lyons 
abolished, and that of Ville-Affianchie 
substituted for it In 181^ it was die 
theatre of aeveral bloody actions between 
the French and the alli^i. 

Lyons, Gulp of (GaOiau Sbmrn) ; a 
bay of the Mediterranean, on the aoodi- 
eastern coast of FVanoe, between kt 491* 
W and 43^39 N., and between knua^ 
and 6^ SXy E. The principal pctli on 

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Ihis golf a» Toulon, IfoneiUes and Gette. 
It s now called, by tOe French wrUen, 
€hift du Liouy tbo name being derived 
fiom the agkation of its waters. (See 

Ltrb ; the moat ancient stringed instru- 
BMnt among the Egyptians and Greeks. 
The mvthologicol tradition of tlie origin 
of liie E^ptian lyre, the more ancient of 
the two, 18 curious. Afler an inundation 
of the Nile, a tortoise was left ashore 
among other animals ; after its death, its 
flesh decayed, and some of the tendons 
were dried by the sun, so as to produce a 
sound when touched by lieimes, as he 
was walking on shore. He immediately 
made an instrument in imitation of it, and 
thus invented the lyre. Tliis lyre, origi- 
nally, had but three strines. The Greeks 
ascribed the invention of the lyre to their 
Hermes (Mercury), the son of Jupiter 
and Maio. (Paus, v.) But the Greeks 
also say, that Hermes first used the shell 
of a tortoise. According to otliers, Mer- 
cuiy merely improved the invention of 
the Egyptian. Diodonis tells us that 
Apollo felt so much repentance for his 
ouelty towards Marsyas, tliat he tore the 
strings from his cltheni. The muses, 
after this, invented a tone, and Orpheus, 
Linus and Thamyras, one each. These, 
being added to the thre^-stringed Egyp- 
tian lyre, gave rise to the heptachord, or 
sevenHssriuged lyre of the Greeks. The 
invention of the instrument has also been 
ascribed to each of its chief improvers. The 
Egyptian and Grecian lyres were, at first, 
strung with the sinei/vs of animals. The 
num^r of the strings was at last increased 
to eleven. It was played with the pltc- 
Iruffi, or lyre-slick, of ivory or polished 
wood, also with the fingers. The lyre 
was called by different names — lifrajphor- 
flitnx, chdifs, barbitos, barbiton^ cimara. 
The bodv of the lyre was hollow, to in- 
crease the sound. Few objects are so 
graceful in form, and susceptible of such 
various application in the fwe arts, as the 
lyre, which is even yet used as a musical 
instrument It is the symbol of Apollo, 
yet other deities also bear the lyre ; and 
mythology mentions many gods, who dis- 
tinguished themselves on this instrument 
It was played by educated Greeks in gen- 
eral ; and Tbemistocles having once de- 
clined plaviog when requested, he was 
considered a person witliout cultivation. 
*AfM*«i«0f (unmusicalj signified an illiieraU 
man. In a work of^ Doni, entitled lAfra 
Barberina^ the various forms of the lyre 
are collected in two large volumes. — Lyric 
WM^ origually, what belongs to the lyre; 

it was applied to Mmgs sung to dio 
lyre, odes, ttc, and soon came to desig- 
nate a species of poetry contradistinguish- 
ed from dramatic poetty, wliich was ac- 
companied by flutes. (See Z^ric Poetry.) 
LiRics. Lyric poetiy is that speaes 
of poetiy by which the poet directly ex- 
presses his emotions. The predominance 
of feeling in lyric poetiy is what chiefly 
distinguishes it from dramatic poetry, in 
which action and character, independent 
of the individual emotion of the poet, 
predominate; and from epic poetry, of 
which a series of actions and characters, 
as contemplated and exhibited by the 
poet, is the characteristic. No definite 
limit can be readily drawn between such 
departments of the art There may be 
lyrical passages in an epic, or a drama, when 
op|M>rtuiiJty is afforded to the poet to pour 
out his own excited and exalted feeling ; 
but it is an irregularity, and a dangerous 
one. Poets of moderate talents, or httle 
experience, are apt to burthen the reader 
with themselves, unable to follow up the 
representation of hfe in a form not indi- 
vidually their own. Lyric poetry is more 
limited than the drama (q. v.) and the 
epic (q. v.), because feeling is limited to 
the present; but, on this account, it is 
more excited and stirring. From the na- 
ture of lyric poetry, it has flourished bet- 
ter at court than the dramatic and epic, 
both of which, like history, require liberty, 
because they must represent truly the 
character of man in his manifold strivin|;8, 
which cannot be done but by viewing hfe 
unpartially,and depicting it freely ; whilst 
the lyric poet, in most of his highest 
efforts, aims to express his adoration, be it 
of a hero, or his mistress, or nature, or 
God ; and this tone coincides veiy well 
with the adulation of courts. Hence, 
when the drama and epic have gone^ 
down Willi the decay of national inde- 
pendence and spirit,' and genius, debarred 
from action, lives only in contemplation, 
lyric poetj-y continues, and not unfre- 
quently even flourishes, because man al- 
ways feds ; admiration, love and hatred 
camiot die. Even the slave may ex- 
press in verse the accents of love or 
adulation ; and religion, in all circum- 
stances, is a never-failing spring of 
elevated feeling. We must not sup- 
pose, however, that every expression of 
feeling, in verse, deserves the name of a 
lyrical poem, although the mistake is a 
very common one, as the crowds of un- 
fledged aspirants to lyric honora testify. 
It is necessifuy that the feeling represent- 
ed should be itself poetical, and not only 

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trartkjr to be pmaned^ but •eeompmiirf 
bj a vaneQr of ideon, beauQr of iiiuigeiy, 
and an ekrauent flow of language. One 
distinct ieefing ahould predominate, giv- 
ing tone to the whole: the feeling must 
be worthy of- the subject which caused it, 
emrespondiug to the same both in degree 
and kind, and must he so exhibited as to 
give a living picture of the poet's mind ; 
while, at the same time, what is merely in- 
dividual and accidental must be excluded, 
80 that the poet shall be truly the repre- 
sentative of bis race, and awaken the sym- 
pathy of aU. But this requires genius of a 
nigh order. From the nature of feeling 
results the limited range of lyric poetiy, 
and the variety of style and rhythm, ex- 
hibited in ahiiost numberiess metres, the 
bold sssociations of ideas, and the pecu- 
liar iraagerv belonging to this species of 
poetry. The tone of lyric poetry is 
warmest if it expresses feeung called forth 
by present circumstances. It is more 
composed when it represents feelings 
which are past The hymns of the an- 
cients, the ode in general, the song and 
hymn, with which are connected several 
metriisal forms of die Italians and Span- 
iards (aoanets, canzonif &C.), belong to the 
£onaer; the epigram, in the Greek sense 
of the term, tne elegv, &c., to the latter. 
(See the various articles, and X^re.) 

LvsAirnER ; a Spartan general, who ter- 
minated the Peloponnesian war by the 
conquest of Athens, B. C. 404. With the 
activity, and ambition, and penetration of 
Themistocles, he united the pliancy and 
inmnusring address of Alcibiades. He 

red more easily, and retained longer, 
&vor of the great and powerful, than 
Alcibiades did the hearts of women and 
of the multitude. He sacrificed the wel- 
fare of his countiy to his own ambition. 
He used every means to elevate his 
friends and rum his enemies. Justice 
and truth to bun were empty words. He 
used to say, that if one cannot accomplish 
his purposes in a lion's skin, he must put 
on the fox's. Force and fnud were nis 
BoUtical instruments. In the court of 
Cyrus the Younger, where he resided a 
long time, he endured, without a murmur, 
the haughtiuesB of the Asuitic satraps ; 
and, soon after, he exhibited the same 
airc^gance towards the Greeks. His ha- 
tred was implacable, and his revenge terri- 
ble. His ruling passion was ambition. 
He destroyed the powerful city of Atiiens, 
and conceived the plan of raising his 
country to the summit of gieamess, at 
the same tune that it was to be under 
his own rule. He used every means to 

mottmfXUk this ol^; lie eoUectad a 
fleet, and repubed the Athenians^ who 
kMt in the engagement 50 vessels. The 
j^ofy of this victoiy he endeavored to 
mcrease by intrigues. When, theiefm, 
Callicratides, who succeeded him in flie 
command, had been defeated by the 
Athenian Conon, in an engagement near 
Arginuaoe, in which he lost nis life, Ly- 
saiuier, contrary to the established custom 
of Sparta, was a second time appointed 
admnal of the fleet He immediately 
sought the Athenian fl^t, which VFas 
much superior to the Spartan ; it lay at 
anchor before iEgospotainoe. Only nine 
of the ships escaped the fury of bis attack ; 
one earned tiie news of the defeat to 
Athens ; with the rest, Conon, the Athe- 
nian admiral, escaped to Evagoras, king 
of Cyprus. The remainder of the fleet 
fell into the hands of the Spartans, almoet 
without resistance, and Lysander sailed 
with it into the port of Lampsacus in 
triumph. He put to death the prisonen 
(3000i with their generals, because they 
had tnrown from a rock the crews of two 
Corinthian vessels, and had determined to 
cut off the right hand of all the Pelopon- 
nesian prisoners. After this defeat, all 
the Athenian allies went over to the Spar- 
tans. In the cities and islands which had 
surrendered, he abolished the democratic 
government, and founded an oligarchy. 
Witii a fleet of 180 ships, he tiien sur- 
rounded Athens by sea, while Agis and 
Pausanias enclosed it with a powerftU 
army on land. Famine at length com- 
pelled the Athenians to siurender. They 
lost their independence, and considered 
themselves happy that their city was not 
destroyed. An oligarchy of 30 tyrants 
was now established which was adminis- 
tered with the most terrible cruelty. Ly- 
sander then returned to Lacedaemon, 
where his character was well undeivtood ; 
yet the splendor of his victories, his extrsr 
ordinary liberality, and his apparent disin- 
terestedness, save him such an ascend- 
ency tliat, in tact, if not in name, he was 
sovereign of all Greece. Contrary to the 
laws of Lycurgus, he brought into Spaita 
immense sums of money, and valuable 
treasures, and thus ruineid the Spartan 
virtue. He now attempted to accomplish, 
by artifice, his k)n||[HSonceived plan of de- 
stroying the constimtion of his countiy, 
by admittmg to the throne not only all 
the Heraclidn^ but all native Spartan^ 
and, finally, aasuming the seeptre himadt 
Apollo hln»elf was to have declared that 
to secure the prosperity and hanpineas « 
Spaita, ita woithieit oitiieBS abotiki ik 

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Qpoo fli6 dmno* But tfw uKUMnt that 
tlie finod WB8 to Iuitb been committed 
in die tempb at Ddphi, one of the 
priesli retracted his consent, from lear 
of the conaeaueoces, and frustrated the 
Tvbole plot, altliough it was not discovered 
mndl after tbe dnoh of Lysander, wh«i 
the plan was fomid among his papen. 
He was killed in a battle, in tbe Boeotian 
war, in which he commanded the Spartan 
forces fK C. 394). His merooiy was 
honorea in Sparta ; lor the nation, blind 
ID his guilt, regarded him as a yirtuous 
dtizen^ since he did not enrich himself 
but lived always in great poverty. His 
life has been written by Plutarch. 

Ltsiab ; an Athenian orator, who flour^ 
jshed between the 80th and 100th Olym- 
piads, about 458 & C. His father, Cepha- 
lu, was likewise an orator, of whom Plato 
makes honorable mention in his Republic. 
Soon after his Other's death, Lysias, then 
in the 15ch year of his age, went to Thu- 
riuro, in Magna Gnecia, to smdy jphiloso- 
nhy and eloquence under . lisias and 
Nicias of Syracuse. Having setded in 
Thurium, he was employed in the gov- 
ernment ; but, on the defeat of the Athe- 
nians in Sicily, he was banished, with 
many of bis counuymen. He returned 
to Athens; but the 90 tyrants banished 
him from diat city, and he retired to Meg- 
ara. After Athens had recovered its 
freedom, he exerted himself for the advan- 
tue of the city, and even sacrificed much 
or his properQr for the public welAre. 
Yet, notwithstanding his generosity, the 
rights of an Athenian citizen were never 
ipvnted him. At first, he gave instruction 
m eloquence; but, filing himself sur- 
passed bv TheodoruB^ another teacher of 
oraloiy, he devoted his time to writing 
<iradons for otheia. He wrote more than 
200^ some say 400, oradons; only 223» 
however, were regarded as genuine. In 
these he excelled all the orators of his time ; 
and has rarely been surpassed by succeed- 
ing orators. Dionysius praises the purity, 
cleemeaB, conciseness and eleeance of his 
expression, the beautiful simplicity of his 
style, his knowledge of men, and his livelv 
description of their peculiarities, andi 
above all, his unparafleled grace. His 
style is applauded as a perfect example of 
the simple Attic eloquence. The effinis 
of Lysus in pane^^nnc, however, ac- 
cording to Dionyaus, were unsuccessful ; 
he strives to be magiiificent and lofty, but 
does not folly reach his object None of 
these eulogies is extant, except the one 
entitled EptfeiyvMof, and the genuineness 
of this is oottDled ; hence we cannot fbnn 

an opfailon of tiup ekn of his wmlcSL 
Only 34 of his orations have come down 
to our own timea: editions of tiiem have 
been published by l^Lylor (London, 1730, 
4tD. ; and Cambridge, 1740), Auger }Pari% 
1783, 2 vok.), and Reiske (in the Collec- 
tion of Greek Oratore). John GilUes, the 
historian of Greece, translated the oratiom 
of Lysias and Isocrstes, and accompa^ed 
his translation with an Account of their 
lives, and a Discourse on the History 
and Mannen of the Greeks (London. 

Ltbimachus ; son of Affathoclee^ a aen- 
eral and friend of Alexander, in the divis- 
ion of whose conquests he received a part 
of Thrace. The inhabitants stubbornly 
opposed his authority, and he was obliged 
to conquer the countiy. After this, he 
built the city of Lysimacbia, on die Thra- 
cian Cheisonesus, aseumed the royal 
title, like the other generals of Alexander, 
and formed a league with some of them 
against Antigonus, who had brought un- 
der his own power the territories con- 
quered by Alexander in Asia. After the 
battie of Ipsus, in Pfarygia ^B. C. 301), 
which cost Antigonus his hfe and hie 
crown, Lysimachus became master of 
Asia Minor, Cappedocia Proper, and all 
tbe provinces between the Taurus and 
the Antitaurua He next made war on 
the nations on the bordera of Thrace, and 
enlarged his territories by conquest In 
attempting to subjugate the Getie, who 
lived beyond tbe Danube, his son and 
himself fell into their hands. He was 
compelled to surrender, with his army, to 
the buberians, who, with horrid cries, de- 
manded his death. But their king treated 
him more generously than the ambitious 
Lysimachus dared to hope. He provided 
for his prisoners an entertainment in the 
manner of the Greeks, and left them their 
own splendid furniture and utensils; his 
own food, on the contrary, was mean, 
and his vessels were all made of dav 
or wood. After the meal was concluded, 
he asked the captive monarch whether 
the rude living of^ the Gettn, or the splen- 
did banquets of his own country, seemed 
to him most desuable, and advised him to 
make peace with a nation fi^om whom so 
little was to be gained, restored him hki 
power, admitted him to his friendship, 
and dismissed him without a ransom. 
This generous conduct made a deep im- 
pression on the ^rannical conqueror. He 
restored to the kmg o^ the Get» the 
countries which he had gained beyond 
the Ister, and gave him his dau^ter in 
marriage. From this tune, the power of 

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Lysiraochus became more and more ex- 
tended, till his domestic relations involved 
him and bis kingdom in ruin. Having 
put away his first wife, he married Arsin- 
oe, a daughter of Ptolemy, who led him 
.to commit many acts of folly, and even 
prevailed upon him to murder Agathocles, 
his son by his first wife, in order to secure 
the succession to her own children. Tlie 
virtues of Agathocles had gained him 
'many powerful friends, who determined 
to tsike vengeance uoon his weak and 
cruel father. They fied to Seleucus, and 
engagivl him in a war against Lysima- 
. chus. Seleucus conquered all Asia Minor 
almost without a blow. A general battle 
was fought at Courepedium, in Phrygia, 
and, after a valiant resistauce, Lysimachus 
was totally defeated and slain, B. C. 28^ 
in the 74th year of his age. 

Ltsifpus; a sculptor, who flourished 
in Sicyon, about 330 B. C., in the time of 
Alexander the GreaL Alexander would 
permit no one but Apelies to paint his 
portrait, and no one but Lysippus to make 
Lis statue. The statues of Lysippus were 
principally portraits. He was first a cop- 
persmith, and afterwards devoted himself 
to sculpture. The painter Eupompus, 
whom he asked what master be should 
follow, told him to follow nature. His 
statues were wrought with much ^greater 
beauty and elegance than those of his 
predecessors. He made the body more 
slender; the head smaller 4 the hair more 
natural, flowing and delicate ; he avoided 
angularity, and endeavored to give to 
eveiy part more roundness and softness 
of outline. He used to say, he represented 
men as diey appeared to his imagination, 
but his predecessors represented them as 
they really were. Even the minutest 
parts were labored with the greatest care. 
It is not known whetlier he executed any 
marble statues, but' many in bronze are 
still preserved. The most celebrate'^ are, 
a man rubbing himself in a bath (^poxvo- 
menus) ; several statues of Alexander, 
representing him in all the different stii^es 
of his life;, a group of Satyrs, which 
was found at Athens ; Alexander and his 
friends, a number of statues which were 
intended to bear an exact resemblance to 
the original; and a colossal Jupiter at 

Ltttlbtoii, Geoige, lord, an elegant 
writer and historian, was the eldest son 
of sir Thomas Lytdeton, baronet, of Hag- 
ley, in Worcestershire, where he was 
bom in January, 1709. In his 19th year, 
he set out upon a tour to the continent, and, 
on his return, in 1730, was chosen mem- 
ber of parliament for Okehampton, and 
concurred in the measures of the opposi- 
tion, led by Pitt and Pulteney. When 
Frederic, prince of Wales, fonned a sepa- 
rate court, in 1737, he was appointed his 
secretary. On the expulsion of Walpole, 
he was appointed one of the lords of the 
treasury; but, although he spoke with 
elegance and fluency, his oratory wanted 
force, and he never attained the rank of a 

Eolidcal leader. In early lifb, he had im- 
ibed sceptical opinions ; but, being sub- 
sequently led into a conviction of me di- 
vine origin of Christianity, he composed 
his well-known Dissertation on the Con- 
version of St. Paul, first printed in 1747. 
About this time he lost his first wife, on 
whom he wrote the celebrated monody, 
and, in 1749, married a lady from whom, 
after a few years, he separated by mutual 
consent In 1751, he succeeded his fii- 
ther in his title and ample estate, and, by 
bis elegance and taste, rendered Hagley 
one of the most delightful residences in the 
kingdom. At the dissolution of the min- 
istry, he was raised to the peerage by the 
tide of baron Lyttleton, of Frankley, in 
the county of Worcester. From this 
time, he lived chiefly in literary retire- 
ment, and, in 1760, published his Dia- 
logues of the Dead. The latter yeare of 
his life were chiefly occupied in his His- 
tory of Henry II, v/hich is the result of 
assiduous research, but too prolix. He 
died in Augjiist, 1773, in the 6ith year of 
his age, leaving a son, who succeeded him 
in his tides, and, witii great talents, be- 
came conspicuous for a conduct entirely 
opposite to that of his father. The poems 
of lord Lyttleton maintain a pFace among 
the collection of British poets, for their 
correct versification, and delicacy of senti- 
ment, rather than for higher qualities. His 
miscellanies, in prose, also display good 
taste, and a cultivated mind. His works 
were first collected and printed in 1774, 
4to., and since in 8vo. (See Johnson's 
Lives qf ike Poets.) 

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M ; the 19th letter aud the 10th conso- 
DantinthcEngrish alphabet, a labial, pro- 
duced by a slight expiration with a com- 
pi-esBion of tlie lir^s. It is one of the liquids 
or semi- vowels, and was not therefore con- 
sidered by the Romans a consonant ; but 
was very faintly pronounced,rather as a rest 
between two syllables, than as an articu- 
late letter (Qutnt ix. 4), which explains 
why it was subject to elision. 1. It is one 
of the first letters which children learn to 
pTT^nounce, in connexion with the easy 
▼owel a. (See ^,) 2. It passes easily 
into other letters, losing itself in the pre- 
ceding or succeeding letters— a circum- 
stance which the etymologist must bear 
in mind, in seeking the derivation or con- 
nexion of words having an m in their 
TCiot ; dius, for instance, the German 
ffanee (cheek) is the ancient Mangotiy 
and ttie middle Latin gives hombarius as 
well as hoharius. The Italians use o for 
the Latin tan, at the end of words. We 
even find the m suppressed at the end of 
words, on some ancient medals and in- 
scriptions; thus, on the medals of the 
^inilian and Plautian femUies, we find 
FREIVERNV. CAPTV. ; on odiera, 
AVGVSTORV. If the m is fully pro- 
nounced, the sound passes partly through 
the nose, as is also the case with n. Hence, 
in French, it is nasal at the end of a word, 
as in parfum, /aim, some foreign words 
ex|^pted, as Mraham, Jenualmu The 
mm of the Hebrews, as a pumeral, signi- 
fied 40 ; the same was the case with the 
Greek f^' ; ,fi, however (characterized by 
the stroke before i\\ sigiiified 40,000. In 
Latin, it signified lOOO: the original de- 
signation of this number was double D 
or (CIO)* which gradually became an M. 
MM denotes 2000, and M 1,000,000, or a 
thousand thousand. In numismatics, M 
stands for a great number of words ; for 
Macedonia^ as LEG. M.^ XX. ^'^gj^ 
Maeedomca Ficesima ; MaUa, Massuia, 
Mamaimif and many other places or 
countries ; for Marcus, Mwfdius, Mcarcd^ 
iitf, and other names ; for magma, hiUi- 

iarii, mmH$, maut, magiHer, &c. ; EQ. 
M. for eqtdhim magister. M. D. signifi€» 
medicifUE doctor (doctor of medicine) ; A. 
M, artium magisUr (master of arts) ; M8. 
manu acrtjvfttm (manuscript]; MSS. (manu- 
scripts). D. O. M. signifies Deo Optimo 
maximo (To the best and greatest God, or. 
To the Most HigW. On tombs, D. M. ^«. 
means Dttt Mambus Sacrum, M stands 
for noon, from the Latin meridies. Hence meridiem (afternoon); A. M. 
ante meridiem (forenoon). In medicine, it 
signifies miace or miaceaiur ,- also mampu- 
lus(& hand full). On modem coins, it 
si|^ifies — 1. the mint of Toulouse ; 2. 
wjth a small o over it, Mexico ; 3. with a 
crown, Madrid. M, in French, often 
mands for Monsieur; MM. for Mes- 
sieurs. In music, it is used for the Italian 
words meno (less), mono (hand), mezzo and 
moderato (moderatej. jifc stands, in Scotch 
and Irish names, tor Mac (q. v.). M is 
likewise used by printers for the unit of 
measure of printed matter. Types of the 
same fount have bodies of equal thick- 
ness in one direction, and the 8C|uare of 
this dimension is used in determining the 
amount of nrinted matter in a given sfmcc, 
as a page for instance, and is termed an m. 
Mab ; the queen of the fairies, so fanci- 
fully described by the sportive imagina- 
tion of Shakspeare, in Romeo and Julier. 
Chaucer spealcs of a king and queen of 
Fayrie, but seems to attnoute the royal 
dimity to Proserpine and Pluto. The 
ongin of the more amiable Oberon and 
Titania or Mab (if they are not the same) 
is uncertain. Poole, in his Parnassus 
(1657), thus describes the Fairy court: 
Oberon, the emperor ; Mab {amaJbUis), the 
empress ; Perriwiggin, Puck, Hobgoblin, 
Tom Thumb, &c., courtiers ; Hop, Mop, 
Drop, Tib, Tit, Tin, Tick, Pip, Trip, Skip, 
&c. &C., maids of honor; Nymphidia, 
mother of the maids. Puck is the em- 
peror's jester. Drayton's Mpnpkidia, and 
the Midsummer Night's Dream, are de- 
lightful illustrations of the antiquities of 
queen Mab's empire. 

▼01- vni. 


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IIabilloh, J0I11I9 a leamed French 
fienediotiiie of the congregatioii of Sc 
Maur, a writer on ecclesiastical aotiqui- 
tlee and diplomadoa, was born in 1632, in 
Champagne and studied at the college of 
Rheims. lie took the monastic vows in 
1654, and, in 1660, was ordained a priest 
After having assisted fiuher D'Acheri, in 
his iS^?tdZeriiiiii, he edited the woiks of 
St. Bernard ; and, in 1668, published tlie 
first volume of the AdUi Sanctorum Or- 
dims S. Benedidi, of which the ninth and 
last Tolume appeared in 1703. One of 
his most important productions is his 
treatise De Rt DiplomaHca, Lib. vi (1681, 
folio). He was sent to Italy, with a com- 
mission (torn the king, to make a literary 
collection ; and, returning to Fmnce with 
books and MSS. for the royal library, he 
published on account of his journey, d&c., 
under the title of Musaum talicwn (1687, 
2 vols., 4to.). In 1701, he was cnosen a 
member of the academy of inscriptions, 
and, in that year, began to publish his 
AnnaUa OrdinisS, Bei^idi, four volumes 
of which appeared previously to his death, 
in 1707. Father Mobillon was the author 
of many other worira of research, distin- 
guished for liberality of sentiment and 
freedom of opinion, as well as for pro- 
found learning. 

Mablt, Gabriel Bonnot de, a French 

S>litical and historical writer, was bom at 
renoble, 1709, and died at Paris, 1785. 
He was educated by the Jesuits at Lyons, 
but as soon as he was at liberty to follow 
bis inclination, he abandoned theok)gical 
studies for Thucydides, Plutarch and 
Livy. The yotmg abb^ now went to 
Pans, where he was favorably received 
by madame De Tencin, sister of the car- 
dinal, to whom he was related, and soon 
after published his ParaUde des Romaina 
et dts Francois (1740), which was received 
with applause, and obtained him the pat- 
ronage of cardinal Tencin. That minister 
employed Mably to write his memorials 
and reports; and it was from minutes 
drawn up by himself for the use of the 
cardinal, that Mably prepared his Drmi 
pMicdePEuropefondiaurUsThxiUs, He 
was appointed, in 1743, to carry on the 
secret negotiations witJ^ the Prussian am- 
bassador at Paris, with whom he con- 
cluded a treaty against Austria. The in- 
structions of the French minister at the 
coogress of Breda (1746) were drawn up 
by mm. Notwithstanding this prospect 
of success in politics, a misunderstanding 
with the cardinal induced him to retire 
from affairs, and devote himself to study. 
The tone of his subsequent publications 

IB somewfaat difierent fimn that of hia 
PandUk. Amonff them are Oburvationg 
aur rHiitoire de m Orke ; Obaervationa 
nor k$ Rommna (1751) ; JSntrrtiens da 
Phoeum (in which he gives his ideas of 
virtue, patriotism, and me mutual obliga- 
tions 01 the state and the citizens towaras 
each other] ; (MtaervaHona aurV^almrt de 
Franoa (of^ which an edition has lately 
been published by Guizot, with notes) ; 
EntreLiena aw VIEatoirt, His complete 
works appeared at Paris, in 1794, 15 vols. 
His style is easy, pure, often elegant, but 
tame ; his views often partake of the as- 
perity of his temper. 

Mabuse, or Maubeuzc, John de, an 
able artist, was bom at Maubeuze, a vil- 
lage of Hainault, in 1492, and studied the 
works of the great masters in Italy. His 
habits were so dissipated, that the patience, 
fidelity and ijeauty with which his pieces 
were executed, were doubly remancable. 
He painted a gi^at aluir-piece, represent- 
ing the descent from the cross, for a 
church in Middleburg ; but the church 
and the picture were destroyed by light- 
ning. Another descent from the cross, by 
him, is still at Middleburg. His irregu- 
larity occasioned his imprisonment in this 
place ; and, during his confinement, he 
painted several fine pieces, which ore lost. 
He afterwards went to England, and 
painted several pieces for Henry VIII. 
Several excellent works of his are at Mid- 
dleburg ; the best of which is the altar- 
piece, representing the descent from the 
cross. Having received a piece of rich 
brocade, in order to appear before the 
emperor Charles V, he sold it at a tavern, 
and painted a paper suit so exceedingly 
like it, that the emperor could not be cou^ 
vinced of the deception, until he exam- 
ined it with his own hands. He died in 

Macaber ; according to some, an eoriy 
German poet, author of a woric entitled 
the Dance of Death, or, the DancA>f 
Macaber, conasdng of a series of dia- 
logues between Death and a number of 
personages belonging to various ranks of 
society. Others suppose the word merely 
a corruption of the Arabic mogiaroA, a 
cemeteiy. (See Ihaik, Dance of,) An 
English tronsladon of these dialogues was 
published by Dugdole and Dodsworth, in 
the 3d volume of the Mondaticon Angli 
canum ; and French and Latin ver^ons 
have been repeatedly printed. 

Macao, Gnina, in Quang-tong ; Ion. 
113^ 35^ E. ; laL 22« 13^ N. This tovm 
is teilt on a peninsula, or rather on a 
small island, which has an area <j^ 106 

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aquara miks, and oooliuiis 33^800 inlwbi- 
tanlfi. It 18 the ooly European setUemeDt 
in China, and was ceded to the Porta- 
ffueae in 1580. (See India, Pwiugue$e.) 
The Portugueae fortified the place, ana 
auRounded it with strong walla. Macao 
haa a Portuguese governor, and a Cliinese 
mandarin ; and the English and other nar 
tioiia have ftctories here. The houses are 
of atone, btiUt after the European man- 
ner; but they are low, and make little 
allow. Tlie city ia defended by three 
form, built upon eminences ; its works are 
good, and well planted with artillery. It 
was formerly a place of ilie greatest im- 
portance, being the centre of Uie trade of 
the Portuguese in^the eaatem part of 
Asia. Since the decline of the Portu- 
guese trade, the town has sunk into a 
1>iace of comparatively little imjportance. 
n the garden of the English fiictoiy is 
shown a cave, called the grotto of Camoens 
(q. v.L in which he is said to have com- 
poeea the LusiatL 

Macartht, sir Charles ; an Irish officer, 
who commanded at Cape Coast, in 1821. 
Whilst making preparations to repel the 
Aahantees, the king sent his compliments 
to him^ and said he hoped to have his 
head, aa an ornament to his great war- 
drum. In 1823, sir Charles marched 
against the Ashantees, with a mixed force 
of Europeana and blacks, the latter of 
whom ran away, aud, the whites being 
<lefoated,theur commander was captured by 
the victor, who ferociously realized his 
menace, January 21, 1824. In a subse- 

Suent batde, the Ashantecs were entirely 
efeated, and this barbarous trophy was 
recovered and conveyed to the relations 
' of sir Charles. 

Macartnct, George (earl Macartnev), 
the son of a gentleman of Scottish cfe- 
scent, was bom in Ireland, in 1737, and 
educated at Trinity college, Dublin ; afler 
which he became a studeut of l,he Tem- 
ple. In 17G4, he was appoiuted envoy 
extraordinary to Russia, afterwards be- 
eame secretary to the lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, and was created knight of the 
Bath. In 1775, he was made captain-gen- 
end and governor of the Caribbee islands, 
Granada, the Grenadines and Tobaso. 
Crrenada was invaded and taken by.uie 
French, and the governor was sent a pris- 
oner to France. On his return to Eng- 
land, ha was appointed to the presidency 
of Madras, having previously received an 
Iridi peerage. On his erobtuay to China, 
in 179i2, he conducted with great address, 
and auoceeded in the chief object of his 
His only aubaequent public lit- 

nation was that of governor of tha cape 
of Good Hope, whence he rsturaad, on 
account of ill health, in 1797. He died 
March 31, 1806. His En^^lish ewklom 
was.beatowed on him for ms servicea in 
China. Lord Macarmey was the author 
of a Journal of hia Chinese embassy, 
and other pubhcationa. (See Staunton'a 
Embassy to Ckina^ and Barrow's I^c qf 
Lord Jnacmimjf.] 

MACASSAa ; a city of Celebes, on the 
south-west coast, capital of a kingdom 
called Macassar or onny ; Ion. 11§° 5(K 
E. ; lat 5^ ICX S. ; population, according 
to llassel, 100,0U0. This town is the 
chief settlement of the Dutch on the 
island, aud called by them FM IMerdam, 
The town is built on a neck, or point of 
land, at the mouth of a river which forms 
a harbor, with water enough for a ship to 
come within cannon shot of- the walls. 
The town is large ; the houses are of 
wood, bulk on piles, to guard against in- 
undations. The country round about is 
level and beautiful, abounding with plan- 
tations and ^ves of cocoa-nut trees. At 
a distance inland, the country rises into 
hills of great height, and becomes rude 
and mountainous. (See Easi india Omr 
party J Dutch,) 

Macassail, Straits of ; the channel 
or narrow sea between Celebes and Bor- 
neo, about 350 milea long, and fiom 110 
to 140 wide, except at the north entrance, 
where it is contracted to 50 miles. 

Macaulet, Catherine, or Graham, the 
name of her second husband, was bom in 
Kent, at the seat of her fatlier, John Saw- 
bridge. She was well educated, and be- 
came early attached to the perusal of liis- 
tory. In 1760, she married doctor Georae 
Macauky, a physician, and, in 1763, pub- 
lished the first volume (4to.) of her History 
of Enaland from the Accession of James 
I to that of the Brunswick line. This 
was Qontinued, in successive volumes, to 
the eighth, which completed the ivoric, in 
1783. The spirit of this history is almost 
purely republican. The other works of 
Mrs. Macauley are. Loose Remarks on 
some of Mr. Hobbes' Posidoiis ; an Ad- 
dress to the People of England on the 
present Important Crisis (1775) ; a Trea- 
tise on the Immutability of Moral Truth, 
afterwards republished, with additional 
matter, under the title of Letten on Edu- 
cation (1790). Her kust publication was a 
LeUer to Earl Stanhope, in reply to the 
opinions of Burke on the French Revolu- 
tion (1791). In 1785, Mra. Macauley mar- 
ried a young man of the name of Gra- 
haaa, and the dispaiily of thev agea wb- 

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jected Imt to orach ridicule. She paid a 
visit to geoeFBl Washingtoo, in Ainerica, 
in 1785, and died in 1791. 

Macaw. These magnificent birds be- 
long to the parrot tribe, and are distin- 
guished by having their cheeks destitute 
of feathers, and the feathers of the tail 
Jong. They fomi the sub-genus ara. 
They are only found in the tropical re- 
gions of South America. They prefer 
moist situations, fix>m tlie palm growing in 
such spots, of the fruit of whicli they are 
vcfy tond. They usually go in pairs ; 
sometimes, however, they assemble, in the 
morning and evening, in great numbers. 
Although they fly well, they seldom wan- 
der far, except in quest of food, and reg- 
ularly return in the evening. They build 
their nests in the hollow of rotten trees, 
and lay twice^ in the year, generalW two 
eggs at a time. The male and female 
share alternately in the labor of incuba- 
tion and rearing the young. When 
young, they are easily tamed, and soon 
grow fiuniliar with persons whom they 
frequently see. But, like all the parrot 
tribe, they have an aversion to strangers, 
and particularly to children. In a domes- 
ticated stato, they will feed on almost eve- 
ry article, but are especially fond of su- 
gar, bread and fruits. They do not masti- 
cate the latter, but suck them by pressing 
their tongue against the upper mandible. 
Like the other parrots, these birds use 
their claws with great dexterity, though, in 
climbing, they always begin by taking 
hold with their bill m the first instance, 
using their feet only as a second point of 
their motion. Wheu they were first car- 
ried to Europe, their peat beauty and 
size caused them to be m much request, 
and they were conmdered as valuable 

C resents between sovereign princes. This 
ird was spoken o( by Alurovandus, as 
early as 1572. 

Macbeth lived about the middle of 
the eleventh century. He served a^inst 
the Danes as general of his relation Dun- 
can I or Donald VII, king of Scotland. 
The Danes were completely defeated, and 
Macbeth now conceived the idea of ob- 
taining possession of the Scottish throne. 
He appears, like most men in his time, to 
have believed in the predictions of the 
pretenders to supernatural knowledge. On 
nis return from his victory over the Danes, 
three old women met him with the in- 
signia of the witches of that period, and 
suuted him — the first, as thane of Glamis ; 
the second, as thane of Cawdor ; the 
third, as aliout to be king of Scotland. 
The two fint prediotioni being almost 

inunediately fhlfiUed, Maebeth was led to 
hope for the accomplishment of thelaat, 
and, afier brooding over the subject fer a 
time, detennined to assassinate the king ; 
and perpetrated Aie crime when the king 
was viating him at his castle of Inverness. 
The king's sons were obliged to save 
themselves by flight ; and Macbeth brought 
the nation to favor his cause, by liberality 
to the nobility, and by strict justice in his 
administraiion. For 10 years^ he reigned 
with nooderation ; but, after this period, he 
suddenly became a ^rant His first vic- 
tim was Banauo, who had been privy to 
the murder or the king. Feeling iuficcure, 
he erected a casde on Dunsinane, from 
which he could overlook the whole coun- 

S\ This is the legend, which has been 
opted by poetry. But history shows 
no such person as fianquo ; Duncan was 
slain near Elgin, and not in Macbeth's 
own casde ; and Macbeth, though he as- 
cended the throne by violence, had in fact 
a better claim to it than Duncan, and was 
a firm, just and equitable prince. Mac- 
dufl; thane of Fife, fled to England, and 
urged Malcolm, the son of the murdered 
Duncan, to take vengeance. Assisted by 
Siward, earl of Northumberland, they re- 
turned to their country. Macbeth was 
defeated, fled to his castle, and was slain 
in the 17th year of his reign, A. D. 1057. 

Maccabees ; two apocryphal books of , 
the Old Testament, which contain the ' 
history of Judas sumamed Maccabeus, 
and his brothers, and the wars which they 
sustained against the kings of Syria, in de- 
fence of their religion, and the indepen- 
dence of their country. (See Jaos.) Tlie 
author and the age of these books are 
uncertain. The council of Trent placed 
them among tlie canonical books, but tlie 
Protestants have rejected them as apocry- 

Maccaroni, Macaroni or Macciiero- 
Ni ; a preparation of fine flour, which 
forms a fiivorite article of food among the 
Italians. It is eaten in various ways, 
generally simply boiled, and served 
up with grated cheese. Maccaroiu is 
generally made in pieces resembling a 
long pipe handle, of small diameter ; 
sometimes, however, in other shapes, as 
flat, square, &c. It is a wholesome food, 
and a national dish of the Italians, par- 
ticularly of the Neapolitans. It is niade^ 
best in the neighborhood of Naples, whole 
villages living almost solely by the manu- 
fiicture ; anc^ '^ Naples, it is continually 
sold in the streets, cooked for the lower 
classes, paiticulariy for the Uazanm L The 
pieces being very long» and being heU ia 

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the ibcen during the procesB of eating 
some will is required to manage them. 
This feahion of eating vard-ioDg macca- 
nmi, forms a subject of ridicule against 
the Neapolitans, in more than one Italian 
comedy. The modes of cooking macca- 
roni are various ; the simplest are the best. 
The fashion of cutting it into pieces, and 
stewing it with eggs, &c., as is d^ne in 
England and the U. States, is not to be 
recommended. Maccaroni is well made at 
Aix in France, and pretty well in Grer- 
many. — Maecarom is also used as a teim 
o€ contempt for a coxcomb—Aomo crasBit 


BLlccakonic Pobhs ; a kind of face- 
tious Latin poems, in which are inter- 
speraed words firom other languages, with 
Latin inflections. They were first written 
by Teofilo Folengi, under the name of 
Merlino Coecaioy a learned and witty Ben- 
edictine, bom in 1484, at Mantua. He 
was a contemporary and friend of Sa- 
nazzario. Ferdinand of Gonzaga, with 
whom he resided 10 years in Sicily, was 
his patron, and Folengi often celebrates 
his praises. He spent the rest of hb 
days in a monastery at Bassano, where he 
died in 1544. Various grave and religious 
poems of his, in Italian and Latin, are still 
extant, and are not without value. He is 
regarded by the Italian poets as the in- 
ventor of heroi-comic poetry. His prin- 
cipal poem in this style was called Mae- 
carmuoj because it was mixed up of Latin 
and Italian, as maccaroni is made of va- 
rieus ingredients. An edition of this po- 
em, printed in 1^1, is still exumt In 
imitation of Viigil, he carries the hero 
of his poem, through numerous circum- 
stances, and, at last, to the infernal regions. 
Here, among other things, he sees the 
punishment of poets. For every untruth 
or exaggeration in their works, devils 
were appointed to extract a tooth, which 
grew agun every day. This poem con- 
tains manv satirical accounts or the man- 
ners of the age, with beautiful passages 
in genuine Latin verse. Besides this, he 
wrote a smaller comic poem, entitled Mos- 
iheOy or the War of tiie Gnats and the Em- 
mets-^ youthful production; also Ec- 
logues and Epistles ; all in the maccaronic 
style. Heinsius (ThO^ 4th oart, p. 171) 
, mentions a German poem of^ this sort— > 
FUnOf Cofivm venicaie de FUns nmrHbuSj 
tttit Deirieutis qwt omnea fere Min9choSj 
MamyM, ffeibras^ Jung/nUf &c^ hthnmerty 
H Spiixibua iuU sehnqfiia sUeken d otfere 
solaii ; Auion ChiphMo Krdekknackia 
tx FtoUmdia(aDXko 15b3»4ta), of which he 
gives the introduction. A new edition of 

this woric appeared in 1899, at Hamm ; 
and a translation at Leipstc, in 18SS7. We 
find an example of French macearonio 
verses m the tnird interiude of Moli^re^ 
Malade tnmmasre. It was introduced 
into England in the reicn of Henry VII, 
when Skelton exhibitecr some specimens 
of it It was ftshlonable under Elizabeth, 
in whose reign a poem on the Armada, 
of which Warton gives a specimen, was 
written. Drummond also wrote a mac 
caronic poem, of which the following will 
be a sufficient specimen : — 
Corwocat extemplo burrowmcomo9 atmte ladttot, 
Jaekmammmque hirematmat, pUughdnptHen «t^ 

que pltughmanmof, 
7\tnMatUes&ue timulf rtcoio ex kiukme bcyoe, 
Nunc qui dirti/erae tersii cum dUKcUmbf dUh* 
' aty &€. 
Macchiaveij.1, Niccol6. It is not easy 
to determine a man's disposition and char« 
acter from his writings. When, however^ 
as was the case in the governments of an-* 
ti(}uitv and the Italian republics of the 
middle a^es, a man's writing are more 
the ofispnng of his political smiation than 
mere exercises of his intellect, and espe- 
cially if thev coincide with his conduct^ 
they afford mir grounds for judging of the 
author's character. This is the case with 
Niccol6 Macchiavelli, the &mou8 Floren-* 
tine sccretaiT. The prejudices against 
him, arising from an incorrect understand^ 
ing of his treatise called E Principe (tho 
Prince), have caused him to be regarded 
as the teacher of a detestable line of poU 
icy, called from him MaeehiavtUiam, in^ 
tended to enable despotism to perpetuate 
its existence by finaud and violence, though 
there are few men on record who have 
shown so much of a truly civic spirit — ^He 
was bom at Florence, in the year 1469, oC 
a noble fiimily, whose members had en^ 
joyed the highest dignities in the repubhc^ 
Littie is known of his youth, and nothing 
of his education, except that he studied 
under Marcellus Yirgilius. On account 
of his distinguished talents, he was very 
early appointed chancellor of the Floren^ 
tine republic, and, not lonff afterwards^ 
was advanced to the post of secretary of 
state, for which reason he is most com-^ 
monty called jS^7>etorio /Yoren<tno« When 
Florence had recovered her liberty, by the 
expulsion of the Medici (see Jihthci], and^ 
from fear of the exiled family, had become 
involved in the ambitious wars and in« 
trigues of Charles VIII, at a time whm 
great political adroitnees, and a Sj^rk of 
genuine republicanism, weie re^iuwed in 
her envoys^ MoechiaTeUi was seveial 
times charged with UEnymrtant emhassiesk 
He was four tunes plenipotentiary at tho 

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French cdurt, twice at that of the pope, 
and twice, also, at that of the emperor 
Manmilian. The republic ackDowledged 
his great services, but rewarded them 
sparingly, so that he was sometimes 
obliged to petition the signaria (supreme 
authority of the state) on account of his 
poverty. His advice was of great use to 
the commonwealth, at the time of the in- 
surrection of Val di Chiana. The leading 
principles of his counsels, at this juncture, 
may oe deduced from his numerous let- 
tera, preserved in the Florentine archives. 
They were to maintain a peaceful and 
friendly spirit in the settlement of difficul- 
ties, to provide for an upright and strict 
administration of justice, to make the bur- 
den of taxes as tight as possible, and to 
keep a watchful eye on tne smallest cir- 
cumstances that had relation to pubhc 
concerns. Even in regard to military 
aflairs, the state was so convinced of the 
sagacity of his views, that they preferred 
his counsel to any other. Amone other 
things, a Tuscan legion was esttSilished 
by his advice. This band, at a later peri- 
od, distinguished itself remarisably under 
the command of Giovanni de' MedicL 
When pope Julius II had succeeded in 
establishing a league in Italy against the 
overwhelming power of the French, Louis 
XII, to revenge himself, and wound the 
dignity of the pope in the tenderest point, 
attempted to assemble a council in Italy, 
and requested the Florentines to allow 
Pisa, which had become again subject to 
them, to be the place of meeting. Mac- 
chiavelli feared the papal thunders, and 
advised bis countrymen to evade the pro- 
posal. He went with this view as envoy to 
the king, but the king would not be refused. 
Afler his return, he was sent to Pisa, to 
watch the proceedings of the council, and 
10 labor ibr its dissolution. Nevertheless, 
the pope was so indignant against the 
Florentines, that he formed an alliance 
with Ferdinand of Arragon to deprive 
them of their freedom, and, by their 
means, the power of the Medici was re- 
established. As'Macchiavelli had labored 
incessantlv for the good of tlie republic, 
Lorenzo de* Medici, now dictator of Flor- 
ence, seized the opportunity, in spite of a 
public decree, to strip him of his dignities. 
He was afterwards accused of participating 
in the conspiracy of the Boscoli and Cap- 
poni a£[ainst the cardinal Giovanni de' 
Medici, imprisoned, put to the torture, and 
banished; all which he endured with a 
firmness approaching to indifference. 
After the carainal became pope (Leo X), 
his punishment was remitted. He return- 

ed to bis native country, and wrote his 
discourses on the ten first books of Livy ; 
also his Prince, which he dedicated to 
Lorenzo de' Medici. Upon this, he was 
received again into tavor by this powerful 
fiunily; and cardinal Julius, who ruled 
Florence in the name of Leo X, and oar- 
nesdy desired to reform the condition of 
the mace, availed himself of the advice 
of Macchiavelli, in extinguishing various 
civil commotions. He was suspected of 
being concerned in a new conspiracy 
against the Medici; but the only conse- 
quence was, that he was obhged to return 
to private life and to indigence. When 
Juhus, under the name of Clement VII, 
ascended the papal chair, Macchiavelli 
was a^ain employed in public business: 
in parucular, he was sent to aid the allied 
forces of the pope and the Florentines in 
the defence of Tuscany against the army 
of Charies V. The confidence now re- 
posed in him by the Medici alienated 
from him the afifections of the Florentines ; 
and, after his return to Florence, he died, 
June 22, 1527, neglected and poor. It 
appears, from the letters of his son Pietro 
to Francisco Nelli, that he manifested on 
his death-bed the feelings of a Christian. 
The account of the inaccurate Paolo Gio* 
vio, that he died a suicide and an atheist, is 
not to be depended on. — ^The writings of the 
immortal I* lorentine may be arranged un- 
der four heads, — ^history, politics, belles- 
lettres, and military treatises. His eight 
books on the history of Florence, written 
at the command of Clement VII, begin 
with the year 1215, and end with Lorenzo 
de' Medici, in the year 1492. They are 
among the first historical works of mod- 
em times, which deserve to be placed 
side by side with the beautiful remains of 
antiquity. Macchiavelli was probably 
prevented by death 1arom completing this 
work, and is said to have left bis collec- 
tion of materials to Guicciardini. The 
history is distinguished for its pure, ele- 
gant and flowing style : its impartiahty is 
doubtful. The Life of Castniccio Castra- 
cani, lord of Lucca, is more moperly a 
romance than a biography. The hero, 
who is as great a villain as Caesar Borgia, 
is continually quoting apothegms mm 
Plutarch. Under the head of politics are 
included his two most important work»-- 
the Prince (of which more will be said 
hereafter! and the Discourses upon the 
ten first books of Livy. His purpose, in 
these last, is to show how a republic notay 
be supported, and bow it is exposed to 
ruin. The work breathefs throughout, a 
warm love of freedom* Filippo Norii 

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niBtaB, in hifl oomiiieiitarieijy that Bfacchi- 
aTeDi was induced to wnte tfaeae dia- 
cotmes, and thoae on the Art of War, by 
a number of young men who were accus- 
tomed to astsemble with him in a garden 
in Florence, and had been made republi- 
cans by the perusal of the ancients. Mon- 
tesquieu and Rousseau have both drawn 
fireely fit>m these works. In a treatise, 
composed in the year 1519, upon a 
reformation in the state of Florence, he 
advises the pope Leo X to restore the re- 
publican form of government to this city, 
although he pretends to have the aman- 
dizement of the Medici in view. tfSs ob- 
ject in the seven books on the Art of War 
was, to show the Itblians that they were 
able to recover their freedom without the 
assistance of the foreign mercenaries, so 
generally employed in the states of Italy ; 
and he shows himself fully sensible of the 
great importance of infantry, then little 
valued. Frederic the Great knew and 
esteemed this treatise. For the restoration 
of the comic drama, also, the world is in- 
debted to the Florentine secretary. His 
comedies, La Mandragola and La Oiaaa, 
are the first regular dramas written since 
the time of the Romans. Voltaire prefer- 
red the first to any of the plays of Aris- 
tophanes. His other poems are full of 
thought The novel entitled BeUagor is 
very fine, and has been versifiea by La 
Fontaine. His description of the pesti- 
lence, which raged in Florence in the 
years 1522 — 3, may be compared to 
the similar account in Thucydides. He 
has written, also, many other treatises, all 
of which show the great man, and sev- 
eral poema Amone nis papers is a con- 
stitution for the regulation of a gay com- 
pany, called Compagnia di Piacere. The 
rrince has been oflen translated. The 
opinions on this work are very various. 
Some persons condemn it as intended to 
instruct tyrants in the art of oppression. 
This idea originated with the archbishop 
of Consa, Ambrosio Catarino, long after 
the book was given tojlie worid. Bayle, 
in his fiimous dictionary, and Frederic the 
Great, in his Anti-Macchiavelli, which 
was translated, together with the Prince, 
by the order of Mustapha III, are of the 
same opinion. But they mistake Macchi- 
avelli's moaning, for his other writings, as 
well as his life, prove that he loved liberty 
ardently. Others consider the Prince as 
a satire ; but this is impossible. The tone 
of the work is most serious throughout: 
no trace of satire can be discovered. 
Others think it a work fiill of valuable 
couuael for princes^ but infected with a 

looaeneflB of morak which prevailed In the 
age of the writer: but MacchiavelH hated 
jfiezander VI, CsBsar Borgia, and all the 
tyrants of his age ; and the full conadera^ 
Hon with which he advances his starding 
principles, shows that they could not have 
sprung from the unconscious influence 
of his time. They are well weighed and 
thoroughly understood. Others believe 
that Macchiavelli's object was to make ty- 
rants odious; but tyrants, such as he de- 
scribes, need no coloring to make them 
abhorred. Others maintain that Macchi- 
avelli treated the question of tjrranny, in 
the abstract, without reference to morality, 
not in order to give advice, but as a mere 
scientific question, on the ground of lord 
Bacon, that *^ there be not any thing in 
being or action which should not be 
drawn and collected into contemplation 
and doctrine;" just as a person might 
write a treatise on poisons, investigatiiiff all 
their effects, without touching on meir 
antidotes. But could a mind like Macchi- 
avelli's, if his object had been merely sci- 
entific discussion, have contemplated, long 
and closely, crimes so shocking to his \ov6 
of hberty, without ever betraymg his hor- 
ror ? Could we believe a man to i 

a pure spirit, who could write a lon^ and 
scientific treatise on the seduction of inno- 
cence, as skilful in its way as Macchia- 
velli's in his, though such a treatise might 
afford much interesting analysis of the 
sprinffs of human conduct? In our opin- 
ion, the Prince must be considered as a 
work written' for a certain purpose, time 
and peraon, although particular questions, 
doubtiess, are oflen treated abstractly, and 
the application lefl open. As a whole, the 
Prince is not to be considered, originally, 
nor in its execution, as a mere scientinc 
treatise. Many questions are left undis- 
cussed ; the titles of the chapters are often 
of a general nature, while the chaptere 
themselves are not. Macchiavelli's feel- 
ing was, that union and fi?eedom from a 
foreign yoke were even more important 
than civil liberty; that they formed the 
very elements of the life of a nation. In 
the first part of his career, he had been 
thoroughly Florentine in spirit, but his 
misfortunes forced him to elevate his 
views, to become Italian ; and, for the pur- 
pose of saving Italy, he could have seen, 
with patience, even Florence enslaved. 
No noble-minded Italian has written or 
sung, nnce Dante's di dolor osteUo^ with- 
out giving vent to his grief for the unfoi^- 
tunate condition of his beautiful country ; 
and Macchiavelli,one of the noblest spirits 
of Italy, burned to see her united and 

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freed from foreignen. He louglit the 
cure of Italy; yet her state apomed to 
him 90 desperate, that he was bold enough 
to prescribe poison. But h must be kept 
in mind that he doeq not advise all the 
measures which he discusses. He often 
treats them like mechanical principles in 
the abstract, and leaves the consideration 
of their expediency in practice to him 
who wishes to make the application. Un- 
doubtedly Maccliiavelli beheved that many 
thinjps are permitted for the purpose of 
uniQng a distracted countzy, which would 
be criminal in any other case ; and, to de- 
termine the true spirit of his fiimous work, 
the reader should have a full knowl- 
ed^ of the history of the age. If he had 
wntten at the present day, he m^ist have 
recommended very different means. In 
the last chapter of the Prince, he calls upon 
Lorenzo of Medici to save his country. 
Lorenzo was the nephew of pope Leo A. 
Julian, brother to Leo, was expected to 
become king of Naples, while Lorenzo, 
a man of a vmarlike and fierce spirit, was 
expected to unite the countzy between the 
Tuscan and Adriatic seas, and to found a 
kingdom of Tuscany. On him all eyes 
were turned, and him it was Macchiavelli's 
purpose to urge to the deliverance of Italy. 
Macchiavelli was &r from beinr alone in 
expecting salvation for Italy only from a 
conquering king. Polydore Virgil, in 
1526, when he dedicated his work Dt 
Prodigiis to Fmncesco Maria of Urbino, 
expre«ed this opinion. JTwenty years 
earlier, John Anthony Flaminius said 
the same to pope Julius ; and Varchi 
says, ** Italy cannot be tranauil until ruled 
by one prince." Some or the b^ ob- 
servations on Macchiayelll are to be found 
in a work probably litde known to our 
readers,— -professor Ranke's Zur Krilik 
neuerer Geschichtschreibar (Berlin and 
Leipsic, 1824). — In regard to Macchiavel- 
li's personal character, even his enemies 
acknowledffe tliat he was kind and afiable, 
a friend of the virtuous, industrious and 
brave. He was one of the greatest think- 
ers of his age, indefkti^ble in the service 
of his country, and frugal in his manner 
of life. He well deserves the inscription 
placed over his tomb in the church of 
Santa Croce, m Florence — 

Tanto nomini nuiUtrn j^r elogium, 
Nicalaus MacchtcaotUi. 

The reader will recollect the stanza in 
Childe Harold (canto 4, stanza liv), in 
which his remains are described as lying 
in company with those of Galileo, Miciiad 
Angelo and AlfierL 

MjLccmArzLLUUj hipofities; that sys- 
tem of policy which overiooks eveiy law, 
and makes use of an^ means, however 
criminal, to promote its purposes. The 
word originated from an erroneous view 
of Macchiavelli's Prince. (See ^Ibedkia- 

^ Macdonald, Etienne-Jacques-Joeeph- 
Alexandre, marshal and peer of France, 
duke of Torentum, minister of state, and 
ffnmd chancellor of the legion of honor, was 
bom at Sancerre, in France, Nov. 17, 1765, 
and descended fiom a Scotch Hisfaland 
fiunlhr. His fiither fought, with 20 other 
Macdonalds, at Culloden, in 1745, fbr the 
Pretender, Charies Edward, kept him con- 
cealed for many weeks, and afterwards 
went to France. The youn^ Macdonald 
entered the French service m 1784, and 
was attached to the le^on of the lieuten- 
ant-general count MaiUebois, which was 
sent to Holland, to support the opponents 
of the hereditary stadtholder. He em- 
braced the principles of the revolution, 
rose rapidly to the dignity of brigadier- 
genend, in the war of 1792, and served 
with distinction in 1794, under Pich^gru, 
in the armv of the north in Holland and 
East-Friesland. In 1796, he commanded 
at DCtsseldorf and Cologne, as general of 
division, soon after join^ the army of the 
Rhine, and at lensth that of Italv, under 
Bonaparte, where he established his mili- 
tary reputation. After the peace of Campo- 
Formio, he was In the army under Mr- 
thier, which t6ok possession of Rome and 
the States of the Church, and, as governor 
of the latter, he declared Rome a repub- 
lic. But Mack advanced to Rome with 
50,000 men, and Macdonald was forced to 
fall back with his troops to the army of 
the French commander-in-chie^ Cliam- 
pionnet The latter was soon strong 
enough to venture an attack, and Macdon- 
ald contributed essentially to the victo- 
ries at Trento, Mohteroei, Baccano, Cahd 
and Civiti-Castellana. Dec. 14, he march- 
ed into Rome the second time. After the 
removal of Chanltoionnet, in the spring of 
1799, he was made eeneral of the French 
army in Naples. While he was here car- 
iring on war against cardinal RufTo and 
the Calabrians, Suwaroff and Melas had 
conquered Lombardy, and advanced to 
Turin. By skilful marches, Moreau de- 
fended the frontiera of France and the 
passes to Genoa. He then advanced to 
form a junction with Macdonald, who had 
evacuated Lower Italy. But, instead of 

Sursuing his march coverdy to Genoa, 
lacdonald, ambitious to defeat the enemj 
alone, marched through Modena, Fwnam 

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and Piacenzay on the road to Voghenu 
lie, indeed, droye the AustrianB, under 
Hohenz^Ueni, from their position at Mo- 
dena, June 12, 1799; but Suwaroff and 
Melaa punned him oyer the Tidone, June 
17, and at Trebia, not far from Piacenza, 
on the 18th and 19th, totally defeated 
hid army, exhausted with long marches 
and bloody actions. Macdonald was 
wounded, and obUged to retire to Tuscany, 
with his army reduced to 22,000 men. 
Moreau now restrained the conaueror 
from further pursuit, and Macdonala sue- 
ce^ed in ascending the Apennines, and 
forcing his way along the coast to Genoa, 
to Moreau. Soon a&r, he went to Paris, 
and cooperated in the reyolution of the 
18th Brumaire. Dec. 1, 1800, he conduct- 
ed the corps of reserye over the Splfigen, 
into the Grisons, and entered the VeJte- 
line. After the peace of Lun^yille, he 
was, for a dme, French ambassador in 
Denmark, from which he returned in 
1803, and received the dtle of crand offi- 
cer of the legion of honor. His zeal in 
defending A£>reau prevented him from 
being made a marshal of the empire 
among the generals on whom this office 
was first conferred, in 1804. In the cam- 
paign of 1809, he passed the Piave with 
the right wing of the viceroy, took Lay- 
bach» and decided the victoiyof Wagram. 
In recompense for bis services in that ac- 
tion, the emperor created him marshal on 
the field, adding, "I am principally in- 
debted to you and my artillery guards for 
this victory." In 1810, he took the com- 
mand of Augereau's division in Catalonia, 
and maintained his fame as a general, both 
here and in the war against Russia, in 
1812. The capitulation of the Prussians, 
under York, who belonged to his army, 
forced him to retreat upon Konigsberg, 
Jan. 3, 1813. In May, 1813, he took 
Merseburg, and was present in the battles 
of Liitzen and Bautzen, and was defeated 
byBlticheron the Katzbach (q.v.). At 
Leipsic, Oct. 18, he commanded the 11th 
division. He also d isdnguished himself at 
Hanau. and in the blo<Kly campaign be- 
tween the Mame and Seine. At the time 
of Napoleon's catastrophe^ in 1814, he had 
several audiences with Alexander, in fiivor 
of the emperor. Macdonald was the first 
to advise the abdication, afler which he 
sent in his adherence to Louis XVIII.* 
Durinff the hundred days (18151 he resid- 
ed on nis estatesL After Napofeon's final 
overthrow, be was made diancellor of the 
legion of honor, and was directed to dis- 

* Boarrieone deicribes, m a touching manner, 
his flnai iaiarriew wiik Napoleon. 

band the army of the Lcnre. He has 

distinguished himself in the chamber of 
peers not less by die iusmess and Uberal- 
ity of his sentiments than by his fidelity to 
the kins and constituti^. In 1825, he 
attended Charles X to tne coronation at 
Rheims, and afterwards visited England, 
Scotiand and Ireland. 

Mace. Clubs of various descriptions are 
ibund amonff almost all savages, formed of 
a hard and heavy vvood, some broad and 
flat, others round, angular, long or short, 
some plain and rude, others neatly carved. 
From this simple implement, the mallet, 
hammer of arms and mace originated, 
which were generally used, of old, both 
in Great Britain and on the continent 
of Eiurope. The gradual progress of im- 
provement having rendered armorimpene- 
trable by edped weapons, some instiru- 
ment of efiectual demolition became 
necessary. An author on military affidrs, 
of the sixteenth centuir, recommends a 
leaden mallet, ^ve feet long. The maUet 
viras wielded with both hands, and horse- 
men had it hung by a thong or chain from 
the pommel of the saddle. The hammer 
of arms greatiy resembled a common ham- 
mer. It differed from the mallet in being 
square or a httle rounded or convex, 
while one side of the mallet was square 
and the other pointed or edged. The 
mace, in its simplest form, is only an iron 
club, short and strong. Its shape varied 
among different nations and at different 
times. One, still preserved, is of iron, two 
feet one inch long, with a hollow handle, 
and a head seven inches long, consisting 
of seven iron leaves perpendicularly fixed 
round a cylinder, and equidistant The 
whole weighs three pounds nine ounces. 
Two maces, said to have belonged to Ro- 
land and Olivier de Roncevaux, famous 
champions under Charlemagne, were pre- 
servea in France towards die beginning 
of the last century, and perhaps later, 
consisting of a handle two feet long, to 
which an iron ball was attached by a triple 
chain. It appears that the ball was fre- 
quentiy covered vrith iron spikes, and was 
attached to the handle by a single chain. 
Mr. Grose states, that similar implements 
were long used by the trained bands of 
London, under the name of morning stars. 
(See BattU'Axtj and Arms.) At present, 
the mace is used as an emblem of the 
authority of officers of state (e. g. the 
speaker of the English house- or com- 
mons), before whom it is carried. It iti 
made of the precious metals, or of copper, 
gik, and oraainented with a crown, ^obe 

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Macs ; the outw, fleabir and eoriaoeoiu 
cover of the nutmeg. When the fruit is 
SBthered, the mace is csrefutty eeparsted 
mm the nut, dried in the sun, and after- 
wards is packed in clieets of different 
sizes, in which state it is obtained in com- 
merce. (See JViitifM^.) 

Macedonia (now Makdonia or Filiba 
Vilajeti, a territoiy containing 15^250 
.square miles, and 700,000 inhabitants); 
the northern part of the peninsula in Eu- 
rope, inhabited by the Greeks, a moun- 
uunous and woody region, the riches of 
which Consisted chiefly in mines of gold 
and silver ; the coasts, however, produced 
corn, wine, oil and fruits. It was sepa- 
rated from Thessaly on the south by 
the Olympus and the Cambunian moun- 
tains (now Monte di Voluzzo) ; and on 
the west, from Epirus, by the Pindiis (now 
8tymphe). In regard to the eastern, 
northern and nortn-westem boundaries, 
we must disduffuish between the time be- 
fore and after rhilip, the ftther of Alex- 
ander. Before his time, all the country 
b^ond the Strymon (Strumona), and even 
the Macedonian peninsula fi:om Amphipo- 
lis to Thessakmica, belonged to Thrace ; 
and Ps(Hua, likewise, on the north. On the 
north-west, towards Illyria, it was bound- 
ed by lake Lycbnitis ( Acbrida). Philip 
conquered this peninsula, all the country 
to tlie river Nessus (Karasu^ and mount 
Rhodope; also P»onia and lUyria, be- 
yond lake Lycbnitis. Thus the widest 
limits of Macedonia were from the iEge- 
an sea to the Ionian, where the Drino 
formed its boundary. The provinces of 
Macedonia were, in gmeral, known by 
name even before the time of Herodotus. 
In the time of Philip, they were 19. s The 
Romans divided the country into four dis- 
tricts — ^the eastern on the Strymon and 
Nessus (chief city, Amphipolis) ; the pen- 
insula (capital, Thessalonica) ; the south- 
em, including Thessaly (capital, Pella); 
and the northern (chief city, Pelagpnia). 
They made Illyria a separate country. 
Macedonia was mhabited by two difterent 
races— the Thracians, to whom belonged 
the PflBonians and Pelagonians, and the 
Dorians, to whom the Macedonians are 
shown to have belonged by their language 
and customs. Pliny speaks of 150 difter- 
ent tribes, who dwelt here at an early pe- 
riod ; but we have no particular accounts 
of them. The Macedonians were a civi- 
lized people long before the rest of the 
Greeks, and were, in ftict, their instruc- 
ters ; but the Greeks afterwards so far ex- 
celled them, tliat they reimnled them as 
horbeiians. They were divided into sev- 

emi smaU states, which were i ncc aM m thr 
at war with the Thracians and Illy rians^ tm 
Philip and Alexander gave the ascenden- 
cy to one of these states, and made it the 
most powerful in the world. We have 
no particular account of this state, but it is 
known to have been a limited monarchy ; 
to have been tributary, for a long time, to 
the lUyrians, Thracians and Persians, and 
to have been oUised to give up all its 
harbors to the Athenians. The succes- 
sion of its kinsB begins with the Hanclide 
Caranus, but first tecomes important urith 
the accession of Philip (q. v.). That 
prince, taking advantage of the stren^ 
of the country and the wariike disposition 
of its inhabitants, reduced Greece, which 
was distracted by intestine broihL in the 
battle of Chaeronea, B. C. 336. His bod, 
Alexander (q. v.), subdued Asia, and by 
an uninterrupted series of victories, for 10 
successive years, made Macedonia, in a 
short time, the mistress of half the workl. 
After his death, this immense empire was 
divided. MacedoDia received anew its 
ancient limits, and, after several battles, 
lost its dominion over Greece. The alli- 
ance of Philip II with Carthage, during 
the second Punic war, gave occasion to 
this catastrophe. The Romans delayed 
their revenge ft)r a season; but,Pmlip 
having laid siege to Athens, the Atheniana 
called the Romans to theur assistance ; the 
latter declared war against Macedonia ; 
Philip was compelled to sue for peace, to 
surrender his vessels, to reduce his army 
to 500 men, and defray the expenses of 
the war. Perseus, the successor of Philip, 
having taken up arms against Rome, was 
totally defeated at Pydna by Paulus 
iEmilius, B. C. 168, and the Romans took 
possession of the country. Indignant at 
their oppressions, the Macedonian nobility 
and the whole nation rebelled under An- 
driscus. But, after a long struggle, they 
were overcome by Quintus Csecilius Mace- 
donicus, the nobility were exiled, and the 
country became a Roman province, B. C. 
148. Macedonia now forms a part of 
Turkey in Europe, and is inhabited by 
Walachians, Turks, Greeks and Albani- 
ans. The south-eastern part is under the 
pacha of Saloniki; the northern, under 
beys or agas, or forms free communitieB. 
The capital, Saloniki, the ancient TheaBa*- 
lonica, is a commercial town, and con- 
tains 70,000 inhabitanta— See tte HuCo- 
ry and AniiqmUu ^ tht Doric J2oee, 
translated from the German of C. O. 
Muller (Oxford, 1830). 

Maceration (fiom mocero, to soften by^ 
water) consisli in the inftinoB of mah* 

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Bwnm in eold water, in order to extnct 
their Tiitues. It diiflfera fiom dieeedon 
only ae die latter operation admits me ap- 
plioition of heat Maceiation ia prefeia- 
Me in caoeo where heat would be injuii- 
oua, aa where volatile and aromatic aub- 
Btancee are uaed. 
Machaoiv. (See JEicuk^fUu*) 
BlAcniiTERT. The utility of machine- 
ry, in ita application to manufkcturea, con- 
tUgtis in the addition which it makes to 
human power, the economy of human 
time, and in the conversion of substances 
apparendy worthless into valuable prod- 
ucts. The forces derived from wind, 
from water and from st^am are so many 
additions to human power, and the total 
inanimate force thus obtained in Great 
Britain (including the commercial and 
manu&cturinff) has been calculated, by 
Dupiu, to be equivalent to that of 
20^000,000 laborers. Expenments have 
shown that the foroe necessaiy to move a 
stone on the smoothed floor of its qiuuiy 
is nearly two thirds of its weight ; on a 
wooden floor, three fifths ; if soaped, one 
sixth; upon roUers on the quarry floor, 
ooe thirQr aecond ; on wood, one fortieth. 
At each increaae of knowledge, and on 
the contrivance of eveiy new tool, human 
labor is abridged : the roan who contrived 
rollere quintupled his power over brute 
matter. The next use of machinery is 
the economy of time, and this is too appa- 
rent to require illustration, and may result 
either from the increase of force, or from 
the improvement in the contrivance of 
toois^ 4>r from both united. Instances of 
the production of valuable substances 
fiom worthless materials are constandy 
' occurring in all the arts ; and diough this 
may appear to be merely the consequence 
of scientific knowledge, yet it is evident 
that science cannot exist, nor could its 
lessons be made productive bv applica- 
tion, vrithout machinery. Hn me history 
of every science, we find the irnprove- 
ments of its macfaineiy, the invenoon of 
instruments, to constitute an important 
part The chemift, the astronomer, the 
physician, the husbandman, the painter, 
the sculptor, is sucb only by the application 
of machinery. Applied science m all its 
forms, and the fine and useful arts, are 
the triumphs of mind, indeed, but gained 
throudb tne instrumentality of machineTy. 
The mfiference between a tool and a ma- 
chine is not capable of very precise dis- 
tinction, nor is it necessary, m a popu- 
lar examination of them, to make any 
distinction. A fool is usually a more 
simple machine, and generally used by 

the hand ; a machine is a complex tool, a 
collection of tools, and fi^quendy put In 
action by inanimate force. All machines 
are intended either to produce power, or 
merely to transmit power and execute 
work. Of the claas of mechanical agents 
by which motion is transmitted, — the lever, 
the pulley, the wedge,— it has been d^ 
monstrated that no power is sained by their 
use, however combined. Whatever foree 
is applied at one port, can only be exerted 
at some other, diminished by friction and 
other incidental causes ; and whatever is 
gained in the rapidity of execution, is com- 
pensated by the necessity of exerting addi- 
tional force. These two principles should 
be constandy borne in mind, and tpach 
us to limit our attempts to things which 
are possible. (See Hydraulicsy Hydrostatics^ 
Mechanics, Steam.)—!. AccuniuUding Pow- 
er. When the work to be done requires 
more force for its execution than con be 
generated in the time necessary for its 
completion, recouree must be had to some 
mechanical method of preserving and 
condensing a part of the power exerted 
previously to the commencement of the 
process. This is most fi^quentiy accom- 

Elished by a fly-wheel, which is a wheel 
aving a heavy rim, so that the greater 
port of the weight is near the circumfe- 
rence. It requires ^reat power, applied for 
some time, 'to set this in rapid motion, and, 
when moving with considerable velocity, 
if its force is concentrated on a point, its 
effects are exceedingly powerful. Anodi- 
er method of accumulating power con- 
sists in raising a weight, and then allowing 
it to foil. A man, with a heavv hammer, 
may strike repeated blows on the head of 
a pile without any eflect; but a heavy 
weight, raised by machinery to a greater 
height, though die blow is less frequently 
repeated, produces the desired eflect. — 
2. Regvlaiing Power. Uniformity and 
steadiness in the motion of the machinery 
are essential both to its success and its 
duration. The ^vemor, in the steam- 
engine, is a contrivance for this purpose. 
A vane or fly of little weight, but Jarce 
surface, is also used. It revolves rapidly, 
and soon acquires a uniform rate, which* 
it cannot much exceed ; because any ad- 
dition to its velocity produces a greater 
addition to the resistance of the air. This 
kind of fly is generally used in small 

Eieces of mechanism, and, unlike the 
eavy fly, it serves to destroy, instead of 
to preserve, force. — 3. Increase qf Vdocity. 
Operations requiring a trifling exertion of 
force may become mtiguing by the rapidi- 
ty of motion necessary, or a degree 'of 

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rapidity niay be desirable bevond the 
power of muBcular action. Whenever 
the work itself is light, it becomes neces- 
sary to mcrease the velocity in order to 
economize time. Thus twistinff the «ibres 
of wool by the finffers would be a most 
tedious operation. In the common spin- 
ning-wheel, the velocity of the foot is 
moderate, but, by a simple contrivance 
that of the thread ia most rapid. A band, 
passing round a large wheel, and then 
round a small spindle, effects this change. 
This contrivance is a common one in ma- 
chinery. — 4. Diminution of Velocity, This 
if commonly required for the purptose of 
overcoming great resistances with small 
power. Systems of pullevs afford an ex- 
ample of this: in the smoke-jack, a great- 
er velocity is produced than is required, 
and it is theretore moderated by transmis- 
sion through a number of wheels. — 5. 
Spreading the Action of a Force exerted for 
a fetv Jmnutes over a large Time* This 
is one of the most common and useful 
employments of machmery. The half 
minute which we spend daily in winding 
up our watches is an exertion of force 
which, by the ai^ of a few wheels, is 
spread over twenty-four hours. A great 
number of automata, moved by spnngs, 
may be classed under this division. — 
6. Saving Tim/e in natural Operations, 
The process of tanning connsts in com- 
bining tl)e tanning prmciple with every 
particle of the skin, which, oy the ordinary 
process of soaking it in a solution of the 
tanning matter, requires from six months 
to two yptui^ By eoclosin^r the solution, 
with the hide, in a close vessel, and ex- 
hausting the air, the pores of tlie hide be- 
ing deprived of air, exert a capillary at- 
traction on the tan, which mav be aided 
by pressure, so that the thickest hides 
may be tanned in six weeks. The opera- 
tion of bleaching afibnis another example. 
— 7. Exerting Ihrces too hxrgefor hvman 
Potoer, When the force of large bodies 
of men or animals is applied, it becomes 
difficult to concentmte it simultaneously 
at a given poinL The power of steam, 
air or water is employed to overcome i-e- 
ststances which would require a great ex- 
pense to surmount by animal labor. The 
twisting of the largest cables, the rolling, 
hammering and cutting of large masses 
of iron, the draining of mines, require 
enormous exertions of physical force, con- 
tinued for considerable periods. Other 
means are used when the force required 
is great, and the space through which it is 
to act is small. The hydraulic press can, 
by the exertion of one man, produce a 

prenure of 1500 atmo8pberB&--8. iSre* 
cuting OperatitrnM too deUcatefor human 
Touau The same power which twisls 
the stoutest cable, and weaves the coarsesc 
canvass, may be employed, to more ad- 
vantage than human hiuids, in spinning 
the gossamer thresd of the cotton, and en- 
twinmg, with fairy fingers, the meshes of 
the most delicate fabric.-~9. Regittering 
Operations* Machineiv affords a sure 
means of remedying tlie inattention of 
human agents, by instruments, for in- 
stance, for counting the strokes of an en- 
gine, or the number of coins struck in a 
press. The tell-tale, a piece of mechan- 
ism connected with a clock in an apart- 
ment to which a watchman has not access, 
reveals whether he has neglected, at any 
hour of his watch, to pull a string in token 
of his vigilance. — 10. Ikanoimy of Materials, 
The precision with which all operations 
are executed by machinery, and the exact 
similarity of the articles miide, produce a 
degree of economy in the consumption of 
the raw material which is sometimes of 
great importance. In reducing the tnmk of 
a tree to planks, the axe was formerly used, 
with the loss of at least half the material. 
The saw produces thin boards, with a loss 
of not more than an eighth of the midXe' 
tidl.'-n. The Identity of the BestUt. Noth- 
ing is more remarkable than the perfect 
similarity of things manu&ctured by the 
same tool. If the top of a box is to be 
made to fit over the lower part, it may be 
done by gradually advancing the tool of 
the sliding rest ; afler this adjustment, on 
additional care is requisite in making a 
thousand boxes. The same result ap- 
pears in all the arts of printing: the im- 
pressions from the same block, or tlie 
same copperplate, have a nmilarity which 
no labor of the hand could produce. — 13. 
Accuracy of Vit ffbrk. The accuracy wirh 
which machinery executes its work is, 
perhaps, one of its most important advan- 
tages. It would hardly be poeable for a 
ver^ skilfiil workman, with files and pol- 
ishmg substances, to form a perfect cylin- 
der out of a piece of sfeel. This process, 
by the aid of^the lathe and the sliding rest, 
is the every day employment of hundreds 
of workmen. On these two last advai>- 
tages of machinery depends the system of 
copying, by which pictures of the ori^al 
may be multiplied, and thus almost un- 
limited pains may be bestowed in pro- 
ducing tne model, which shall cost 10,000 
times the price of each individual speci- 
men of its perfections. Operations of 
copying take place, by printmff, by cast- 
ing, by moulding, by stamping, by ptmch<* 

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ingi widi elongatkm. with alterod diraen* 
rioii& A remarkable example of the aita 
of copying lies before the eye of the read- 
er in "theee pages. 1. They are copies 
obtained by printing from stereotype 
plates. 2. Those plates are copies od« 
tained (by casting) from moulds formed of 
plaster of Paris. 3. The mot Ids are 
copies obtained by nouring the plaster, in 
a liquid state, upon tne movable types. 4. 
Tlie types are copies (by casting) from 
moulds of copper, called matrices, 5. 
The lower part of the matrices, bearing 
the impressions of the letters or characters 
are copies (by punching) from steel 
punches, on which the same characters 
exist in reliefl 6. The cavities in these 
steel punches, as in the middle of tlie 
letters a, 6, &,c^ are produced from other 
steel punches in which those parts are in 
relieL (For machinery, in political econ- 
omy, see Labor-sannng Machines.) 
Machinery, in poetry. (See Poetry.) 
Mack, Charles, baron von ; an Austrian 
general, bom in Franconia, in 1752. On 
teaving college, his inclination led him to 
enlist as a private in a regiment of dra- 
goons, and nis good conduct soon obtain- 
ed him the rank of a petty officer. In 
the war with Turkey, he obtained a cap- 
tain's commission. His spirit of enter- 
prise procured him the favor of Laudou, 
who recommended him to the emperor. 
On the occurrence of war with France, 
Mack was appointed quarter-master-gen- 
eral of the army of the prince of Coburg, 
and directed the operations of the cam- 
paign of 1793. In 1797, he succeeded 
the aroh-dukc Charles in the command of 
the army of the Rhine. The following 
year, he was sent to Naples, then invaded 
by the French ; but, being beaten in the 
field, and suspected of treason by the 
Neapolitans, he fled to the French camp, 
and was sent as a prisoner to Dijon. He 
found means to justify his conduct in the 
opinion of the emperor, who, in 1804, 
constituted general Mack commander-in- 
chief in the Tyrol, Dalmatia and Italy. 
In 1805, Napoleon forced him to retreat 
beyond the Danube, and to submit to the 
famous capitulation of Ulm, by which 
28,000 of the Aiistrians became prisoners. 
Mack was permitted to go to Vienna, 
where he was tried befove a militaiy tri- 
bunal, and received the sentence of deadi 
as a traitor to his country. His doom, 
however, was commuted by the emperor 
for imprisonment; and he was, after a 
time, released, and died in obscurity, in 
Macksait, Thomas, an eminent Amer^ 

VOL. VIII. 16 

ican judge and revolutioiiaiy patriot, was 
bom March 19, 1734, in the coun^ of 
Chester, Pennsylvania. After an aoademie 
and professional course of studies, he was 
admitted aibattoniey, at the age of 21, and 
soon obtained the appointment of deputy 
attoro^-general in the county of Sussex. 
In 17S7, he was admitted to the bar of tha 
supreme court of Pennsylvania, and, \u 
the same year, elected clerk of the house 
of assembly. In October, 17^ he was 
elected a member of the assembly for the 
county of Newcastle, and was annually 
returned for seventeen successive vearH, 
although he retdded in Philadelphia fi>r 
the last six years of that period. Wishing 
to decline a re-election, he went to New- 
castle in 1779, and stated his purpose. 
A committee then waited upon him to 
request that he would designate seven 
persons in whom they might confide as 
representatives of that county. He was 
finally obliged to comply with this flatter- 
ing request, and the ffentleinen whom he 
named were chosen hy a large majority. 
Mr. Mackean was sent to the general 
congress of the colonies, which assembled 
at New York in 1765. He, Lynch and 
Otis formed the committee who framed 
the address to the British house of 
commons. In 1765, he was appointed 
judge of the court of common pUtas aiMi 
of tne orphan's court for the county of 
Newcastle. In November term, 1766, and 
Februarv term, 1766, he was one of tlie 
bench that ordered the officers of the 
court to proceed in their duties, as usual, 
on unstamped paper. In 1771, judge 
Mackean was apjjoinled collector of the 
port of Newcastle. When measures were 
adopted to assemble the general congress 
of 1774, he took an active part in tiiem, 
and was appointed a delegate from the 
lower comities in Delaware. September 
5, be took his seat in that body, and served 
in it eight consecutive years and a half, 
being annually re-elected until February, 
1, 1783. He wos the only man who was, 
M'ithout intermission, a memtier during 
the whole period. He was president of 
the body in 1781. Though a member of 
congress till 1783, yet from July, 1777, 
he held the office and executed the du- 
ties of chief-justice of Pennsylvania. He 
was particularly acdve and useful in pro- 
moting the declaration of independeace, 
which he mgned. A few days after that 
event, be marehed, with a battalion, of 
which he was colonel, to Perth Amboy 
in New JerKy, to support general Wash- 
ington, and behaved with gallantnr in tha 
dangaroQB akimmahet which took pbaa 

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while he remained with tfce annj. He re- 
turned to Delaware to prepare a conatt- 
tutkm lor that state, which he drew up in 
the coune of a night, and which was 
unantmoualy adopted the next day by the 
houae of asBembiy. In 1777, he acted as 
preaident of the state of Delaware. At 
that period, as he relates, he was hunted 
like a fox, by the enemy ; he was cpm- 
peiled to remove his family five times in a 
tew months, and at length place<l them in 
a little log house, on the banks of the 
Susquehannah ; but tliey were soon 
obliged to leave this retreat, on account of 
the Indians. July 28, 1777, he received 
the commission of chief-justice of Penn- 
sylvania, which office he discharged 22 
years, and gave striking proofs of ability, 
impartiality and courage. Some of tliese 
are related in the Biography of the Sign- 
ers to the Declaration of Independeuce. 
Judge Mackean was a member of the 
couvendon of Pennsylvania that ratified the 
constitution of the if. Suites, which he sup- 
ported in a masterly speech. Asa de legate 
to the Pennsylvania convention of 1 788, he 
aided in formuig the present constitution 
of Pennsylvania. In 1799, he was elect- 
ed governor of that state, as a leader of 
the democratic, contradistinguished fix>m 
the federal party. As eovemor, he had 
an arduous task to perform, and he was 
equal to it, but he betrayed tlie party poli- 
tician too often, in the course of his ad- 
rainistratioD, which lasted for nine years, 
the constitutional limit In 1803, it was 
proposed to him to become a candidate 
for the office of vice-president of the 
U. Suites ; but he declined. In 1808, he 
retired from public life, in which he had 
been engaged for fifty years, and died 
June 24, 1817, in his 84th year. He was 
one of the fiithers of the republic, and in 
this quality will be honored, aside from 
the resentments which his proceedings as 
a party politician eu gendered. 

Mackenzie, Henry, a novelist and 
miscellaneous wiiter, whom sir W. Scott, 
in the dedication of Waverley, calls the 
ScoUish Addison, was bom in Scotland, in 
1745, and, after completing his prelimi- 
nary education, became attorney in the 
court of exchequer, in Scodand. He had 
previously resided in London, for profes- 
sional purposes, and, while tiiere, wrote 
his first production, the Prince of Tunis, 
a tragedy, which was favorably received. 
His pasaon for elegant literature led him 
to devote his leisure hours to polite stud- 
ies, and naade him the friend and associ- 
ate of the most eminent scholars of fklin- 
hurgh. Id 1771, his Man of Feeling ap- 

peared, and waa IbHowvd, a few feuv 
after, bjr the Man of the World, AncC at a 
later period, by Julia de Roubign^. Theaa 
works are distinguished by sweemess and 
beauty of style, tenderness and delieacr 
of imannation, and deep pathos, which 
renderml them extensively and deservedly 
popular. A club of literary gendemen, 
m Edinburgh, to which Mackenzie be- 
longed, were accustomed to read essays 
on various subjects, at their meetings, 
and, at his suggestion, and under his di- 
rection, a series of them was published 
(from 1778), under the tide of the Mirror ; 
he afterwards conducted a similar pub- 
lication, under the tide of the Lounger, 
to both of which he communicated a 
large portion of the essays. In these, 
united with his usual grace of style, he 
displayed a power of wit and humor, in 
rallying the follies of bis age, which we 
do not discover in his uovels. It is wor- 
thy of memory that, in his essays in the 
Lounger, he was the first to bring Bums 
forward to the pnliiic notice. To the 
royal society of Edinburgh, and to the 
Highland society, he made many valuable 
communications, and was the author of 
the^ report to the latter on the controversy 
concerning the pNoems of Ossian, in which 
he maintains their authenticity. This re- 
port was pubhshed separately (1805), and 
contains much valuable information rehi- 
tive to Gaelic poetry. While thus ac- 
tive in literary pursuits, Mackenzie dis- 
charged, for a long time, the laborious 
duties of controller of taxes for Scodand, 
and was the delight and ornament of the 
society which he frequented. He died at 
a very advanced age, Jan. 14, 1831. (See 
Scott's Lives of the Mwelists.) 

Mackenzie, sir Alexander; originally 
a Canadian merchant, engaged in the 
north-west fur trade. In 1789, he deter- 
mined to undertake a journey, with .the 
view of penetniti ng to the coast of the 
Northern Polar ocean. He »)t out from 
fort Chippewyan, June .% crossed the 
Slave lake, and descended the riv(>r which 
now bears his name. July 12, his party 
reached a spot where the river expended 
into a lake, on which they pursued their 
course till, by the rising of the tide, and 
the presence of whales, it was obvious 
that they were near the sea. They were 
now nearly in the latitude at which 
Heame found the Coppermine river to 
fall into the sea, but about 30^ more in 
longitude to the west By this journey, 
Mr. Mackenzie added one more link to 
the chain of discoveries in the North. He 
reached fort Chippewyan, on his return. 

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. , ?4» having been abiODt 103 dayi, 

lo October, ITte, he undertook a still 
more arduous journey across tlie conti- 
nent, to the shore of the North Pacific 
He encountered innumerable difficulties, 
and suffered greatly, before he could ac- 
complish his purpose ; but at length, July 
12, 1793, he arrived on the coast of the 
Pacific, near cape Menzies, in latitude 52^. 
In 1801, having returned to England, he 
published his Voyage through North 
America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, 
in 17d9 and 1703 (4to.) ; and, m the fol- 
lowing year, he received, as a rewurd for 
his exerdons, the honor of knighthood. 

Mackcjizie's River ; a river of North 
America. In llie first part of its course, 
it flows N. E. to the Lake of the Hills, 
under the name of tiie Unigahj or Peace 
river; thence to Slave lake, it is called 
•S7are river; it then takes the name of 
Mackenzie's river, and flows 780 miles N/ 
into the Arctic sea ; Ion. 130° to 1J35° W. ; 
laL 69P 14' N. Its whole course is about 
2000 miles. {See precedirif^ article,) 

Mackerel (scomjber). This is a tribe of 
migratory fishes, which annually visit our 
coast, and is among the most celebrated 
of that class, for its numbers, and for the 
greht use made of it in a salted state. 
The European mackerel (S, scomber) was 
early known as an article of food, and 
was held in high esteem by the ancient 
Romans, as fbnuing die celebrated sarwn, 
a pickle, or sauce, of which tliey made 
great use. This was prepared fronj seve- 
ral different kinds of fishes, but tliat from 
the mackerel was deemed by far the best. 
The mackerel is easily taken, by a variety 
of baits, and the capture always succeeds 
best during a gentle breeze of wind, which 
is lience termed a mackerel breeze by sea- 
men. At such a time, the usual bait is a bit 
of red cloth, a colored feadicr, &c. This 
fish,' when alive, possesses great symme- 
txy of form and brilliancy ofcolors, which 
are much impaired by death, though not 
wholly obliterated. It is said, that, in the 
spring, their eyes are almost covered with 
a white film, which grows in the winter, 
and is regularly cast at the bcumuing of 
summer, l)efbre which they are half blind. 
There are several species of. mackerel on 
the coast of the U. States, tlie most com- 
mon of which the S. vernalisy closely re- 
sembles the European species. 

Mackutac. (See Mchxlimaekinac,) 

Hackihtosb, sur James, eminent as a 
jurist, a statesman, and a writer,— equally 
distitiguislied fi>r his extensive learning, 
his kige views, and his liberal principles 
io kwy politics and phikMopby^— is do* 

scended of an ancient Scotch fiunily, and 
was bom in the parish of Dorish, coimty 
of Inverness, Scodand, in 1765. After 
studying at the school of Fortrose, in 
Roes-shure, he was sent to King's college,. 
Aberdeen, and spent three yeara at Edin- 
burgh, chiefly in medical studies. He 
received his medical decree ih 1787 ; but 
his attention liad already been drawn to 
general literature, historv, and moral, po- 
litical and speculadve philosophy, and his 
inclination soon led him to abandon his 
profession. In 1789, we find him iu 
London, where he published a pamphlet 
on the regency quesdon, which, on ac 
count of the sudden recovery of the king, 
attracted little notice. A visit to the con- 
tinent, at Uiat interesting period, contril>- 
uted to excite his sympathies for the 
French, and he published a reply to. the 
celebrated Reflections of Burke, under tlie 
. tide of VindicuB GaUica, or Defence of the 
French Revolution (171^), a work which 
laid the foundation of his fiime, and ac- 
quired for him the firiendshin both of Fox 
and his great antagonist. About this time, 
Mr. Mackintosh entered himself as a stu- 
dent of Lincoln's Inn, was soon called to 
the bar by that society, and commenced 
the practice of the law. Having obtained 
permission, though not without much 
difficulty, to deliver a coiuse of lectures 
in the hall of Lincoln's Inn, on die law 
of nations, he published his Introductory 
Lecture, under the tide of a Discourse on 
tlie Law of Nature and Nations. The 
ability which it displayed obtained him a 
large audience, including ' some of the 
most distinguished men of the country. 
On the trial of Peltier for a fibel against 
Bonaparte (then first consul of France), in 
which the prosecution was conducted by 
Mr. Percival, the attorney-general (after- 
wards first minister of suite), and Mr. 
Abbot (die present lord Tenterden), the 
defence was conducted by Mr. Mackin- 
tosh, as sole counsel, ** in the most brilliant 
speech," says sir W. Scott, *• ever made at 
Jbor or in forum," which at once estab- 
lished his reputation as an advocate and 
an orator. The recordership of Bombay, 
widi the digiiity of knighthood, was soon 
after conferred on him, and, besides the 
discharge of the duties of his oilfce, the 
nine years which he spent in India were 
marked by his exertions in the ameliora- 
tion of tho criminal law, the foundation 
of the Literary Society m Bombay, and 
his valuable communications in the Asiatic 
Register. While sitting on an admualty 
cause, be declared that that court was 
bound to decide by th« law of uatioQi^ 

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and not (as had been maintained by one 
of the judges in England) by any direction 
fiom the king or his ministerB. Soon 
after his return to England, sir James was 
returned a member of the house of com- 
moos, for the county of Nairn, in Scotland 
(1813), and has since sat for the borouffh 
of Knaresborou^h, in Yorksiiire, in the 
iufluence of lord Fitzwiiliam. When he 
tint entered the house, he did not appear 
equal to his reputation ; but, in the sue- 
ceeditig sessions, he took his stand among 
the first parliamentary speakers. To an 
intimate acquaintance with tlie common 
and civU law, he adds the rarer character 
of a generous statesman ; and there are 
few instances in which finer reasoning, or 
deeper learning in the history of nations, 
and the infiuence of human laws upon 
the feelings, passions and interests of the 
hiunan race, have been sustained, devel- 
oped and enforced by a more manly and' 
vigorous eloquence. His greatest efibrts 
were directed to the amendment of the 
rrioiinal code, which had been under- 
taken by sir Samuel Romilly, and was 
taken up as a solemn bequest by his friend 
and representative. The escape of Napo- 
leon from Elba, the congress of Laybach, 
the Irish Catholics, tlie oppression of the 
Greeks, Scotch juries, the uial of the 
queen, are a few of the subjects pn which he 
has exerted his eloquence. Sir James was, 
for some time, lord rector of the university 
of Scotland. He is also the author of a 
celebrated review (Edinlnargh Rev,, vols. 
27 and 36) of Stewart's Discourse on tlie 
Progress of Metaphysical Science, and of 
a Discourse on the Progress of Ethical 
and Political Science, prefixed to the new 
edition of the Encyciopfedia Britannica, 
and published separately (4to., 1830). 
Hia History of England is not a de- 
tailed narrative of events, but a rapid, yet 
clear, profound and philosophic view of 
the state and progress of society, law, 
government and civilization in England, 
in which the lessons of experience, the 
character of men and events, the cm>um- 
Btances which have promoted, retarded, 
modified the social and political improve- 
ment of the English nation, are unfolded 
and judged ^th the acuteness of a phi- 
losopher and the vrisdom of a practical 
statesman. His style is simple, clear, 
gracefii? and elegant, and often rises to 
eloquencQ, when the historian traces out 
the growth of liberty, and the infiuence 
of generous institutious. In July 1831, he 
made an eloquent speech in fiivor of reform. 
M ACKLiN, Charles, an actor and drama- 
tiit of some celebrity, was bora in Ireland, 

1690, and waa empkmd in Dublin, as a 
barge-man, until his Slst year, When be 
went to England, and ioined a company of 
strolling comedians. In 1716, he appeared 
as an actor in^the theatre at lancoln's-lnn- 
fields. It was not, however, until 1741, that 
he established his fimie as nn actor, by his 
admirable performance of Shyiock, that be- 
ing, indeed, the only character in which he 
stood preeminent. He continued on tlie 
stage until 1789, which long interval was 
marked by the usual vicissitudes of the- 
atrical life, rendered still greater by the 
temper of the individual. During the last 
years of his life, his understanding became 
impaired, and in this state he died, July 
11, 1797, at the age of 107. His Man of 
the World, a comedy, discovers a keen 
knowledge of life and manners, and ex- 
poBes meanness, sycophancy, and politi- 
cal servility, with con»derable skill. His 
Love A-la-mode also possesses kindred 
merit. Macklin was an entertaining com- 
panion, although dictatorial, and very iras- 

Mackniobt, James, a learned Scottish 
divine, born in 1721, was educated at 
Glasgow and Leyden, and, on his return, 
was ordained minister of May bole, where 
he remained IG years, and composed his 
Harmony of tlie Gospels, and his New 
Translation of the Epistles. In 1763, he 
published hisTi'uth of the Gospel History. 
In 1772, he became one of the ministers 
of Edinburgh. Dr. Macknight employed 
nearly 30 years in the execution of his 
last and greatest work, on the apostolical 
epistles — a New literal Translation from 
the Gi'eek of all the Apostolical Episdes, 
with Commentaries and Notes, philology 
ical« critical, explanatory and practical 
(1795, 4 vols., 4to.). He died in 1800. 

Maclaurin, Colin ; a celebrated math- 
ematician and philosopher, bom in Scot- 
land, in 1698. He studied at Glasgow, 
where he took the degree of M. A. at the 
age of 15, and defended a thesis on the 
Power of Gravitation. In 1717, he ob- 
tained the mathematical chair in the 
Marischal college at Aberdeen, and, two 
years after, was chosen a fellow of the 
royal societv. In 1725, he was elected 
professor of mathematics at Edinburgh, 
where his lectures contributed much to 
raise the character of that university as a 
school of science. A controversy with 
bishop Berkeley led to the publication of 
Maclaurin'^ great work, his Treatise on 
Fluxions (Edinburgh, 1742, 2 vols., 4to.). 
He died June 14»474J3. He was the au- 
thor of a Treatise on Aleebra; an Account 
of Bur Isaac Newton's Philraophioal Dm- 

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coreries; pi^iere in the TraiuBctions of 
the Royal Society ; and other works. 

Macjphkeson, James; a Scottish writer, 
distioguished in literary history for his 
truislations or imitations of Gaehc poems, 
nid to have been composed in ttie third 
century. He was bom in 1738, and stud-^ 
ied at Aberdeen and Edinburgh. Having 
published Fi-agmcnts of Ancient Poetry, 
translated from tlie Gaelic or Erse lAn- 
ffuage, a subscription was raised to enable 
him to collect additional specimens of 
national poetry. He produced, as the 
fruit of his researches, Fingal, an ancient 
Epic Poem, translated from the Gaelic 
(17^ 4to.|; Temora, and other Poems 
(1763, 4to.) ; professedly translated from 
originals ;by Ossian, tlie son of Fingal, a 
Gaelic prince of the third century, and his 
contemporaries. (For an account of tho 
controversy on this subject, see Osnan.) 
From the evidence of the contending par- 
ties, it may be concluded, tliat Macpher- 
son's prose epics were founded on tradi- 
tional narratives current among the High- 
landers; but the date of the oldest of tiieir 
lays is comparatively modern : and it is 
now difficult, if not impossible, to ascer- 
tain the precise extent of his obligations 
to the Gaelic bards of former ages. Mr. 
Macpberson was afterwards agent to the 
nabob of Arcot, in consequence of which 
he had a scat in the house of commons 
from 1780 to 1790. He died in 1796, 
and was interred in Westminster abbey. 
He was also tlie autlior of a prose trans- 
lation of Homer's Iliad, and of some other 

Macrabiotics (from /larpo^, long, and 
0toij life) ; the science of prolonging life. 
Hufeland called his well known work 
Makrabwtik, or die Ait of prolonging hu- 
man Life. (See LoTifftvity,) 

M ACROBius, Aurclius Ambrosius Theo* 
dosius ; a Ladn author, in the reign of the 
emperor Thcodosius, to whom he offici- 
ated as an officer of the wardrol)e, and 
enjoyed a considerable share of the isnpe- 
rial favor. The country of his birth, as 
well as the religion which be professed, 
are both uncertain, lie was the author 
of a miscellaneous work, entitled ScUur- 
no/to, curious for its criticisms, and valu- 
able for the light it throws upon the 
manners and customs of antiquity ; a 
commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipio- 
ntf, in two books, valuable for the cxposi- 
tion it affords of the doctrines of Py tliago^ 
ras, with respect to the harmony of the 
spheres ; and a treatise De DifferenHis ei 
Soeieiatilnu QradLaJtiniqut Verln. There 
810 seyemt editions of this author's writ* 

inga, the best of which are those of 1670, 
Leyden, and 1774, Leipsic He is sup- 
posed to have died about the year 490. 

Mapaoascar ; an island of Africa, on 
the eastern coast, separated fix>m the con- 
tinent by the channel of Mozambique, 
which is about 270 miles across. It ex- 
tends from ir 57' to 25° 40^ S. lat, and 
from 43° 33^ to .W 25^ E. Ion., and is 
about 900 miles long, and from 120 to 300 
broad ; square miles, about 220,000 ; pop- 
ulation, uncertain ; estimated by Flacourt 
at 1,600,000 ; by Rondouz, at 3,000,000 ; 
by Rochon, at 4,000,000. It is one of the 
largest islands in the world, and is re- 
markable for its fertility. The surface 
is gready diversified, being intersected, 
throughout its whole length, by a chain 
of lofty mountains, the highest summits 
of which are said to be about 11,000 feet 
above the sea. The scenery of these 
mountains is oflen crand and picturesque. 
The forests abound in beautiful trees, as 
palms, ebony, wood for dyeing, bamboos 
of enormous size, orange and lemon trees. 
The botany of the island is interesdng ; 
iron mines abound in various parts ; other 
minerals are found; but the mineralogv 
of the island has been but litde explored* 
The country is well watered by numerous 
streams, mostly small, which descend 
from the mountains. In this genial cli- 
mate, they produce a luxuriant fertility. 
Rice is the staple food of the inhabitants. 
Other productions are potatoes, sugar, 
silk, &c. The sheep produce fine wool. 
The cocoa-nut, banana, &c., flourish. 
The inhabitants are composed of two dis- 
tinct races, the Arabs or descendants of 
foreign colonists, and the Negroes or 
original inhabitants of the island. The 
character of the inhabitants diffi;rs much 
in the different parts of the island, and the 
accounts of writers are veiy discordant on 
this subject. But, in reality, too litde is 
known of the greater part of the island, to 
afford grounds for any safe opinions. 
The name and position of this island 
were first made known to Europeans by 
Mareo Polo, in die thirteenth century, 
although .it had been known to tlie Arabs 
for several centuries. It was visited by 
the Portuguese in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. The French made at^. 
tempts to found colonies there in the 
middle of the seventeenth century, but 
abandoned the island afler manv struggles 
v^idi die natives. In 1745, they made 
new attempts, but without much success. 
In 1814, it was claimed by England as a 
dependency of Mauritius, which had been 
ceded to her by Fraoccj «iud suiue eettle- 

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mentiwwB esiablidied. One of die nft- 
tive kings of the interior, who had ehown 
himself eager to procure a knowledge of 
European aits for his subjects^ consented, 
in 1»W, to relinquish the sbve-trede, on 
condition that ten Madegassees should be 
sent to England, and ten to Mauritius, for 
education. Those sent to England were 
, placed under the care of the Loudon 
missionary society, who sent miaaionaries 
and mechanics to Madagascar. In 1826^ 
1700 children were taught in the mission- 
ary schools, and parts of the Scripture 
have since been translated into the native 
language. This king died in 1898, and we 
do not Imow what has been the disposi- 
tion of the new ruler. — See Rochon, Vcy- 
age h Madagaacar; Flacourt, Higtoin de 
Madagascar ; Copland, Hi^ory of MadU' 
goioar (1822). 

Madame, in France ; the title of the 
ynfe of the king's brother, of the sister of 
the king's fiither, or the sister of the king's 
mother, or of the FUle de Ihmce (the 
daughter of the king or of the dauphin, 
deceased during the life of the sovereign). 
— Mesdames de France ; the common title 
of the daughters of the French kings. — 
MademoiseUe ; a title of honor of the daugh- 
ters of the king's brothers, the daughters 
of the king's father's brothera, or the 
daughters of the king's mother's brothers. 
In 1734, it was ordered that it should be 

Oonly to the first princess of the 

Madder (ruJbia) ; a genus of plants 
that has given its name to an extensive 
fiimily, including, among others, the genus 
galium or hedatrawy which it closely re- 
sembles in habit, but differs in the fruit, 
which consists of two globular corneous 
berries. Fifleen species are known, of 
which only one inhabits the U. States, 
viz. the IL hrownei, which grows in 
Georgia, Florida, and the mountains of 
Jamaica. Th^y are chiefly herbaceous, 
with rough branching stems, simple leaves 
arranged in whorls of four or six, and 
small flowers, which are usually disposed 
.in terminal panicles. JR. fendort/m, or 
dyer's mmider, is by far the most impor- 
tant of the genus, on account of the fiue 
scariet color afforded by the roots ; and, 
indeed, this substance is essential to dyers 
and calico-printers, and their manufac- 
tures could not be carried on without it. 
Ip conseauence, it has become an impor- 
tant article of commerce, and is imported 
into Britain from Holland to a very great 
extant. Though cultivated in France for 
a century and a half, the supply is yet 
inadequate to the consumption in toat 

Gomitvy, and it » Ittgoly imported from 
the Levant as well as fifom Holland. 
Since the extension of manu&ctures in 
the U. Stales, it has become an object of 
importance to introduce the culture of 
madder, and the subject has engaged the 
attention of several intelligent and public- 
spirited individuals. The plant grows 
wild in manv parts of the soutn of Europe. 
The root is perennial, long, creeping, 
about as large as a quiil, and red botn 
without and within; from it arise sev- 
eral trailing, quadrangular stems, rougfti, 
branching, and two or three feet in lengm ; 
the leaves are oblong-oval, and prickly 
on the margin and mid-rib; the flowers 
are yellow and small, and are di^>osed in 
a panicle, at the extremity of the branches, 
and in the axils of the superior leaves ; 
they make their appearance in June and 
July, and are succeeded by blackish ber- 
ries. The most approved method of cu^ 
ture is from seed, and where this practice i* 
pursued, certain precautions are requisite. 
As the madder of hot climates affordn 
more coloring matter,, as well as a deepei 
tuit, it is b^ for those who live in a 
northern region to import the seed fnnn 
the south. Again, when the seed is too 
much dried, it may remain in the ground 
two or three years before it will germinate. 
On tliis account, it should be kept in a 
bed of moistened earth or sand, whenever 
there is any delay in sowing iL A light, 
rich and deep soil is the most suitable, 
and it should be ploughed to the depth 
of two feet The time of sowing is in 
February, or the beginning